Effective removal of odors from air with polymer nonwoven structures doped by porous materials to use in respiratory protective devices

Journal title

Archives of Environmental Protection




vol. 47


No 2


Brochocka, Agnieszka : Central Institute for Labour Protection-National Research Institute, Lodz, Poland ; Nowak, Aleksandra : Central Institute for Labour Protection-National Research Institute, Lodz, Poland ; Panek, Rafał : Lublin University of Technology, Lublin, Poland ; Franus, Wojciech : Lublin University of Technology, Lublin, Poland ; Kozikowski, Paweł : Central Institute for Labour Protection-National Research Institute, Lodz, Poland



activated carbon ; zeolites ; porous materials ; polymer nonwoven structures ; mesoporous silicamaterials ; aplication

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne




Polish Academy of Sciences


  1. Anand, S.S., Philip, B.K. & Mehendale, H.M. (2014). Volatile Organic Compounds, [In] Wexler, P. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), Academic Press, pp. 967-970, ISBN: 9780123864550, DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-386454-3.00358-4
  2. Amid, H., Maze, B., Flickinger, M.C. & Pourdeyhimi, B. (2016). Hybrid adsorbent nonwoven structures: a review of current technologies. Journal of Material Science, 51, pp. 4173-4200, DOI: 10.1007/s10853-016-9741-x
  3. Balanay, J.A.G., Bartolucci, A.A. & Lungu, C.T. (2014). Adsorption Characteristics of Activated Carbon Fibers (ACFs) for Toluene: Application in Respiratory Protection. Journal of Occupacional Environmental and Hygiene, 11, pp. 133-143, DOI: 10.1080/15459624.2013.816433
  4. Balanay, J.A.G. & Lungu, C.T. (2016). Determination of pressure drop across activated carbon fiber respirator cartridges. Journal of Occupational Environmental and Hygiene, 13, pp. 141-147, DOI: 10.1080/15459624.2015.1091960
  5. Baysal, G. (2019). Cleaning of pesticides from aqueous solution by a newly synthesized organoclay. Archives of Environmental Protection, 45(3), pp. 21–30, DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.128637
  6. Brochocka, A., Nowak A., Panek, R. & Franus, W. (2019). The Effects of Textural Parameters of Zeolite and Silica Materials on the Protective and Functional Properties of Polymeric Nonwoven Composites. Applied Science, 9. pp. 515, DOI: 10.3390/app9030515
  7. Brochocka, A., Zagawa, A., Panek, R., Madej, J. & Franus, W. (2018). Method for introducing zeolites and MCM-41 into polypropylene melt-blown nonwovens. AUTEX Research Journal, DOI: 10.1515/aut-2018-0043
  8. Buonanno, G., Marks, G.B. & Morawska, L. (2013). Health effects of daily airborne particle dose in children: Direct association between personal dose and respiratory health effects. Environmental Pollution, 180, pp. 246-250, DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.05.039
  9. Buteau, S. & Goldberg, MS. (2016). A structured review of panel studies used to investigate associations between ambient air pollution and heart rate variability. Environmental Research, 148, pp. 207-247, DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.03.013
  10. Cerrillo, J.R., Palomares, A.E. & Rey, F. (2020). Silver exchanged zeolites as bactericidal additives in polymeric materials. Microporous and Mesoporous Material, 305, pp. 110367, DOI: 10.1016/j.micromeso.2020.110367
  11. Cheng, T., Jiang, Y., Zhang, Y. & Shuanqiang, L. (2004). Prediction of breakthrough curves for adsorption on activated carbon fibres in a fixed bed. Carbon, 42, pp. 3081-3085, DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2004.07.021
  12. Chiang, Y.C. & Juang, R.S. (2017). Surface modifications of carbonaceous materials for carbon dioxide adsorption: A review. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 71, pp. 214-234, DOI:10.1016/j.jtice.2016.12.014
  13. Commission Directive 2000/39/EC of 8 June 2000 establishing a first list of indicative occupational exposure limit values in implementation of Council Directive 98/24/EC on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work,
  14. Czuma, N., Zarębska, K. & Baran, P. (2016). Analysis of the influence of fusion synthesis parameters on the SO2 sorption properties of zeolites produced out of fly ash. SEED Science Research, 10, DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/20161000010
  15. Das, D., Vivekand, G. & Nishith, V. (2004). Removal of volatile organic compound by activated carbon fiber. Carbon, 42, pp. 2949-2962, DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2004.07.008
  16. Deng, L., Yuan, P., Liu, D., Annabi-Bergaya, F. & Zhou, J. (2017). Effects of microstructure of clay minerals, montmorillonite, kaolinite and halloysite, on their benzene adsorption behaviours. Applied Clay Science, 143, pp. 184-191, DOI:10.1016/j.clay.2017.03.035
  17. Duad, W.M.A.W. & Haushamnd, A.H. (2010) Textural characteristics, surface chemistry and oxidation of activated carbon. Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry, 19(3), pp. 267-79, DOI: 10.1016/S1003-9953(09)60066-9
  18. EN 13274-3:2008. Respiratory Protective Devices. Methods of Tests. Determination of Breathing Resistance; The European Committee for Standardization (CEN): Brussels, Belgium, 2008.
  19. EN 13274-7:2008. Respiratory Protective Devices. Methods of tests. Determination of Particle Filter Penetration. The European Committee for Standardization (CEN): Brussels, Belgium, 2008.
  20. EN 14387:2004+A1:2008. Respiratory Protective Devices. Gas Filters And Combined Filters. Requirements, Testing, Marking. The European Committee For Standardization (CEN): Brussels, Belgium, 2004.
  21. EN 149:2001+A1:2009. Respiratory Protective Devices—Particle filtering half Masks—Requirements, Testing, Marking. The European Committee for Standardization (CEN): Brussels, Belgium, 2001.
  22. Haobo, T., Yan, Z., Yue, L., Ying, W. & Xuemei, W. (2017). Emission characteristics and variation of volatile odorous compounds in the initial decomposition stage of municipal solid waste. Waste Manage, 68, pp. 677-687, DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.07.015
  23. Hassounah, I.A., Rowland, W.C., Sparks, S.A., Orler, E.B., Joseph, E.G., Camelio, J.A. & Mahajan, R.L. (2014). Processing of Multilayerd Filament Composites by Melt Blown Spinning. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 131, DOI: 10.1002/APP.40786
  24. Huang, Z.H., Kang, F., Zheng, Y.P., Yang, J.B. & Liang, K.M. (2002). Adsorption of trace polar methy-ethyl-ketone and non-polar benzene vapors on viscose rayon-based activated carbon fibers. Carbon, 40, pp. 1363-1367, DOI: 10.1016/S0008-6223(01)00292-5
  25. Ki-Joong, K. & Ho-Geun, A.H.N. (2012). The effect of pore structure of zeolite on the adsorption of VOCs and their desorption properties by microwave heating. Microporous and Mesoporous Material, 152, pp. 78-83, DOI: 10.1016/j.micromeso.2011.11.051
  26. Krajewska, B. & Kośmider, J. (2005). Standards of Odour Quality Air. Air protection and Waste Issues, 6, pp. 81-191, (in Polish).
  27. Kraus, M., Trommler, U., Holzer, F., Kopinke, F.D. & Roland, U. (2018). Competing adsorption of toluene and water on various zeolites. Chemical Engineering Journal, 351, pp. 356-363, DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2018.06.128
  28. Kumar, V., Kumar, S., Kim, K.H., Tsang, D.C.W. & Lee, S.S. (2019). Metal organic frameworks as potent treatment media for odorants and volatiles in air. Environmental Research, 168, pp. 336-356, DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.10.002
  29. Makles, Z. & Galwas-Zakrzewska, M. (2005). Malignant gases in the work environment. Work Safety, 9, pp. 12-16, (in Polish).
  30. Michalak, A., Krzeszowiak, J. & Pawlas, K. (2014). Whether exposure to unpleasant odors (odors) harms health?. Environmental Medicine, 17, pp. 76-81, (in Polish).
  31. Namieśnik, J., Gębicki, J. & Wysocka, I. (2019). Technologies for deodorization of malodorous gases. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26, pp. 9409–9434, DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-04195-1
  32. Okrasa, M., Hitz, J., Nowak, A., Brochocka, A., Thelen, C. & Walczak, Z. (2019). Adsorption Performance of Activated-Carbon-Loaded Nonwoven Filters Used in Filtering Facepiece Respirators. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16 (11), pp. 1973, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16111973
  33. Oya A. & Iu WG. (2002). Deodorization performance of charcoal particles loaded with orthophosphoric acid against ammonia and trimethylamine. Carbon, 40(9), pp. 1391-1399, DOI: 10.1016/S0008-6223(01)00273-1
  34. Panek, R., Wdowin, M., Franus, W., Czarna, D., Stevens, L.A., Deng, H., Liu, J., Sun, C., Liu, H. & Snape, C.E. (2017). Fly ash-derived MCM-41 as a low-cost silica support for polyethyleneimine in post-combustion CO2 capture. Journal of CO2 Utilization, 22, pp. 81-90, DOI:10.1016/j.jcou.2017.09.015
  35. Pope III, CA. & Dockery, DW. (2016). Health Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution: Line that Connect. J Air Waste Manage, 56, pp. 709-742, DOI: 10.1080/10473289.2006.10464485
  36. Regulation (EU) 2016/425 of the European Parliament and the Council of 9 March 2016 on personal protective equipment and repealing Council Directive 89/686/EEC.
  37. Regulation of the Minister for Family, Labor and Social Policy on the Highest Permissible Concentrations and Intensities of Factors Harmful to Health in the Work Environment; Journal of Laws from 2018, item 1286; International Labour Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 12 June 2018.
  38. Rubahamya, B., Suresh Kumar Reddy, K., Prabhu, A., Al Shoaibi, A. & Srinivasakannan, C. (2019). Porous Carbon Screening for Benzene Sorption. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, 38(1), pp. 93-99, DOI: 10.1002/ep.12925
  39. Rybarczyk, P., Szulczyński, B., Gębicki, J. & Hupka, J. (2019). Treatment of malodorous air in biotrickling filters: A review. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 141, pp. 146-162, DOI: 10.1016/j.bej.2018.10.014
  40. Schlegelmilch, M., Streese, J. & Stegmann, R. (2005). Odour management and treatment technologies: An overview. Waste Management, 25 (9), pp. 928–939, DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2005.07.006
  41. Schmid, O., Möller, W., Semmler-Behnke, M.A., Ferron, G.A., Karg, E.W., Lipka, J., Schulz, H., Kreyling, W.G. & Stöeger, T. (2009). Dosimetry and toxicology of inhaled ultrafine particles. Biomarkers, 14, pp. 67-73, DOI: 10.1080/13547500902965617
  42. Stelmach, S., Wasilewski, R. & Figa, J. (2006). An attempt to produce granular adsorbents based on carbonates from used car tires. Archives of Waste Management and Environmental Protection, 4, pp. 107-114.
  43. Szynkowska, MI., Wojciechowska, E., Węglińska, A.& Paryjczak, T. (2009). Odorous emission. An environmental protection issue. Przemysł Chemiczny, 88(6) pp. 712-720. (in Polish)
  44. Tsai, J.H., Chiang, H.M., Huang, G.Y. & Chiang, H.L. (2008). Adsorption characteristics of acetone, chloroform and acetonitrile on sludge-derived adsorbent, commercial granular activated carbon and activated carbon fibers. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 154, pp. 1183-1191, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.11.065
  45. Wang, G., Dou, B., Zhang, Z., Wang, J., Liu, H. & Hao, Z. (2015). Adsorption of benzene, cyclohexane and hexane on ordered mesoporous carbon, Journal of Environmental Science, 30, pp. 65-73, DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2014.10.015
  46. Xin, Z., Honglei, C., Fangong, K., Yujie, Z., Shoujuan, W., Shouxin, L., Lucian, A.L., Pedram, F. & Huan, P. (2019). Fabrication characteristics and applications of carbon materials with different morphologies and porous structures produced from wood liquefaction: A review. The Chemical Engineering Journal, 364, pp. 226-243, DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2019.01.159
  47. Xueyang, Z., Bin, G., Creamer, A.E., Chengcheng, C. & Yuncong, L. (2017). Adsorption of VOCs onto engineered carbon materials: A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 338, pp. 102-127, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.05.013
  48. Yin, T., Meng, X., Jin, L., Yang, C., Liu, N. & Shi, L. (2020). Prepared hydrophobic Y zeolite for adsorbing toluene in humid environment. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 305, pp. 110327, DOI:10.1016/j.micromeso.2020.110327
  49. Yue, Z. & Vakili, A. (2017). Activated carbon–carbon composites made of pitch-based carbon fibers and phenolic resin for use of adsorbents. Journal of Material Science, 52, pp. 12913-12921, DOI:10.1007/s10853-017-1389-7
  50. Zendelska, A., Golomeova, M., Golomeov, B. & Krstev B. (2018). Removal of lead ions from acid aqueous solutions and acid mine drainage using zeolite bearing tuff. Archives of Environmental Protection, 44(1), pp. 87–96, DOI:10.24425/118185
  51. Zhang, H., Liu, J., Zhang, X. & Jin, X. (2018). Design of electret polypropylene melt blown air filtration material containing nucleating agent for effective PM2.5 capture. RSC Advences, 8, pp. 7932-7941, DOI: 10.1039/c7ra10916d
  52. Zhang, X., Gao, B., Zheng, Y., Hu, X., Creamer, A.E., Annable, M.D. & Li, Y. (2017). Biochar for volatile organic compound (VOC) removal: Sorption performance and governing mechanisms. Bioresource Technology, 245, pp. 606-614, DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.09.025






DOI: 10.24425/aep.2021.137274

Open Access Policy