Dissociative anaesthesia in dogs and cats with use of tiletamine and zolazepam combination. What we already know about it

Journal title

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences




vol. 24


No 3


Kucharski, P. : Department and Clinic of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Wroclaw University of Environment and Life Sciences, Pl. Grunwaldzki 51, Wrocław 50-336, Poland ; Kiełbowicz, Z. : Department and Clinic of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Wroclaw University of Environment and Life Sciences, Pl. Grunwaldzki 51, Wrocław 50-336, Poland



anaesthesia ; cat ; dissociative anaesthesia ; dog ; tiletamine-zolazepam

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Biologiczne i Rolnicze




Polish Academy of Sciences Committee of Veterinary Sciences ; University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn


Arrioja-Dechert A (1997) Compendium of Veterinary Products 4th ed., North Amer Compendiums Inc.
Artru AA (1991) Intraocular pressure in anaesthetized dogs given flumazenil with and without prior administration of midazolam. Can J Anaesth 38: 408-414.
Caulkett NA Cattet MR, Cantwell S, Cool N, Olsen W (2000) Anesthesia of wood bison with medetomidine-zolazepam/tiletamine and xylazine-zolazepam/tiletamine combinations. Can Vet J 41: 49-53.
Chen G, Ensor CR, Bohner B (1969) The pharmacology of 2-(ethylamino)-2-(2-thienyl)-cyclohexanone· HCl (CI-634). J Pharmacol Exp Ther 168: 171-179.
Chung H, Choi H, Kim E, Jin W, Lee H, Yoo Y (2000) A fatality due to injection of tiletamine and zolazepam. J Anal Toxicol 24: 305-308.
Cording CJ, DeLuca R, Camporese T, Spratt E (1999) A fatality related to the veterinary anesthetic telazol. J Anal Toxicol 23: 552-555.
Corssen G, Miyasaka M, Domino E F (1968) Changing Concepts in Pain Control During Surgery: Dissociative Anesthesia With CI-581 A Progress Report. Anesth Analg 47: 746-758.
Cullen LK, Reynoldson JA (1997) Effects of tiletamine/zolazepam premedication on propofol anaesthesia in dogs. Vet Rec 140: 363-366.
Donaldson LL (1989) Testing low doses of intravenous Telazol in canine practice. Vet. Med. 84: 1202-1207.
Duke-Novakovski T, Vries M de, Seymour C (2016) BSAVA manual of canine and feline anaesthesia and analgesia 3rd ed., BSAVA.
Fenwick SJ, Scarth JP (2011) In vitro metabolism of tiletamine, zolazepam and nonbenzodiazepine sedatives: Identification of target metabo-lites for equine doping control. Drug Test Anal 3: 705-716.
Fieni F (1989) The use of the tiletam¡ne-zolazepam combination by intravenous injection in dog anaesthesia. Vet Rec 4: 148-50.
Fujikawa DG (2019) Starting ketamine for neuroprotection earlier than its current use as an anesthetic/antiepileptic drug late in refractory status epilepticus. Epilepsia 60: 373-380.
Gelatt KN, Gelatt JP, Plummer C (2011). Veterinary ophthalmic surgery 1st ed., Saunders Ltd.
Ghaffari MS, Rezaei MA, Mirani AH., Khorami N (2010) The effects of ketamine-midazolam anesthesia on intraocular pressure in clinically normal dogs. Vet Ophthalmol 13: 91-93.
Giordanetto F, Karis D (2012) Direct AMP-activated protein kinase activators: a review of evidence from the patent literature. Expert Opin Ther Pat 22: 1467-1477.
Guarda IF, Saad WA, de Arruda Camargo LA (2007) Nitric Oxide and Angiotensin II Receptors Mediate the Pressor Effect of Angiotensin II: A Study in Conscious and Zoletil-Anesthetized Rats. Anesth Analg 105: 1293-1297.
Hahnenberger RW (1976) Influence of cataleptoid anaesthetic agents on the intraocular pressure in monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Acta Oph-thalmol (Copenh) 54: 491-499.
Hampton CE, Riebold TW, LeBlanc NL, Scollan KF, Mandsager RE, Sisson DD (2019) Effects of intravenous administration of tileta-mine-zolazepam, alfaxalone, ketamine-diazepam, and propofol for induction of anesthesia on cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables in healthy dogs before and during anesthesia maintained with isoflurane. Am J Vet Res 80: 33-44.
Hasiuk MM, Forde N, Cooke A, Ramey K, Pang DS (2014) A comparison of alfaxalone and propofol on intraocular pressure in healthy dogs. Vet Ophthalmol 17: 411-416.
Hellyer P, Muir WW, Hubbell JA, Sally J (1988). Cardiorespiratory effects of the intravenous administration of tiletamine-zolazepam to cats. Vet Surg 17: 105-110.
Hellyer P, Muir WW III, Hubbell JA, Sally J (1989) Cardiorespiratory Effects of the Intravenous Administration of Tiletamine-Zolazepam to Dogs. Vet Surg 18: 160-165.
Hofmeister EH, Weinstein WL, Burger D, Brainard BM, Accola PJ, Moore PA (2009) Effects of graded doses of propofol for anesthesia induction on cardiovascular parameters and intraocular pressures in normal dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 36: 442-448.
Huang HC, Huang SW, Yu KH, Wang JH, Wu JT (2017) Development of a sedation protocol using orally administered tileta-mine-zolazepam-acepromazine in free-roaming dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 44: 1035-1041.
Ilkiw JE (1992) Other potentially useful new injectable anesthetic agents. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 22: 281-289.
Itoh T, Wakahara S, Nakano T, Suzuki K, Kobayashi K, Inoue O (2005) Effects of anesthesia upon 18F-FDG uptake in rhesus monkey brains. Ann Nucl Med 19: 373-377.
Jang HS, Kwon YS, Lee MG, Jang KH (2004) The Effect of Tiletamine/Zolazepam (Zoletile) Combination with Xylazine or Medetomidine on Electroencephalograms in Dogs. J Vet Med Sci 66: 501-507.
Jang M, Park S, Son W, Jo S, Hwang H, Seo K, Lee I (2015) Effect of tiletamine-zolazepam on the intraocular pressure of the dog. Vet Oph-thalmol 18: 481-484.
Johnson TV, Fan S, Toris CB (2008) Rebound tonometry in conscious, conditioned mice avoids the acute and profound effects of anesthesia on intraocular pressure. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 24: 175-185.
Kim HU, Park CS, Jun MH, Jeong SM, Kim MC (2007) Clinical antagonistic effect of atipamezole in cats anesthetized with tileta-mine-zolazepam and medetomidine. J Vet Clin 24: 104-108.
Klockgether T, Turski L, Schwarz M, Sontag KH, Lehmann J (1988) Paradoxical convulsant action of a novel non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, tiletamine. Brain Res 461: 343-348.
Ko JC, Abbo LA, Weil AB, Johnson BM, Payton M (2007) A comparison of anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of tileta-mine-zolazepam-butorphanol and tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol-medetomidine in cats. Vet Ther 8: 164-176.
Ko JC, Berman AG (2010) Anesthesia in shelter medicine. Top Companion Anim Med 25: 92-97.
Kovalcuka L, Birgele E, Bandere D, Williams DL (2013) The effects of ketamine hydrochloride and diazepam on the intraocular pressure and pupil diameter of the dog’s eye. Vet Ophthalmol 16: 29-34.
Krimins RA, Ko JC, Weil AB, Payton ME (2012) Evaluation of anesthetic, analgesic, and cardiorespiratory effects in dogs after intramuscular administration of dexmedetomidine-butorphanol-tiletamine-zolazepam or dexmedetomidine-tramadol-ketamine drug combinations. Am J Vet Res 73: 1707-1714.
Kumar A, Mann HJ, Remmel RP, Beilman GJ, Kaila N (2014) Pharmacokinetic study in pigs and in vitro metabolic characterization in pig – and human-liver microsomes reveal marked differences in disposition and metabolism of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol). Xenobiotica 44: 379-390.
de Lacerda MS, Sampaio RL, Nunes TC (2010) Hematological and cardio-respiratory study in females dogs anesthetized with ceta-mine-s/xilazine and tiletamine/zolazepam submitted to ovariohysterectomy. Bioscience Journal 26: 913-918.
Lin HC, Thurmon JC, Benson GJ, Tranquilli WJ (1993) Telazol – a review of its pharmacology and use in veterinary medicine. J Vet Phar-macol Ther 16: 383-418.
Lin HC, Thurmon JC, Tranquilli WJ, Benson GJ, Olson WA (1991) Hemodynamic response of calves to tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine anesthesia. Am J Vet Res 52: 1606-1610.
Lu DZ, Jiang S, Yu SM, Fan HG (2014) A Comparison of Anesthetic and Cardiorespiratory Effects of Tiletamine-Zolazepam/Xylazine and Tiletamine-Zolazepam/Xylazine//Tramadol in Dogs. Pak Vet J 34: 63-67.
Lumb WV, Tranquilli WJ, Jones EW, Thurmon JC, Grimm KA (2007) Lumb & Jones’ veterinary anesthesia and analgesia, 4th ed., Blackwell Publishing.
Maddison JE, Page SW, Church DB (2008) Small animal clini- cal pharmacology, 2nd ed., Saunders Ltd.
Marietta MP, Vore ME, Way WL, Trevor AJ (1977) Characte- rization of ketamine induction of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Bio-chem Pharmacol 26: 2451-2453.
Momosaki S, Hatano K, Kawasumi Y, Kato T, Hosoi R, Kobayashi K, Inoue O, Ito K (2004) Rat-PET study without anesthesia: Anesthetics modify the dopamine D1 receptor binding in rat brain. Synapse 54: 207-213.
Mössner LD, Schmitz A, Theurillat R, Thormann W, Mevissen M (2011) Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in ketamine me-tabolism by use of liver microsomes and specific cytochrome P450 enzymes from horses, dogs, and humans. Am J Vet Res 72: 1505-1513.
Nejamkin P, Cavilla V, Clausse M, Landivar F, Lorenzutti AM, Martínez S, Del Sole MJ, Martín-Flores M (2020) Sedative and physiologic effects of tiletamine-zolazepam following buccal administration in cats. J Feline Med Surg 22: 108-113.
Pablo LS, Bailey JE (1999) Etomidate and Telazol. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29: 779-792.
Pattanapon N, Bootcha R, Petchdee S (2018) The effects of anesthetic drug choice on heart rate variability in dogs. J Adv Vet Anim Res 5: 485-489.
Pelissier T, Infante C, Constandil L, Espinosa J, de Lapeyra C, Hernández A (2008) Antinociceptive effect and interaction of uncompetitive and competitive NMDA receptor antagonists upon capsaicin and paw pressure testing in normal and monoarthritic rats. Pain 134: 113-127.
Popik P, Hołuj M, Kos T, Nowak G, Librowski T, Sałat K (2017) Comparison of the Psychopharmacological effects of tiletamine and keta-mine in rodents. Neurotox Res 32: 544-554.
Price TJ, Dussor G (2013) AMPK: An emerging target for modification of injury-induced pain plasticity. Neurosci Lett 557 Pt A: 9-18.
Ramsay EC, Wetzel RW (1998) Comparison of five regimens for oral administration of medication to induce sedation in dogs prior to eutha-nasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213: 240-242.
Saha DC, Saha AC, Malik G, Astiz ME, Rackow EC (2007) Comparison of cardiovascular effects of tiletamine- -zolazepam, pentobarbital, and ketamine-xylazine in male rats. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 46: 74-80.
Savvas I, Plevraki K, Raptopoulos D, Koutinas AF (2005) Blood gas and acid-base status during tiletamine/zolazepam anaesthesia in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 32: 94-100.
Shi XX, Yin BS, Yang P, Chen H, Li X, Su LX, Fan HG, Wang HB (2016) Xylazine Activates Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Pro-tein Kinase Pathway in the Central Nervous System of Rats. PLoS One 11: e0153169.
Short CE (1987) Principles and practice of veterinary anesthesia. 1st ed., Williams and Wilkins.
Short CE (1989) Talking about Telazol, Roundtable. Vet Med 84: 1-8.
Su LX, Shi XX, Yang P, Chen H, Li X, Fan HG, Wang HB (2017) Effects of tiletamine on the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in the rat central nervous system. Res Vet Sci 114: 101-108.
Thurmon JC, Nelson DR, Christie GJ (1972) Ketamine anesthesia in swine. J Am Vet Med Assoc160: 1325-1330.
Thurmon JC, Tranquilli WJ, Benson GJ, Lumb WV (1996) Lumb & Jones’ veterinary anesthesia, 3rd ed., Williams & Wilkins.
Tracy C, Short C, Clark B (1988) Comparing the effects of intravenous and intramuscular administration of Telazol. Vet Med 83: 104-111.
Won HS, Lee JY, Jeong SM, Lee SJ, Park CS, Kim MC (2010) Antagonistic effects of flumazenil on tiletamine-zolazepam induced anesthesia in dogs. J Vet Clin 27: 336-342.
Wong A, Bandiera SM (1996) Inductive effect of Telazol® on hepatic expression of cytochrome P450 2B in rats. Biochem Pharmacol 52: 735-742.
Yanmaz LE, Dogan E, Okur S, Okumus Z, Ersoz U (2016) Comparison of the effects of intranasal and intramuscular administrations of zolazepam-tiletamine combination on intraocular pressure in cats. Vet Ophthalmol 19 (Suppl 1): 115-118.






DOI: 10.24425/pjvs.2021.138738