Morphology analysis and microbial diversity in novel anaerobic baffled reactor treating recycled paper mill wastewater

Journal title

Archives of Environmental Protection




vol. 47


No 4


Zwain, Haider M. : College of Water Resources Engineering, Al-Qasim Green University, 51013 Al-Qasim Province, Babylon, Iraq ; Al-Marzook, Farah A. : College of Medical and Health Technologies, Al-Zahraa University for Women, Karbala 56100, Iraq ; Nile, Basim K. : College of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Karbala 56100, Iraq ; Zuhair, Mohammed Ali Jeddoa : College of Medical and Health Technologies, Al-Zahraa University for Women, Karbala 56100, Iraq ; Atallah, Aqeel H. : College of Medical and Health Technologies, Al-Zahraa University for Women, Karbala 56100, Iraq ; Dahlan, Irvan : School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan,14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia ; Waqed, Hammed Hassan : College of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Karbala 56100, Iraq ; Dahlan, Irvan : Solid Waste Management Cluster, Science and Engineering Research Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia,Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia



anaerobic digestion (AD) ; novel anaerobic baffled reactor (NABR) ; recycled paper mill wastewater (RPMW) ; microbial diversity ; microbial morphology

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne




Polish Academy of Sciences


  1. Araujo, J.C., Téran, F.C., Oliveira, R.A., Nour, E.A.A., Montenegro, M.A.P., Campos, J.R. & Vazoller, R.F. (2003). Comparison of hexamethyldisilazane and critical point drying treatments for SEM analysis of anaerobic biofilms and granular sludge, Journal of Electron Microscopy, 52, 4, pp.429-433. DOI:10.1093/jmicro/52.4.429
  2. Atashpaz, S., Khani, S., Barzegari, A., Barar, J., Vahed, S.Z., Azarbaijani, R. & Omidi, Y. (2010). A robust universal method for extraction of genomic DNA from bacterial species, Microbiology, 79, 4, pp.538-542. PMID:21058509
  3. Ausubel, F., Brent, R., Kingston, R., Moore, D., Seidman, J., Smith, J. & Struhl, K. (2003). Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons.
  4. Bailon-Salas, A.M., Ordaz-Díaz, L.A., Valle-Cervantes, S., López-Miranda, J., Urtiz-Estrada, N., Páez-Lerma, J.B. & Rojas-Contreras, J.A. (2018). Characterization of Culturable Bacteria from Pulp and Paper Industry Wastewater, with the Potential for Degradation of Cellulose, Starch, and Lipids, 13(3), pp.5052-5064.
  5. Banach-Wiśniewska, A., Gamoń, F. & Ziembińska-Buczyńska, A. (2021). DNA vs RNA based studies of nitrogen removal bacteria genes via qPCR, Archives of Environmental Protection, 47, 1, pp.19-25. DOI:10.24425/aep.2021.136444
  6. Chandra, R. (2001). Microbial decolourisation of pulp and paper mill effluent in presence of nitrogen and phosphorus by activated sludge process, Journal of Eenvironmental Biology, 22, 1, pp.23-27. PMID:11480347
  7. Duran, M., Tepe, N., Yurtsever, D., Punzi, V., Bruno, C. & Mehta, R. (2006). Bioaugmenting anaerobic digestion of biosolids with selected strains of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Actinomycetes species for increased methanogenesis and odor control, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 73, 4, pp.960-966. DOI:10.1007/s00253-006-0548-6
  8. Gao, M., Guo, B., Zhang, L., Zhang, Y. & Liu, Y. (2019). Microbial community dynamics in anaerobic digesters treating conventional and vacuum toilet flushed blackwater, Water Research, 160, 249-258. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2019.05.077
  9. Gobi, K. & Vadivelu, V.M. (2015). Polyhydroxyalkanoate recovery and effect of in situ extracellular polymeric substances removal from aerobic granules, Bioresource Technology, 189, 169-176. DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2015.04.023
  10. Hassan, S.R., Zwain, H.M. & Dahlan, I. (2013). Development of Anaerobic Reactor for Industrial Wastewater Treatment: An Overview, Present Stage and Future Prospects, Journal of Advanced Scientific Research, 4, 1, pp.07-12.
  11. Hooda, R., Bhardwaj, N.K. & Singh, P. (2015). Screening and Identification of Ligninolytic Bacteria for the Treatment of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent, Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 226, 9, pp.305. DOI:10.1007/s11270-015-2535-y
  12. Kenzaka, T. & Tani, K. (2012) Scanning Electron Microscopy, IntechOpen.
  13. Kozłowski, K., Dach, J., Lewicki, A., Malińska, K., do Carmo, I.E.P. & Czekała, W. (2019). Potential of biogas production from animal manure in Poland, Archives of Environmental Protection, 45, 3, pp.99-108. DOI:10.24425/aep.2019.128646
  14. Liu, J., Li, D. & Yang, J. (2008). Experimental research on the phase separation of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR), J. Biotechnol, 136, S657.
  15. Mehta, J., Sharma, P. & Yadav, A. (2014). Screening and Identification of Bacterial Strains for Removal of COD from Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent, Advances in Life Sciences and Health, 1, 1, pp.34-42.
  16. Ran, Z., Gefu, Z., Kumar, J.A., Chaoxiang, L., Xu, H. & Lin, L. (2014). Hydrogen and methane production in a bio-electrochemical system assisted anaerobic baffled reactor, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39, 25, pp.13498-13504. DOI:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.02.086
  17. Shah, F.A., Mahmood, Q., Shah, M.M., Pervez, A. & Asad, S.A. (2014). Microbial Ecology of Anaerobic Digesters: The Key Players of Anaerobiosis, The Scientific World Journal, 2014, 21. DOI:10.1155/2014/183752
  18. Sonakya, V., Raizada, N. & Kalia, V. (2001). Microbial and enzymatic improvement of anaerobic digestion of waste biomass, Biotechnology Letters, 23, 18, pp.1463-1466. DOI:10.1023/A:1011664912970
  19. Świątczak, P., Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, A. & Rusanowska, P. (2017). Microbiota of anaerobic digesters in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant, Archives of Environmental Protection, 43, 3, pp. DOI:10.1515/aep-2017-0033
  20. Thompson, G., Swain, J., Kay, M. & Forster, C.F. (2001). The treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent: a review, Bioresource Technology, 77, 3, pp.275-286. DOI:10.1016/S0960-8524(00)00060-2
  21. Tiku, D.K., Kumar, A., Chaturvedi, R., Makhijani, S.D., Manoharan, A. & Kumar, R. (2010). Holistic bioremediation of pulp mill effluents using autochthonous bacteria, International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 64, 3, pp.173-183. DOI:10.1016/j.ibiod.2010.01.001
  22. Tsavkelova, E., Prokudina, L., Egorova, M., Leontieva, M., Malakhova, D. & Netrusov, A. (2018). The structure of the anaerobic thermophilic microbial community for the bioconversion of the cellulose-containing substrates into biogas, Process Biochemistry, 66, pp. 183-196. DOI:10.1016/j.procbio.2017.12.006
  23. U.S. National Library of Medicine (2021). National Center for Biotechnology Information, ( (16.6.2021)).
  24. Yu, Y., Lu, X. & Wu, Y. (2014). Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Filter Reactor in the Treatment of Algae-Laden Water and the Contribution of Granular Sludge, Water, 6, 1, pp.122-138. DOI:10.3390/w6010122
  25. Zainith, S., Purchase, D., Saratale, G.D., Ferreira, L.F.R., Bilal, M. & Bharagava, R.N. (2019). Isolation and characterization of lignin-degrading bacterium Bacillus aryabhattai from pulp and paper mill wastewater and evaluation of its lignin-degrading potential, 3 Biotech, 9, 92. DOI:10.1007/s13205-019-1631-x
  26. Zwain, H.M., Aziz, H.A. & Dahlan, I. (2016a). Effect of inoculum source and effluent recycle on the start-up performance of a modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor treating recycled paper mill effluent, Desalination and Water Treatment, 57, 45, pp.21350-21363. DOI:10.1080/19443994.2015.1119758
  27. Zwain, H.M., Aziz, H.A. & Dahlan, I. (2018). Performance of modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor treating recycled paper mill effluent: effects of influent chemical oxygen demand concentration and hydraulic retention time, Environmental Technology, 39, 12, pp.1557-1565. DOI:10.1080/09593330.2017.1332692.
  28. Zwain, H.M., Aziz, H.A., Ng, W.J. & Dahlan, I. (2017). Performance and microbial community analysis in a modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor treating recycled paper mill effluent, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24, 14, pp.13012–13024. DOI:10.1007/s11356-017-8804-0
  29. Zwain, H.M., Aziz, H.A., Zaman, N.Q. & Dahlan, I. (2016b). Effect of inoculum to substrate ratio on the performance of modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor treating recycled paper mill effluent, Desalination and Water Treatment, 57, 22, pp.10169-10180. DOI:10.1080/19443994.2015.1033761
  30. Zwain, H.M., Hassan, S.R., Zaman, N.Q., Aziz, H.A. & Dahlan, I. (2013). The start-up performance of modified anaerobic baffled reactor (MABR) for the treatment of recycled paper mill wastewater, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 1, 1–2, pp.61-64. DOI:10.1016/j.jece.2013.03.007
  31. Zwain, H.M., Naje, A.S., Vakili, M. & Dahlan, I. (2021). Temperature analysis of a novel MAIB reactor during the treatment of wastewater from recycled paper mill, Water Practice and Technology, 16 (2): pp. 592–604. DOI:10.2166/wpt.2021.023






DOI: 10.24425/aep.2021.139498

Abstracting & Indexing

Abstracting & Indexing

Archives of Environmental Protection is covered by the following services:

AGRICOLA (National Agricultural Library)




BIOSIS Citation Index





Engineering Village


Google Scholar

Index Copernicus

Journal Citation Reports™

Journal TOCs






Ulrich's Periodicals Directory


Web of Science