Applied sciences

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

Content

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences | 2020 | 68 | No. 2 April (Special Section on Computational Intelligence in Communications) |

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Abstract

The article introduces a new proposal of a defuzzification method, which can be implemented in fuzzy controllers. The first chapter refers to the origin of fuzzy sets. Next, a modern development based on this theory is presented in the form of ordered fuzzy numbers (OFN). The most important characteristics of ordered fuzzy numbers are also presented. In the following chapter, details about the defuzzification process are given as part of the fuzzy controller model. Then a new method of defuzzification is presented. The method is named center of circles intersection (CCI). The authors compare this method with a similar geometric solution: triangular expanding (TE) and geometric mean (GM). Also, the results are compared with other methods such as center of gravity (COG), first of maxima (FOM) and last of maxima (LOM). The analysis shows that the proposed solution works correctly and provides results for traditional fuzzy numbers as well as directed fuzzy numbers. The last chapter contains a summary, in which more detailed conclusions are provided and further directions of research are indicated.

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Authors and Affiliations

H. Zarzycki
W.T. Dobrosielski
Ł. Apiecionek
T. Vince
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Abstract

Computational gait analysis constitutes a useful tool for quantitative assessment of gait disturbances, improving functional diag nosis, assessment of treatment planning, and monitoring of disease progress. There is little research on use of computational gait analysis in neurorehabilitation of post-stroke survivors, but current evidence on its clinical application supports a favorable cost-benefit ratio. The research was conducted among 50 adult people: 25 of them after ischemic stroke constituted the study group, and 25 healthy volunteers constituted the reference group. Study group members were treated for 2 weeks (10 neurorehabilitation sessions). Spatio-temporal gait parameters were assessed before and after therapy and compared using a novel fuzzy-based assessment tool, fractal dimension measurement and gait classification based on artificial neural networks. Measured results of rehabilitation (changes of gait parameters) were statistically relevant and reflected recovery. There is good evidence to extend its use to patients with various gait diseases undergoing neurorehabilitation. However, methodology for properly conducting and interpreting the proposed assessment and analysis procedures, providing validity and reliability of their results remains a key issue. More objective clinical reasoning, based on proposed novel tools, requires further research.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Prokopowicz
D. Mikołajewski
K. Tyburek
E. Mikołajewska
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Abstract

Machine learning (ML) methods facilitate automated data mining. The authors compare the effectiveness of selected ML methods (RBF networks, Kohonen networks, and random forest) as modelling tools supporting the selection of materials in ecodesign. Applied in the design process, ML methods help benefit from the knowledge, experience and creativity of designers stored in historical data in databases. Implemented into a decision support system, the knowledge can be utilized – in the case under analysis – in the process of design of environmentally friendly products. The study was initiated with an analysis of input data for the selection of materials. The input data, specified in cooperation with designers, include both technological and environmental parameters which guarantee the desired compatibility of materials. Next, models were developed using selected ML methods. The models were assessed and implemented into an expert system. The authors show which models best fit their purpose and why. Models supporting the selection of materials, connections and disassembly methods help boost the recycling properties of designed products.

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Authors and Affiliations

I. Rojek
E. Dostatni
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Abstract

End-of-life oriented product design (design for recycling, disassembly, remanufacturing) is considered an emerging area in modern approach to product lifecycle. Numerous tools aiding the design process have been developed, but many of them work as independent computer applications. The presented solution is strictly integrated with typical design environment: CAD 3D and PLM systems. This paper presents the application of agent technology operating in the PLM environment to support the design process. The architecture of the proposed solution is shown. A method of product assessment, based of three indicators, is described. The example analysis of real household appliance is presented

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Diakun
E. Dostatni
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Abstract

We consider the downlink of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based cell that accommodates calls from different service-classes with different resource requirements. We assume that calls arrive in the cell according to a quasi-random process, i.e., calls are generated by a finite number of sources. To calculate the most important performance metrics in this OFDM-based cell, i.e., congestion probabilities and resource utilization, we model it as a multirate loss model, show that the steady-state probabilities have a product form solution (PFS) and propose recursive formulas which reduce the complexity of the calculations. In addition, we study the bandwidth reservation (BR) policy which can be used in order to reserve subcarriers in favor of calls with high subcarrier requirements. The existence of the BR policy destroys the PFS of the steady-state probabilities. However, it is shown that there are recursive formulas for the determination of the various performance measures. The accuracy of the proposed formulas is verified via simulation and found to be satisfactory.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Panagoulias
I. Moscholios
P. Sarigiannidis
M. Piechowiak
M. Logothetis
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Abstract

The way brain networks maintain high transmission efficiency is believed to be fundamental in understanding brain activity. Brains consisting of more cells render information transmission more reliable and robust to noise. On the other hand, processing information in larger networks requires additional energy. Recent studies suggest that it is complexity, connectivity, and function diversity, rather than just size and the number of neurons, that could favour the evolution of memory, learning, and higher cognition. In this paper, we use Shannon information theory to address transmission efficiency quantitatively. We describe neural networks as communication channels, and then we measure information as mutual information between stimuli and network responses. We employ a probabilistic neuron model based on the approach proposed by Levy and Baxter, which comprises essential qualitative information transfer mechanisms. In this paper, we overview and discuss our previous quantitative results regarding brain-inspired networks, addressing their qualitative consequences in the context of broader literature. It is shown that mutual information is often maximized in a very noisy environment e.g., where only one-third of all input spikes are allowed to pass through noisy synapses and farther into the network. Moreover, we show that inhibitory connections as well as properly displaced long-range connections often significantly improve transmission efficiency. A deep understanding of brain processes in terms of advanced mathematical science plays an important role in the explanation of the nature of brain efficiency. Our results confirm that basic brain components that appear during the evolution process arise to optimise transmission performance.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Paprocki
A. Pregowska
J. Szczepanski
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Abstract

Schemes are presented for calculating tuples of solutions of matrix polynomial equations using continued fractions. Despite the fact that the simplest matrix equations were solved in the second half of the 19th century, and the problem of multiplier decomposition was then deeply analysed, many tasks in this area have not yet been solved. Therefore, the construction of computer schemes for calculating the sequences of solutions is proposed in this work. The second-order matrix equations can be solved by a matrix chain function or iterative method. The results of the numerical experiment using the MatLab package for a given number of iterations are presented. A similar calculation is done for a symmetric square matrix equation of the 2nd order. Also, for the discrete (time) Riccati equation, as its analytical solution cannot be performed yet, we propose constructing its own special scheme of development of the solution in the matrix continued fraction. Next, matrix equations of the n-th order, matrix polynomial equations of the order of non-canonical form, and finally, the conditions for the termination of the iterative process in solving matrix equations by branched continued fractions and the criteria of convergence of matrix branching chain fractions to solutions are discussed.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Dorożyński
M. Nedashkovskyy
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Abstract

Defending against DoS (denial of service) attacks has become a great challenge, especially for institutions that provide access to their services in the public network. State-of-the-art identity concealing tools and vast number of computers connected to the network require ensuring appropriate means for entities at risk to enable defence from the particular type of threats. This article presents a concept of user authentication in IP communication. The concept consists in providing the receiver with the possibility to determine sender՚s identity at the Internet layer level. This provides both the capability of defence against DoS attacks and possibility of utilizing the presented model over existing Internet network, which is directly responsible for transmission. The authors hope that the concept is a significant step in the perception of public network data transmission.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ł. Apiecionek
J.M. Czerniak
M. Romantowski
D. Ewald
B. Tsizh
H. Zarzycki
W.T. Dobrosielski
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Abstract

The objective of this work is to set up a methodology that considers missing data from a connected heartbeat sensor in order to propose a good replacement methodology in the context of heart rate variability (HRV) computation. The framework is a research project, which aims to build a system that can measure stress and other factors influencing the onset and development of heart disease. The research encompasses studying existing methods, and improving them by use of experimental data from case study that describe the participant’s everyday life. We conduct a study to modelize stress from the HRV signal, which is extracted from a heart rate monitor belt connected to a smart watch. This paper describes data recording procedure and data imputation methodology. Missing data is a topic that has been discussed by several authors. The manuscript explains why we choose spline interpolation for data values imputation. We implement a random suppression data procedure and simulate removed data. After that, we implement several algorithms and choose the best one for our case study based on the mean square error.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Tlija
K. Węgrzyn-Wolska
D. Istrate
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Abstract

This article proposes an analytical model of a system with priorities servicing a mixture of different elastic traffic streams. The model presented in the article was developed as the extension of earlier works published by the authors. It utilizes the concept of equivalent bandwidth and then, following bandwidth discretization, uses the dependencies introduced on the basis of the assumptions adopted for the generalized Kaufman-Roberts formula and for the model of a full-availability group with traffic compression. The article presents a possibility of using the proposed model to model the radio interface in a multi-service mobile network and provides an example of the above with the interface of an LTE network. Since the proposed model is an approximate one, the results of the calculations are compared with the results of simulations. A comparison of the results confirms an acceptable level of accuracy of the model. The model can be successfully used in the analysis and design of links and nodes of telecommunication and computer networks.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Nowak
M. Piechowiak
M. Stasiak
P. Zwierzykowski
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Abstract

This paper deals with a methodology for the implementation of cloud manufacturing (CM) architecture. CM is a current paradigm in which dynamically scalable and virtualized resources are provided to users as services over the Internet. CM is based on the concept of coud computing, which is essential in the Industry 4.0 trend. A CM architecture is employed to map users and providers of manufacturing resources. It reduces costs and development time during a product lifecycle. Some providers use different descriptions of their services, so we propose taking advantage of semantic web technologies such as ontologies to tackle this issue. Indeed, robust tools are proposed for mapping providers’ descriptions and user requests to find the most appropriate service. The ontology defines the stages of the product lifecycle as services. It also takes into account the features of coud computing (storage, computing capacity, etc.). The CM ontology will contribute to intelligent and automated service discovery. The proposed methodology is inspired by the ASDI framework (analysis–specification–design–implementation), which has already been used in the supply chain, healthcare and manufacturing domains. The aim of the new methodology is to propose an easy method of designing a library of components for a CM architecture. An example of the application of this methodology with a simulation model, based on the CloudSim software, is presented. The result can be used to help the industrial decision-makers who want to design CM architectures.

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Authors and Affiliations

E. Talhi
J.-C. Huet
V. Fortineau
S. Lamouri
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Abstract

The global stability of positive continuous-time standard and fractional order nonlinear feedback systems is investigated. New sufficient conditions for the global stability of these classes of positive nonlinear systems are established. The effectiveness of these new stability conditions is demonstrated on simple examples of positive nonlinear systems.

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Authors and Affiliations

T. Kaczorek
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Abstract

In the paper, we investigate queueing system M/G/∞ with non–homogeneous customers. As non–homogenity, we mean that each customer is characterized by some arbitrarily distributed random volume. The arriving customers appear according to a stationary Poisson process. Service time of a customer is proportional to his volume. The system is unreliable what means that all its servers can break simultaneously and then the repair period goes on for random time having an arbitrary distribution. During this period, customers present in the system and arriving to it are not served. Their service continues immediately after repair period termination. Time intervals of the system in good repair mode have an exponential distribution. For such system, we determine steady–state sojourn time and total volume of customers present in it distributions. We also estimate the loss probability for the similar system with limited total volume. An analysis of some special cases and some numerical examples are attached as well.

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Authors and Affiliations

O. Tikhonenko
M. Ziółkowski
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Abstract

In this work we consider a problem from the field of power- and energy-aware scheduling, in which a set of batteries have to be charged in a minimum time. The formulated problem is to schedule independent and nonpreemptable jobs to minimize the schedule length, where each job requires some amount of power and consumes a certain amount of energy during its processing. We assume that the power demand of each job linearly decreases with time, as it is the case when Li-ion batteries are being charged. For the assumed job model we prove that each next job should be started as soon as the required amount of power is available. Basing on the proven theorem we formulate a procedure generating a minimum-length schedule for an assumed order of jobs. We also analyze the case of identical jobs, and show some interesting properties of this case.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Różycki
G. Waligóra
J. Węglarz
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Abstract

New equivalent conditions of the asymptotical stability and stabilization of positive linear dynamical systems are investigated in this paper. The asymptotical stability of the positive linear systems means that there is a solution for linear inequalities systems. New necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions of the linear inequalities systems as well as the asymptotical stability of the linear dynamical systems are obtained. New conditions for the stabilization of the resultant closed-loop systems to be asymptotically stable and positive are also presented. Both the stability and the stabilization conditions can be easily checked by the so-called I-rank of a matrix and by solving linear programming (LP). The proposed LP has compact form and is ready to be implemented, which can be considered as an improvement of existing LP methods. Numerical examples are provided in the end to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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Authors and Affiliations

H. Yang
Y. Hu
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Abstract

The following discussion concerns modelling of fracture in steel plates during an impact test, in which both target and striker are manufactured from the same material, high-strength high-hardness armour steel – Mars® 300. The test conditions (3 mm thick targets, projectiles with different nose shapes at impact velocity lower than 400 m/s) result in severely damaged components, which results in an analysis of stress states showing material failure. Numerical analyses are performed using two material models: the Johnson-Cook approach, as traditionally used in impact simulations, accounting for the effect of stress triaxiality, strain rate and temperature and for comparison, a simulation by means of the stress triaxiality and Lode angle parameter-dependent Hosford-Coulomb model, also incorporating the effect of the strain rate on a fracture initiation. The aim of the study is to analyse the mechanisms of penetration and perforation observed in the armour steel plates and validation of the modelling approaches.

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Authors and Affiliations

T. Fras
C.C. Roth
D. Mohr
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Abstract

Mathematical analysis for 3D Williamson nanofluid flow past a bi-directional stretched surface in Darcy-Forchheimer permeable media constitutes the focus of this study. The novelty of the proposed model is augmented by the addition of thermal and solutal stratification with chemical species and variable thermal conductivity. Calculations of the suggested model are conducted via the renowned homotopy analysis method (HAM). The results obtained are validated by comparing them in a limiting form with an already published article. Excellent harmony is achieved in this regard. Graphical structures, depicting impacts of assorted arising parameters versus the profiles involved are also provided. It is noticed that the velocity profile is a dwindling function of the Williamson parameter and Hartmann number. It is also stated that the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux exhibits conventional Fourier and Fick’s laws behavior when both coefficients of thermal and concentration relaxations are zero.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Ramzan
H. Gul
M. Zahri
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Abstract

Irregular systems with long-range interactions and multiple clusters are considered. The presence of clusters leads to excessive computational complexity of conventional fast multipole methods (FMM), used for modeling systems with large number of DOFs. To overcome the difficulty, a modification of the classical FMM is suggested. It tackles the very cause of the complication by accounting for higher intensity of fields, generated by clusters in upward and especially in downward translations. Numerical examples demonstrate that, in accordance with theoretical estimations, in typical cases the modified FMM significantly reduces the time expense without loss of the accuracy.

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Authors and Affiliations

L. Rybarska-Rusinek
E. Rejwer
A. Linkov
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Abstract

The article presents the criteria taken into account in determining the alignment of regional roads, with particular reference to bypasses of towns located along regional roads. To determine the criteria for the evaluation of variants and their hierarchy, the surveys were conducted using the Delphi method in two rounds, with electronic surveys (the CAWI method). Based on survey studies, an entry list of criteria was set up as a proposal for determining the alignment of regional roads.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Żabicki
W. Gardziejczyk
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Abstract

The article presents the methodology for selecting the optimal variant of the road on a regional level. The suggested methodology is based on a combination of criteria value normalization method and the variant assessment method. Based on survey studies conducted using the Delphi method, a starting list of criteria was designed and the significance of the individual groups of main criteria and sub-criteria was determined. The final assessments of the analysed variants are calculated based on the aggregation of the marks obtained for the normalization and assessment methods. The methodology can be divided into six stages: determining the variants for analysis, selecting the variant assessment criteria, creating the assessment matrix, normalizing criteria value, using the variant assessment method, variant ranking. The methodology was tested on the examples of planning a bypass of Mazury and Księżyno towns as a part of Regional Road 678 in Poland.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Żabicki
W. Gardziejczyk
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Abstract

The hierarchical structure of InSe<β-CD<FeSO4>> composition with 4-fold grade expansion was synthesized with the intercalation-deintercalation technique. Electrical properties of the structure obtained were examined using impedance and thermostimulated current spectroscopy methods. Influence of temperature, static magnetic field and illumination on electrical properties of the synthesized compound was investigated. Changes in the impurity spectrum of the expanded hierarchical structure were analyzed and extraordinary magneto- and photoimpedance behavior of InSe<β-CD<FeSO4>> at room temperature was explained.

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Authors and Affiliations

T. Popławski
I. Bordun
A. Pidluzhna
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Abstract

In this work, in order to obtain breakdown voltage values of the 4H-SiC p-i-n diodes above 1.7kV, three designs have been examined: single-zone junction termination extention (JTE), double-zone JTE and a structure with concentric rings outside each of the areas of the double-zone JTE (space-modulated JTE). The influence of geometry and the level of p-type doping in the JTE area as well as the charge at the interface between the p-type JTE area and the passivation layer on the diode breakdown voltage was studied. The effect of statistical dispersion of drift layer parameters (thickness, doping level) on diodes breakdown voltage with various JTE structures was investigated as well. The obtained results showed that the breakdown volatge values for a diode with single zone JTE are very sensitive both to the dose of JTE area and charge accumulated at the JTE/dielectric interface. The use of a double zone or space-modulated JTE structures allows for obtaining breakdown voltage above 1.7 kV for a much wider range of doping parameters and with better tolerance to positive charge at the JTE/dielectric interface, as well as better tolerance to statistical dispersion of active layer parameters compared to a single zone JTE structure.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Taube
M. Sochacki
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Abstract

The present paper describes a new architecture of a high-voltage solid-state pulse generator. This generator combines the two types of energy storage systems: inductive and capacitive, and consequently operates two types of switches: opening and closing. For the opening switch, an isolated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) was chosen due to its interesting characteristics in terms of controllability and robustness. For the closing switch, two solutions were tested: spark-gap (SG) for a powerful low-cost solution and avalanche mode bipolar junction transistor (BJT) for a fully semiconductor structure. The new architecture has several advantages: simple structure and driving system, high and stable controllable repetition rate that can reach 1 kHz, short rising time of a few nanoseconds, high gain and efficiency, and low cost. The paper starts with the mathematical analysis of the generator operation followed by numerical simulation of the device. Finally add a comma the results were confirmed by the experimental test with a prototype generator. Additionally, a comparative study was carried out for the classical SG versus the avalanche mode BJT working as a closing switch.

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Authors and Affiliations

Y. Achour
J. Starzyński
A. Łasica
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Abstract

The paper presents a three-phase grid-tied converter operated under unbalanced and distorted grid voltage conditions, using a multi-oscillatory current controller to provide high quality phase currents. The aim of this study is to introduce a systematic design of the current control loop. A distinctive feature of the proposed method is that the designer needs to define the required response and the disturbance characteristic, rather than usually unintuitive coefficients of controllers. Most common approach to tuning a state-feedback controller use linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) technique or pole-placement method. The tuning process for those methods usually comes down to guessing several parameters. For more complex systems including multi-oscillatory terms, control system tuning is unintuitive and cannot be effectively done by trial and error method. This paper proposes particle swarm optimization to find the optimal weights in a cost function for the LQR procedure. Complete settings for optimization procedure and numerical model are presented. Our goal here is to demonstrate an original design workflow. The proposed method has been verified in experimental study at a 10 kW laboratory setup.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Gałecki
M. Michalczuk
A. Kaszewski
B. Ufnalski
L.M. Grzesiak

Editorial office

Editorial Board 2020-2022

Editor-in-Chief:

M.P. Kazmierkowski, Warsaw University of Technology

Honorary (Past) Editor-in Chief:

T. Kaczorek, Warsaw University of Technology

Deputy Editor-in-Chief:

A. Rogalski, Division IV Technical Sciences PAN

B. Błachowski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

Board of Topical Co-editors:

Artificial and Computational Intelligence

S. Osowski and B. Sawicki, Warsaw University of Technology

Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology

A. Liebert, Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering PAN

Civil Engineering

L. Czarnecki, Building Research Institute, ITB, Warsaw

Control, Robotics and Informatics

J. Klamka and A. Babiarz, Silesian Technical University

A. Borkowski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics

M. Mrozowski and A. Lamęcki, Gdansk University of Technology

Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics

B. Błachowski and P. Korczyk, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

A. Tylikowski, Lukasiewicz Research Network - Institute of Mechanised Construction and Rock Mining, Warsaw

Materials Science and Nanotechnology

B. Major and P. Czaja, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAN

Power Systems and Power Electronics

M.P. Kazmierkowski, Warsaw University of Technology

International Editorial Advisory Board

R. Asthana, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, USA

Xu Binshi, China Association of Plant Engineering, Beijing, P.R. China

F. Blaabjerg, Aalborg University, Denmark

C. Cecati, University of L’Aquila, Italy

A. Cichocki, RIKEN Institute, Tokyo, Japan

M. David, National Polytechnique de Toulouse, France

R. Ebner, Materials Centre Leoben, Leoben, Austria

E. Fornasini, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

L.G. Franquelo, University of Sevilla, Spain

M. Gad-el-Hak, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA

M. Giersig, Free University of Berlin, Germany

D. van Gemert, Catholic University Leuven, KU Leuven, Belgium

L. Keviczky, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary

V. Kučera, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

R. Kennel, Technical University Munich, Germany

T.A. Kowalewski, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN

E. Levi, Liverpool John Moore University, UK

G. Maier, Technical University of Milan, Milan, Italy

K.F. Man, City University of Hong Kong,

R. Maniewski, Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering PAN

H.A. Mang, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria

H. Mihashi, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan

S. Mindess, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

D.A. Mlynski, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

A.S. Nowak, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

K. Ohnishi, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan

A. Öberg, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

W. Pedrycz, University of Alberta, Canada

S. Przemieniecki, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA

M. Razeghi, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA

J. Rodriguez, University of Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile

J.V. Sloten, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

B.M. Wilamowski, University of Auburn, Alabama, USA

W. Włosiński , Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

A.L. Yarin, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA

Du Xiangwan, Chinese Academy of Engineering, China

J. Żurada, Department of Computer Engineering, University of Louisville, USA

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Renata Podraza, e-mail: renata.podraza@pan.pl

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Ewa Trojanowska, ewa.trojanowska@pan.pl

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Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

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