Pathogenicity of endogenous isolate of Paramyrothecium (=Myrothecium) roridum (Tode) L. Lombard & Crous against the squash beetle Epilachna chrysomelina (F.)

Journal title

Journal of Plant Protection Research




vol. 61


No 1


Hassan, Feyroz Ramadan : Department of Plant Protection, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Duhok, Iraq ; Ghaffar, Nacheervan Majeed : Duhok Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Duhok University, Kurdistan Region, Duhok, Iraq ; Assaf, Lazgeen Haji : Plant Protection, General Directorate of Agriculture-Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Duhok, Iraq ; Abdullah, Samir Khalaf : Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Al-Noor University College, Nineva, Iraq



Epilachna chrysomelina ; Paramyrothecium roridum ; pathogenicity ; soil

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Biologiczne i Rolnicze




Committee of Plant Protection PAS ; Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute


1. Abbott W.S. 1925. A method for computing the effectivenss of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology 8: 265–277.
2. Abdullah S.K., Abbas B.A. 2008. Fungi inhabiting surface sediments of Shatt Al-Arab River and its creeks at Basrah, Iraq. Basrah Journal of Science (B) 26 (1): 68–81.
3. Abdullah S.K., Al-Mosawi K.A. 2010. Fungi associated with seeds of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) cultivars grown in Iraq. Phytopathologia 57: 11–20.
4. Abdullah S.K., Monfort E., Asensio L., Salinas J., LopezLlorca L.V., Jansson H.B. 2010. Mycobiota of date palm plantations in Elche, SE Spain. Czech Mycology 61 (2): 149–162.
5. Abdullah S.K., Saadullah A.A. 2013. Soil mycobiota at grapevine plantations in Duhok, North Iraq. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture 41 (1): 437–447.
6. Abdullah S.K., Zora S.E. 1993. Soil microfungi from date palm plantations in Iraq. Basrah Journal of Science 11 (1): 45–57.
7. Abdul-Rassoul M.S. 1976. Check list of insects of Iraq. Natural History Research Centre, Publication No. 30: 1-41.
8. AmithaV., Shylaja M.D., Nalini M.S. 2014. Fungal endophytes from culinary herbs and their antioxidant activity. International Journal of Current Research 6 (8): 7996–8002.
9. Arnold A.E. 2007. Understanding the diversity of foliar endophytic fungi: progress, challenges, and frontiers. Fungal Biology Reviews 21: 51–66.
10. Assaf L.H., Hassan F.R., Younis G.H. 2011. Evaluation of the Entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.)Vuill.and Paecilomyces farinosus (Dicks ex Fr.) against the Poplar Leaf Beetle Melasoma populi L. Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences 14: 35-44.
11. Awadalla S.S., Abd-Wahab H.A., Abd El-Baky N.F., Abdel-Salam S.S. 2011. Host plant preference of the melon ladybird beetle Epilachna chrysomelina (F.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on different cucurbit vegetables in Mansoura region. Journal of Plant Protection and Pathology 2 (1): 41–47.
12. Bharath B.G., Likesh S., Yashovarma B., Prakash H.S., Shetty H.S. 2006. Seed-borne nature of Myrothecium roridium in watermelon seeds. Research Journal of Botany 1 (1): 44–45. DOI: 10.3923/rib.2006.44.45.
13. Bosio P., Siciliano I., Gilardi G., Gullino, M.L., Garibaldi A. 2017. Verrucarin A and roridin E produced on rocket by Myrothecium roridium under different temperatures and CO2 levels. World Mycotoxin Journal 10: 229–236.
14. Chavan S.B.,Vidhate R.P., Kallure G.S., Dandawate N.L., Khire J.M., Deshpande M.V. 2017. Stability studies of cuticle and mycolytic enzymes of Myrothecium verrucaria for control of insect pests and fungal phytopathogens. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 16: 404–412.
15. Domsch K.H., Gams W., Anderson T. 2007. Compendium of Soil Fungi. 2nd ed. IHW Verlag, Eching, Germany, 672 pp.
16. Gindin G., Levski S., Glazer I., Soroker V. 2006. Evaluation of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana against the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Phytoparasitica 34: 370–379.
17. Han K.S., Choi S.K., Kim H.H., Lee S.C., Park J.H., Cho M.R., Park M.J. 2014. First report of Myrothecium roridium causing leaf and stem rot disease of Pepteromia quadrangularis in Korea. Mycobiology 42 (2): 203–205. DOI: 10.5941/MYCO.2014.42.2.203
18. Hassan F.R. 2003. Studies in poplar leaf beetle Melasoma (= Chrysomela) populi L. (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) in Duhok region. M.Sc. thesis, University of Duhok, College of Agriculture, Iraq, 83 pp.
19. Hassan F.R. 2019. Selective Isolation and Biomass Production of Beauveria bassiana and its Virulence to Squash Beetle Epilachna chrysomelina F. Ph.D dissertation, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok, Iraq, 165 pp.
20. Hassan F.R., Abdullah S.K., Assaf L.H. 2019. Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. endophytic and a soil isolate against the squash beetle, Epilachna chrysomelina (F.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 29: 74. DOI: 10.1186/s41938-019-0169-x
21. Haudenshield J.S., Pawlowski M., Miranda C., Hartman G.L. 2018. First report of Paramyrothecium roridium causing Myrothecium leaf spot on soybean in Africa. Plant Disease 102 (12): 2638. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-04-18-0624-PDN
22. Ismail A.L.S., Abdullah S.K. 1977. Studies on the soil fungi of Iraq. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Section B 86 (3): 151–154.
23. Kwon H.W., Kim J.Y., Choi M.Ah., Son S.Y., Kim S.H. 2014. Characterization of Myrothecium roridium isolated from imported Anthurium plant culture medium. Mycobiology 42 (1): 82–85. DOI: 10.5941/MYCO.2014.42.1.82
24. Lee H.B., Kim J.C., Hong K.S., Kim C.J. 2008. Evaluation of fungal strain, Myrothecium roridium F0252, as a bioherbicide agent. The Plant Pathology Journal 24 (2): 453–460.
25. Li T.-X., Xiong Y.-M., Chen X., Yang Y.-N., Wang, Jia X.-W., Yang X.-P., Tan L.-L., Xu C.-P. 2019. Antifungal macrocyclic Trichothecens from the insect-associated fungus Myrothecium roridium. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 67 (47): 13033–13039. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b04507.
26. Liang J., Li G., Zhou S., Zhao M., Cai l. 2019. Myrothecium-like new species from turfgrasses and associated rhizosphere. MycoKeys 51: 29–53. DOI: 10.3897/mycokeys.51.31957.
27. Liu J.Y., Huang L.L., Ye Y.H., Zou W.X., Guo Z.J., Tan R.X. 2006. Antifungal and new metabo¬lites of Myrothecium sp. Z16, a fungus associated with white croaker Argyromosumar¬gentatus. Journal of Applied Microbiology 100: 195–202. DOI: 2672.2005.02760.x
28. Liu H.X., Liu W.Z., ChenY.C., Sun Z.H., Tan Y.Z., Li H.H., Zhang W.M. 2016. Cytotoxic trichothecene macrolides from the endophyte fungus Myrothecium roridium. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research 18 (7): 684–689. DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2015.1134505.
29. Lombard L., Houbraken J., Decock C., Samson R.A., Meijer M., Reblova M., Groenewald J.Z., Crous P.W. 2016. Genetic hyper-diversity in Stachybotriaceae. Persoonia 36: 156–246. DOI: 10.3767/003158516X691582
30. Macia-Vicente J. G., Jansson H. B., Abdullah S. K., Descals E., Salinas J., Lopez-Llorca L. V. 2008. Fungal root endophytes from natural vegetation in Mediterranean environments with special reference to Fusarium spp. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 64: 90–105. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2007. 00443.
31. Matic S., Gilardi G., Gullino M.L., Garibaldi A. 2019. Emergence of leaf spot disease on leafy vegetable and ornamental crops caused by Paramyrothecium and Albifimbria species. Phytopathology 109: 1053–1061. DOI: 10.1094/PHYTO-10-18-0396-R
32. Mou J.Y. 1975. Preliminary study on Myrothecium sp. (in Chinese). Applicationand Research on Entomogenous Fungus in China 2: 237–238.
33. Okunowo W.O., Gbenle G.O., Osuntoki A.A., Adekunle A.A., Ojokuku S.A. 2010. Production of cellulolytic enzymes by a phytopathogenic Myrothecium roridium and some avirulent fungal aisolates from water hyacinth. African Journal of Biotechnology 9 (7): 1074–1078. DOI: 10.5897/AJB09.1598
34. Pappachan A., Rahul K., Debashish Ch., Sivaprasad V. 2019. Phylogenetic analysis of Paramyrothecium roridium causing brown leaf spot of mulberry. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 8(03): 1393–1399. DOI: 10.20546/ijcmas.2019.803.163
35. Parker B.L., Skinner M., Costa S.D., Gouli S., Reid W., El Bouhssini M. 2003. Entomopathogenic fungi of Eurygaster. integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae): collection and characterization for development. Biological Control 27: 260–272.
36. Shen L., Ai C.Z., SongY.C.,Wang F.W., Jiao R.H., Zhang A.H., Man H.Z., Tan R.X. 2019. Cytotoxic trichothecene macrolides produced by the endophytic Myrothecium roridium. Journal of Natural Products 82 (6): 1503–1509.
37. Soliman M.S. 2020. Characterization of Paramyrothecium roridium (basionym Myrothecium roridium) causing leaf spot of strawberry. Journal of Plant Protection Research 60 (2): 141–149. DOI: 10.24425/jppr.2020.133308
38. Talukdar D., Dantre R.K. 2014. Biochemical studies on Myrothecium roridium Tode. ex. Fries causing leaf spot of soybean. Global Journal of Research Analysis 3: 7–9.
39. Tulloch M. 1972. The genus Myrothecium Tode ex Fr. Mycological Papers 130: 1–42.
40. Vidhate R., Singh J., Ghormade V., Chavan S.B., Patil A., Deshpande M.V. 2015. Use of hydrolytic enzymes of Myrothecium verrucaria and conidia of Metarhizium anisopliae, singly and sequentially to control pest and pathogens in grapes and their compatibility with pesticides used in the field. Biopesticides International 11 (1): 48–60.
41. Warcup J.H.1960. Methods for isolation and estimation of activity of fungi in soil. p. 3–21. In: "The Ecology of Soil Fungi" (D. Parkinson, J.S. Waid, eds.). Liverpool University Press, UK.
42. White T.J., Bruns T., Lee S., Taylor J. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. p. 315–322. In: "PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Aapplications" (M.A. Innis, D.H. Gelfand, J.J. Shinsky, T.J. White, eds.). Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.






DOI: 10.24425/jppr.2021.136271


Journal of Plant Protection Research; 2021; vol. 61; No 1; 110-116