Applied sciences

International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications

Content

International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications | 2022 | vol. 68 | No 2 |

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Abstract

Increasing development in information and communication technology leads to the generation of large amount of data from various sources. These collected data from multiple sources grows exponentially and may not be structurally uniform. In general, these are heterogeneous and distributed in multiple databases. Because of large volume, high velocity and variety of data mining knowledge in this environment becomes a big data challenge. Distributed Association Rule Mining(DARM) in these circumstances becomes a tedious task for an effective global Decision Support System(DSS). The DARM algorithms generate a large number of association rules and frequent itemset in the big data environment. In this situation synthesizing highfrequency rules from the big database becomes more challenging. Many algorithms for synthesizing association rule have been proposed in multiple database mining environments. These are facing enormous challenges in terms of high availability, scalability, efficiency, high cost for the storage and processing of large intermediate results and multiple redundant rules. In this paper, we have proposed a model to collect data from multiple sources into a big data storage framework based on HDFS. Secondly, a weighted multi-partitioned method for synthesizing high-frequency rules using MapReduce programming paradigm has been proposed. Experiments have been conducted in a parallel and distributed environment by using commodity hardware. We ensure the efficiency, scalability, high availability and costeffectiveness of our proposed method.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sudhanshu Shekhar Bisoyi
1
Pragnyaban Mishra
2
Saroja Nanda Mishra
3

  1. Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, Siksha ’O’ Anusandhan Deemed to be University (SOA), Institute of Technical Education and Research (ITER), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
  2. Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, Guntur, AP, India
  3. Dept. of CSE&A, IGIT, Sarang, Dhenkanal, Odisha, India
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Abstract

Nodes' aware-mobility in the Internet of Things (IoTs) stills open defy for researchers, due to the dynamic changing of routing path and networks’ resource limitations. Therefore, in this study a new method is proposed called Mobility Aware - “Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks” (MARPL), that consists of two phases: in the first phase splitting the entire network into sub areas based on reference nodes with “Time Difference of Arrival” (TDoA) technique. While, the second phase, is about managing mobile nodes (MNs) in RPL according to the sub areas' ID. The Cooja simulator software has been used to implement and assess MA-RPL method performance, according to the data packet metrics (lost packet, packet delivery ratio PDR), latency and nodes' power usage in comparison with two methods: Corona (Co-RPL) and Mobility Enhanced (ME-RPL). The simulation results have been shown that the MA-RPL method consumes less nodes' energy usage, gives less latency with minimum data packet loss in comparison with Co-RPL and MERPL.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ahmed R. Zarzoor
1

  1. Directorate of Inspection, Ministry of Health, Baghdad, Iraq
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Abstract

The individual Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) typically show large left-right ear differences. This work evaluates HRTF left-right differences by means of the rms measure called the Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD). The RMSD was calculated for HRTFs measured with the participation of a group of 15 subjects in our laboratory, for the HRTFs taken from the LISTEN database and for the acoustic manikin. The results showed that the RMSD varies in relation to the frequency and as expected is small for more symmetrical HRTFs at low frequencies (0.3÷1 kHz). For higher frequency bands (1÷5 kHz and above 5 kHz), the left-right differences are higher as an effect of the complex filtering caused by anatomical shape of the head and the pinnae. Results obtained for the subjects and for data taken from the LISTEN database were similar, whereas different for the acoustic manikin. This means that measurements with the use of the manikin cannot be considered as perfect average representation of the results obtained for people. The method and results of this study may be useful in assessing the symmetry of the HRTFs, and further analysis and improvement of how to considered the HRTFs individualization and personalization algorithms.
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Authors and Affiliations

Maciej Jasiński
1
Jan Żera
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
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Abstract

5G is a fifth-generation wireless technology that enables extremely fast data transfers and massive connection capacity. Existing Mobile health technology requires more reliable connection power and data transfer rates. The purpose of this research is to design, analyse, and compare the performance of a bio-inspired lotus-shaped microstrip patch antenna array with two to three radiating elements. The proposed antenna utilizes proximity coupled indirect microstrip transmission line feeding technique operating in the 24 GHz-30 GHz frequency band. The results indicate that performance continues to improve as the number of radiating elements increases. Moreover, each radiating element is loaded with complementary and non-complementary split-ring resonators (SRRs). The performance of the proposed microstrip antenna array is then analysed and compared with and without split-ring resonators. The findings validate that the proposed bio-inspired metamaterial-based microstrip patch array antenna is more reliable and performs better than an antenna without SRRs.
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Authors and Affiliations

John Colaco
1
Jillian Cotta
1

  1. Goa College of Engineering, Farmagudi, Ponda, Goa, India
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Abstract

This article presents a low-profile and flexible dualband AMC Antenna operating at 2.45/ 5.8 GHz for wireless local area network (WLAN) on-body antenna applications using textile materials. A dual-band artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) structure with a dual hexagonal shape was used to reduce back radiation, therefore specific absorption rate (SAR), and improve the antenna performance parameters. To study the antenna/body interaction, a suitable comprehension and detailed studies of the wave propagation in the vicinity of the human arm in different meteorological conditions were carried out to demonstrate the effects of the skin condition on the antenna performance parameters. The simulation and measurement results indicate that electromagnetic communication on wet skin is viable. Acceptable SAR values were obtained, revealing that the body is well immune from the antenna electromagnetic radiation in functional wearable conditions. The proposed wearable AMC antenna provided engaging simulation and measurement results. It satisfies users' comfort and safety properties, making it a good candidate for WLAN/WBAN applications.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wahida Bouamra
1
Imen Sfar
1
Ameni Mersani
1
Lotfi Osman
2
Jean-Marc Ribero
3

  1. Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, Tunisia
  2. Higher School of Communication of Tunis, University of Carthage, Tunis, Tunisia
  3. University Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Sophia Antipolis, France
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Abstract

A triple-band microstrip patch antenna is presented in this article with detail investigation of its working mechanism and performance characteristics. The antenna consists of a rectangular slot on the patch to achieve multiband operation. Three distinct frequencies of 2.4 GHz, 5.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz are achieved with return losses of 27 dB, 29 dB and 29 dB respectively. The Impedance Bandwidths are 70 MHz (2.52 GHz-2.44 GHz) at 2.4 GHz, 220 MHz (5.65 GHz-5.43 GHz) at 5.5 GHz and 250 MHz (7.57 GHz-7.32 GHz) at 7.5 GHz, which satisfy the requirements of Wi-Fi, Wi-MAX and satellite communications bands. The fabricated prototype of the antenna has total dimension of 53×53×1.6 mm3 over FR4 substrate. The antenna is simple and has sensible radiation characteristics with considerable gain. This work also focuses on developing a Link Budget model for its application in satellite communication. Most notably, it examines overall system efficiency and optimum path loss, distance analysis, system noise temperature, signal to noise power ratio, the size of antenna and the overall customer satisfactions. The highest gain of the antenna is achieved as 3.5 dB in the band (5.65 GHz-5.43 GHz), while the highest directivity and bandwidth are found as 8.7 dBi and 250 MHz respectively in the higher operating band. The affordable agreement between the simulated and measuring outcomes justifies that the antenna is often applicable for Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz), Wi-MAX (5.25 – 5.85 GHz) and satellite (7.24 – 7.57 GHz) communications.
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Authors and Affiliations

Md. Biplob Hossain
1
Md. Faruque Hossain
1

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology, Khulna-9203, Bangladesh
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Abstract

In this paper a band notch characteristics reconfigurable UWB leaf shape monopole antenna is reported. The proposed antenna size is 42×32×1.6 mm3 and simulated S11 -10dB impedance bandwidth is from 2.1 to 13.0 GHz. The notch bands are embodied into the designed antenna to suppress Bluetooth and WiFi bands from 2.3-2.7 GHz and 4.6-5.3 GHz. The PIN Diode is loaded to slot on the DGS to achieve notch bands. It has 4.48dB and 1.7dB gain achieved when diode ON and OFF condition. Further, it encompasses a bio-inspired leaf shape patch having high feasibility for deployment in secret and military purposes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Pachiyaannan Muthusamy
1
Srikanta Nallapaneni
2
Krishna Chaitanya Perumalla
2
Bharghava Punna
2

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Advanced RF Microwave & Wireless Communication Laboratory, Vignan’s Foundation for Science Technology and Research (Deemed to be University), Andhra Pradesh, India
  2. Department of Electronics and CommunicationEngineering, Advanced RF Microwave & Wireless CommunicationLaboratory, Vignan’s Foundation for Science Technology and Research(Deemed to be University), Andhra Pradesh, India
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Abstract

This communication proposes a compact 4-shaped monopole annular ring UWB antenna design. The proposed structure contains multiple radiating strips inside the annular ring, in the form of a 4-shaped and a 50Ω microstrip feed line. A tapered structure with a feed point is chosen to achieve wideband characteristics. The proposed model is printed on a low-priced FR4 substrate with a size of 0.180λ 0 × 0.225λ 0 (20 × 25mm 2). The proposed model achieves a fractional bandwidth of 133.74% in the 2.7 to 13.6 GHz range with S11<-10dB and covers the 3.1-10.6 GHz unlicensed band approved by FCC in 2002 and X-band applications. The antenna exhibits stable and Omni-directional radiation patterns in the operating frequency range. The analysis of the proposed monopole antenna using characteristic modes is performed to obtain a physical understanding of the radiation process occurring on the radiating antenna. The modal significance curves and the modal current distributions are used to analyze the radiating antenna using the first six characteristic modes. The measurement and simulation results show a good agreement.
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Authors and Affiliations

Bhaskara Rao Perli
1
A. Maheswara Rao
2

  1. Research Scholar, ECE Department, JNTUA, Anantapur, India
  2. ECE Department, PBRVITS, Kavali, India
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Abstract

Generalized Rademacher functions, constructed as a sequence of elements of Galois fields are intended to find the spectral representation of signals with levels. These functions form a complete basis on the interval corresponding to -1 discrete time intervals and for passing into the classical Rademacher functions. The advantage of such spectra obtained using Galois Fields Fourier Transform is that the range of variation of the spectrum amplitudes remains the same as the range of variation of the original signal, which is modeled on discrete time functions taking values in the Galois field.
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Authors and Affiliations

Elizaveta S. Vitulyova
1
Dinara K. Matrassulova
2
Ibragim E. Suleimenov
3

  1. Almaty University of Power Engineering and Telecommunications named after Gumarbek Daukeyev, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
  2. Almaty Universityof Power Engineering and Telecommunications named after GumarbekDaukeyev, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
  3. National Engineering Academy of Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Kazakhstan
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Abstract

An intelligent security model for the big data environment is presented in this paper. The proposed security framework is data sensitive in nature and the level of security offered is defined on the basis of the data secrecy standard. The application area preferred in this work is the healthcare sector where the amount of data generated through the digitization and aggregation of medical equipment’s readings and reports is huge. The handling and processing of this great amount of data has posed a serious challenge to the researchers. The analytical outcomes of the study of this data are further used for the advancement of the medical prognostics and diagnostics. Security and privacy of this data is also a very important aspect in healthcare sector and has been incorporated in the healthcare act of many countries. However, the security level implemented conventionally is of same level to the complete data which not a smart strategy considering the varying level of sensitivity of data. It is inefficient for the data of high sensitivity and redundant for the data of low sensitivity. An intelligent data sensitive security framework is therefore proposed in this paper which provides the security level best suited for the data of given sensitivity. Fuzzy logic decision making technique is used in this work to determine the security level for a respective sensitivity level. Various patient attributes are used to take the intelligent decision about the security level through fuzzy inference system. The effectiveness and the efficacy of the proposed work is verified through the experimental study.
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Authors and Affiliations

Somya Dubey
1
Dhanraj Verma
1

  1. Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam University, Indore, India
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Abstract

Skin Cancer is one of the most widely present forms of cancer. The correct classification of skin lesions as malignant or benign is a complex process that has to be undertaken by experienced specialists. Another major issue of the class imbalance of data causes a bias in the results of classification. This article presents a novel approach to the usage of metadata of skin lesions' images to classify them. The usage of techniques addresses the problem of class imbalance to nullify the imbalances. Further, the use of a convolutional neural network (CNN) is proposed to finetune the skin lesion data classification. Ultimately, it is proven that an ensemble of statistical metadata analysis and CNN usage would result in the highest accuracy of skin color classification instead of using the two techniques separately.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sachin Nayak
1
Shweta Vincent
1
Sumathi K
2
Om Prakash Kumar
3
Sameena Pathan
4

  1. Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
  2. Department of Mathematics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
  3. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
  4. Department of Information and Communication Technology, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
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Abstract

This paper is written by a group of Ph.D. students pursuing their work in different areas of ICT, outside the direct area of Information Quantum Technologies IQT. An ambitious task was undertaken to research, by each co-author, a potential practical influence of the current IQT development on their current work. The research of co-authors span the following areas of ICT: CMOS for IQT, QEC, quantum time series forecasting, IQT in biomedicine. The intention of the authors is to show how quickly the quantum techniques can penetrate in the nearest future other, i.e. their own, areas of ICT.
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Authors and Affiliations

Bogdan J. Bednarski
1
Łukasz E. Lepak
1
Jakub J. Łyskawa
1
Paweł Pieńczuk
1
Maciej Rosoł
1
Ryszard S. Romaniuk
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) transmitters are often fabricated using advanced technology and require a sophisticated manufacturing facility. Access to such technologies is often very limited and difficult to gain particularly at the initial stage of research. Therefore, to increase the accessibility of mm-wave transmitters, this study proposes a design that can be assembled in a standard microwave laboratory from commercially available or externally ordered components. The transmitter demonstrated in this paper operates above 100 GHz and is based on a lowtemperature co-fired ceramic board in which the antenna array, microstrip lines, and power-supply lines are fabricated in a single process. Different technologies are used to assemble the module, e.g., wire-bonding, soldering, and wax adhesion. Advantages and disadvantages of the proposed design are given based on experimental evaluation of the prototype. Although the performance of the developed transmitter is not as good as that of the similar modules available in the recent literature, the results confirm the feasibility of a mm-wave transmitter that is assembled without employing advanced technologies and superior machinery.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Bajurko
1
Jakub Sobolewski
1
Grzegorz Bogdan
1
Konrad Godziszewski
1
Jacek Marczewski
2
Jan Kulawik
2
Michał Widlok
3
Yevhen Yashchyshyn
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Radioelectronics and Multimedia Technology, Warsaw, Poland
  2. Łukasiewicz Research Network, Institute of Microelectronics and Photonics, Warsaw, Poland
  3. SIRC Sp. z o.o., Gdynia, Poland
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Abstract

On-chip optical-interconnect technology emerges as an attractive approach due to its ultra-large bandwidth and ultra-low power consumption. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wire waveguides, on the other hand, have been identified to potentially replace copper wires for intra-chip communication. To take advantage of the wide bandwidth of SOI waveguides, wavelengthdivision multiplexing (WDM) has been implemented. However, WDM have inherent drawbacks. Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) is a viable alternative to WDM in MIMO photonic circuits on SOI as it requires only one carrier wavelength to operate. In this vein, mode converters are key components in on-chip MDM systems. The goal of this paper is to introduce a transverse electric mode converter. The suggested device can convert fundamental transverse electric modes to first-order transverse electric ones and vice versa. It is based on small material perturbation which introduces gradual coupling between different modes. This device is very simple and highly compact; the size of which is 3 μm2. Mathematical expressions for both the insertion loss and crosstalk are derived and optimized for best performance. In addition, three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) simulations are performed in order to verify the mathematical model of the device. Our numerical results reveal that the proposed device has an insertion loss of 1.2 dB and a crosstalk of 10.1 dB. The device’s insertion loss can be decreased to 0.95 dB by adding tapers to its material perturbation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohamed H. Sharaf
1
Mohamed B. El-Mashade
1
Ahmed A. Emran
1

  1. Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
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Abstract

Objectives: To design and simulate a buck converter and detector circuit which can prognostically indicate the power supply failure. Failure of Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitor (AEC) is considered as the parameter causing the power supply failure. To analyse variation of output ripple voltage due to possible changes in the Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) and effective capacitance of the capacitor and design a detector to detect the failure of power supply prognostically.
Methods: A DC-DC buck converter in SMPS topology is designed by assuming an input voltage of 12V with 3 volts possible fluctuations and an output voltage of 3.3 volts is desired. Simulation is carried out to measure the variation in output ripple voltage caused due to aging of electrolytic capacitor using TINA by Texas Instruments. A detector is also designed to compare the ripple voltage and a predefined threshold voltage so as to indicate the possible failure of Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS) well in advance by monitoring the output ripple increase.
Novelty: Having a fault tolerant power supply is very important in safety critical applications. Here by monitoring the output ripple variation, the degradation of AEC is predicted by calculating the ESR and capacitance variation. This simple yet effective prognostic detection will support in the design of fault tolerant power supplies.
Highlight: It is found that, the ripple at the output increases with aging of the electrolytic capacitor, as with time the equivalent capacitance decreases and Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) of the capacitor increases. The designed detector output is found to prognostically indicate the failure of SMPS.
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Authors and Affiliations

Preethi Sharma K
1
T. Vijayakumar
1

  1. Department of ECE, SJB Institute of Technology, Bengaluru, India
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Abstract

Numerous technological applications use MEMS capacitive sensing technique as a major component, because of their ease of fabrication process, inexpensive and high sensitivity. The paper aims at modeling interdigitated capacitive (IDC) sensing. Virtually observe the contribution of variations in geometrical parameters to sensor efficiency and optimization factor. The sensor design is verified through ANSYS simulations. Results indicate “an efficient but poorly optimized sensor is better than a well-optimized sensor”. It is difficult to detect capacitance in the range of few pF generated using capacitive sensing. How it can be maximized with dimension optimization is focused in this paper.
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Authors and Affiliations

Vaishali Sanjay Kulkarni
1
Suvarna Sandip Chorage
2

  1. Department of E&TC at AISSMSIOIT-Pune,India
  2. Department of E&TC at BVCOEW-Pune, India
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Abstract

This paper proposes an android-based application to help the users to navigate in finding books in the library easily and interactively. This navigation application is connected to a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) device that will emit an RSSI signal received by the Smartphone user and show the desired distance to the bookshelf position. The method of triangulation and mean filter were used to eliminate noise in the test environment to make the position of the bookshelf can be found precisely based on the RSSI BLE Beacon value. The test results showed the largest RSSI value for LOS conditions at -48dBm and NLOS at -63 dBm; while the lowest RRSI values for LOS conditions was at -84dBm and NLOS was at -96dBm.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tri Nopiani Damayanti
1
Dadan Nur Ramadan
1
Indah Mutia Utami
1

  1. School of Applied Science, Telkom University, Indonesia
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Abstract

In the recent times, lot of research work carried out in the field of fuel cells explicitly divulges that it has the potential to be an ultimate power source in upcoming years. The fuel cell has more storing capacity, which enables to use in heavy power applications. In these applications, power conditioning is more vital to regulate the output voltage. Hence, we need a dc-dc converter to provide a constant regulated output voltage for such high-power system. Currently, many new converters were designed and implemented as per the requirement. This paper has made comparative study on several topologies of the quadratic high gain dc-dc converter and the applications where these topologies can be used when the fuel cell is given as a source. Also, we have compared various parameters of all the converters considered and generated the results with steady-state and dynamic study. In this article, we briefed the types of analysis carried on the dc-dc converter to study its performance. Moreover, various application of fuel cell is presented and discussed. This paper will be a handbook to the researchers who start to work on high gain dc-dc converter topologies with quadratic boost converter as a base. This article will also guide the engineers to concentrate on the fuel cell components where it needs to be explored for optimizing its operation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Divya Navamani Jayachandran
1
Jagabar Sathik
2
Tanmay Padhi
1
Aditi Kumari
1

  1. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, 603203, Chennai, India
  2. Renewable Energy Lab, Prince Sultan University,11586, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
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Abstract

The multiply-accumulator (MAC) unit is the basic integral computational block in every digital image and digital signal processor. As the demand grows, it is essential to design these units in an efficient manner to build a successful processor. By considering this into account, a power-efficient, high-speed MAC unit is presented in this paper. The proposed MAC unit is a combination of a two-phase clocked modified sequential multiplier and a carry-save adder (CSA) followed by an accumulator register. A novel two-phase clocked modified sequential multiplier is introduced in the multiplication stage to reduce the power and computation time. For image blurring, these multiplier and adder blocks are subsequently incorporated into the MAC unit. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed design reduced the power consumption by 52% and improved the computation time by 4% than the conventional architectures. The developed MAC unit is implemented using 180 nm standard CMOS technology using CADENCE RTL compiler, synthesized using XILINX ISE and the image blurring effect is analyzed using MATLAB.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rashmi Samanth
1
Subramanya G. Nayak
1

  1. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal-576 104, India
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Abstract

In this paper, the problem of aliasing and folding effects in spectrum of sampled signals in view of Information Theory is discussed. To this end, the information content of deterministic continuous time signals, which are continuous functions, is formulated first. Then, this notion is extended to the sampled versions of these signals. In connection with it, new signal objects that are partly functions but partly not are introduced. It is shown that they allow to interpret correctly what the Whittaker– Shannon reconstruction formula in fact does. With help of this tool, the spectrum of the sampled signal is correctly calculated. The result achieved demonstrates that no aliasing and folding effects occur in the latter. Finally, it is shown that a Banach–Tarski-like paradox can be observed on the occasion of signal sampling.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Borys
1

  1. Department of Marine Telecommunications, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia, Poland
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Abstract

Glucose concentration measurement is essential for diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of various medical conditions like diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, etc. This paper presents a novel image-processing and machine learning based approach for glucose concentration measurement. Experimentation based on Glucose oxidase - peroxidase (GOD/POD) method has been performed to create the database. Glucose in the sample reacts with the reagent wherein the concentration of glucose is detected using colorimetric principle. Colour intensity thus produced, is proportional to the glucose concentration and varies at different levels. Existing clinical chemistry analyzers use spectrophotometry to estimate the glucose level of the sample. Instead, this developed system uses simplified hardware arrangement and estimates glucose concentration by capturing the image of the sample. After further processing, its Saturation (S) and Luminance (Y) values are extracted from the captured image. Linear regression based machine learning algorithm is used for training the dataset consists of saturation and luminance values of images at different concentration levels. Integration of machine learning provides the benefit of improved accuracy and predictability in determining glucose level. The detection of glucose concentrations in the range of 10–400 mg/dl has been evaluated. The results of the developed system were verified with the currently used spectrophotometry based Trace40 clinical chemistry analyzer. The deviation of the estimated values from the actual values was found to be around 2- 3%.
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Authors and Affiliations

Angel Thomas
1
Sangeeta Palekar
1
Jayu Kalambe
1

  1. Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering & Management, India
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Abstract

A new method of lossless Secure Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network is presented. Secure Data Aggregation is achieved using the popular Chinese Remainder theorem. Here, an ‘Augmented Chinese Remainder System’ is introduced that incorporates additional features to enforce a higher level of security to the aggregated data. The scheme provides inbuilt signature verification and eliminates the need for separate data validation algorithms. The method achieves data integrity and authentication simultaneously in addition to lossless data aggregation for the data forwarded from the Cluster Head to the Base Station. The aggregate contains the entire individual data from sensors in the encrypted form and the receiver deaggregates it to get the original data in full without any loss. The Augmented Chinese Remainder System can be extended to secure Multi-level Data Aggregation for WSN.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sanu Thomas
1
Thomaskutty Mathew
2

  1. Faculty of School of Technology and Applied Science, Pullarikkunnu Campus, Mallooseery, Kottayam, Kerala, India
  2. Faculty of School of Science, GITAM University, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
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Abstract

Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) in the fifth generation (5G) system is one of the optimistic technologies for wireless radio access networks. Compared to orthogonal multiple accesses (OMA) reduce the spectral efficiency; NOMA provides the best solution by increasing the data rates. This study evaluates NOMA with a downlink in the automatic deployment of multiusers. The outage performance and ergotic sum-rate gain give the NOMA better performance can be concluded at the final results. NOMA provides the Quality of Service (QoS) to the multi-users by considering the power allocation and data rate factors. Here is considered the outage probability will be 1 when it identifies the different user and allocates the data rate and power.
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Authors and Affiliations

Suprith P. G
1
Mohammed Riyaz Ahmed
2

  1. REVA University, Bangalore, and Karnataka, India
  2. School of Multidisciplinary, REVA University, Bangalore, and Karnataka, India
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Abstract

Nowadays, the world is turning into technology, fast internet and high signal quality. To ensure high signal quality, the network planners have to predict the pathloss and signal strength of the transmitted signal at specific distances in the design stage. The aim of this research is to provide a generalized pathloss model to suit the urban area in Muscat Governorate in the Sultanate of Oman. The research covers 5G network pathloss in the Muttrah Business District (MBD) area. It includes Close In (CI) model and Alpha Beta Gamma (ABG) model with 3.45GHz. The results of 5G models were compared with real experimental data in MBD by calculating Root Mean Square Error RMSE. Other cells at MBD area were used for reverification. To validate the modified pathloss models of 5G, they were applied at different cells in Alkhoud area. Furthermore, this paper also deals the effect of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) on the human brain for ensuring safety due to close proximity to cell towers. The SAR values were calculated indirectly from the electric field strength of different antennas. Calculated results were compared with the international standards defined limits on the human brain.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nawal Al-Aamri
1
Zia Nadir
1
Mohammed Bait-Suwailam
1
Hassan Al-Lawati
1

  1. ECE Dept. at College of Engineering at SQU, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
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Abstract

The paper contains a description and research results of the proposal for distributed QoS extensions for Flow-Based Networking. These QoS extensions let the network accept or reject flows based on current network load and QoS promises for each of the flows. Proposed solution consists of two distributed components, each of them performing in every node, measurement system and access control. The solution could be applied in any network architecture that is able to distinguish flows and routers in this architecture contains flow state table. Proposed approach was verified by simulation, in FSA architecture. Verification was done for six different network structures servicing two traffic classes (MRS, ARS). The results of the simulation tests have confirmed that the average time delay and packet loss ratio in the network with proposed extensions are below thresholds and meet the requirements recommended by ITU-T.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sylwester Kaczmarek
1
Maciej Wolff
1

  1. Department of Teleinformation Networks, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland

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Microsoft Windows or Macintosh LaTeX2e style file:

      Please download IEEEtran.zip

Publication requirement is to prepare no less than 6 pages including references using provided LaTeX2e style. All papers that do not meet this requirement will be rejected before review stage.

 

 

Please submit the following:

  •     All source LaTeX files.
  •     Final PDF file (for reference).
  •     PS/EPS or TIFF files for all figures.
  •     Complete contact information for all authors.
  •     Mailing address, a VAT/CIF/NIF/NIP number (depending on the country) of affiliated company the invoice should be sent.

 

IMORTANT! Before staring submission please prepare a contact information for all co-authors (full names, e-mails and affiliations). A contact information for all authors should be provided during submission process in "Step 2. Entering the Submission's Metadata". Papers submitted without contact information for all co-

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