Sorption properties of a modified powdered cocoa beverage

Journal title

Chemical and Process Engineering




No 1 March



cocoa ; powder ; water activity ; isotherms

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne




Polish Academy of Sciences Committee of Chemical and Process Engineering




Artykuły / Articles


DOI: 10.2478/v10176-011-0002-x ; ISSN 0208-6425


Chemical and Process Engineering; 2011; No 1 March; 21-31


Bocka T. (2001), Experience with the Diosna mini-granulator and assessment of process scalability, Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm, 52, 297, ; Brunauer S. (1938), Adsorption of gases in multilayers, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 60, 309, ; Domian E. (2002), Aglomeracja w przemyśle spożywczym, Przem. Spoż, 8, 80. ; Domian E. (2005), Właściwości fizyczne modelowej żywności w proszku w aspekcie metody aglomeracji, Żywn. Nauka. Technol. Jakość, 4, 45, 87. ; Domian E. (2000), Adsorpcja pary wodnej przez żywność w proszku, Żywn. Nauka. Technol. Jakość, 4, 25, 27. ; Dyrektywa 2000/36/WE Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady z dnia 23 czerwca 2000 r. odnosząca się do wyrobów kakaowych i czekoladowych przeznaczonych do spożycia przez ludzi. <i>Dz.U. L 197 z 3.8.2000: 19.</i> ; Faure A. (2001), Process control and scale-up of pharmaceutical wet granulation processes: a review, Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm, 52, 269, ; Fennema O. (1996), Water Management in the Design and Distribution of Quality Foods. ISOPOW 7, 3, ; Gabas A. (2007), Effect of maltodextrin and arabic gum in water vapor sorption on thermodynamic properties of vacuum dried pineapple pulp powder, J. Food Eng, 82, 246, ; Gondek E. (2009), Water vapor sorption isotherms of apple powder obtained by drying foam, Acta Agrophys, 13, 3, 639. ; Gondek E. (2005), Water vapor sorption isotherms of dried and candied fruits, Acta Sci. Pol., Technol. Alimentaria, 4, 1, 63. ; Janowicz M. (2007), Adsorpcja Pary Wodnej Przez Ciastka Biszkoptowe Wielowarstwowe, Inż. Rol, 5, 93, 205. ; Kowalska J. (2002a), Izotermy sorpcji pary wodnej przez powleczony napój kakaowy w proszku, Zeszyty Problemowe Postępów Nauk Rolniczych, 486, 56. ; Kowalska J. (2002b), Wpływ aglomeracji i powlekania na kinetykę sorpcji pary wodnej przez napój kakaowy w proszku, Inż. Rol, 4, 37, 72. ; Kowalska J. (2003), Wpływ aglomeracji na właściwości sorpcyjne wieloskładnikowej żywności w proszku, Problemy Inż. Rol, 3, 97. ; Kowalska J. (2005), The influence of ingredients distribution on properties of agglomerated cocoa products, J. Food Eng, 68, 155, ; Kowalska J. (2009), Wpływ aglomeracji na stabilność kwasu L-askorbinowego w przechowywanym kakao instant, Inż. Aparat. Chem, 48, 40, 29, ; Kunachowicz H. (1998), Tabele wartości odżywczej produktów spożywczych, National Food and Nutrition Institute, Prace IŻŻ, 85, 580. ; Ostrowska-Ligęza E. (2008), Wpływ aktywności wody i naprężenia ściskającego na odkształcenie wybranych składników napoju kakaowego w proszku, Acta Agrophys, 11, 2, 475. ; Pałacha Z., 2007. <i>Badanie stanu wody w matrycy modelowej i uzyskanej z jabłek z wykorzystaniem metody opartej na izotermach sorpcji oraz kalorymetrycznej.</i> D.Sc. Thesis (Rozprawa habilitacyjna), Wydawnictwo SGGW, Warszawa. ; Pietsch W. (2003), An interdisciplinary approach to size enlargement by agglomeration, Powder Technol, 130, 8, ; PN-A-74859:1994 <i>Wyroby cukiernicze - Pakowanie, przechowywanie i transport.</i> ; Rambali B. (2001), Using experimental design to optimize the process parameters in fluidized bed granulation on semi - full scale, Intern. J. Pharm, 220, 149, ; Schubert H. (2003), Product engineering of dispersed systems, Trends Food Sci. Technol, 14, 9, ; Seville J. (2000), Interparticle forces in fluidization, Powder Technol, 113, 261, ; Sinija V. (2008), Moisture sorption isotherms and heat of sorption of instant (soluble) green tea powder and green tea granules, J. Food Eng, 86, 494, ; C. van den Berg (1985), Properties of Water in Food, 119,

Editorial Board

Editorial Board

Ali Mesbach, UC Berkeley, USA

Anna Gancarczyk, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland

Anna Trusek, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland

Bettina Muster-Slawitsch, AAE Intec, Austria

Daria Camilla Boffito, Polytechnique Montreal, Canada

Donata Konopacka-Łyskawa, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland

Dorota Antos, Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland

Evgeny Rebrov, University of Warwick, UK

Georgios Stefanidis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece

Ireneusz Grubecki, Bydgoszcz Univeristy of Science and Technology, Poland

Johan Tinge, Fibrant B.V., The Netherlands

Katarzyna Bizon, Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Katarzyna Szymańska, Silesian University of Technology, Poland

Marcin Bizukojć, Łódź University of Technology, Poland

Marek Ochowiak, Poznań University of Technology, Poland

Mirko Skiborowski, Hamburg University of Technology, Germany

Nikola Nikacevic, University of Belgrade, Serbia

Rafał Rakoczy, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Poland

Richard Lakerveld, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong

Tom van Gerven, KU Leuven, Belgium

Tomasz Sosnowski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Publication Ethics Policy


Editors of the "Chemical and Process Engineering" pay attention to maintain ethical standards in scientific publications and undertake any possible measure to counteract neglecting the standards. Papers submitted for publication are evaluated with respect to reliability, conforming to ethical standards and the advancement of science. Principles given below are based on COPE's Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors, which may be found at:

Authors’ duties

Authorship should be limited to persons, who markedly contributed to the idea, project, realization and interpretation of results. All of them have to be listed as co-authors. Other persons, who affected some important parts of the study should be listed or mentioned as co-workers. Author should be certain that all co-authors were enlisted, saw and accepted final version of the paper and agreed upon its publication.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Author should disclose all sources of financing of his/her study, the input of scientific institutions, associations and other subjects and all important conflicts of interests that might affect results and interpretation of the study.

Standards in reporting
Authors of papers based on original studies should present precise description of performed work and objective discussion on its importance. Source data should be accurately presented in the paper. The paper should contain detailed information and references that would enable others to use it. False or intentionally not true declarations are not ethical and are not accepted by the editors.

Access to and storage of data
Authors may be asked for providing raw data used in the paper for editorial assessment and should be prepared to store them within the reasonable time period after publication.

Multiple, unnecessary and competitive publications
As a rule author should not publish papers describing the same studies in more than one journal or primary publication. Submission of the same paper to more than one journal at the same time is not ethical and prohibited.

Confirmation of sources
Author should cite papers that affected the creation of submitted manuscript and every time he/she should confirm the use of other authors’ work.

Important errors in published papers
When author finds an important error or inaccuracy in his/her paper, he/she is obliged to inform Editorial Office about this as soon as possible.

Originality and plagiarism
Author may submit only original papers. He/she should be certain that the names of authors referred to in the paper and/or fragments of their texts are properly cited or mentioned.

Ghost writing/guest authorship are manifestation of scientific unreliability and all such cases will be revealed including notification of appropriate subjects. Signs of scientific unreliability, especially violation of ethical principles in science will be documented by the Editorial Office.

Duties of the Editorial Office

Editors’ duties
Editors know the rules of journal editing including the procedures applied in case of uncovering non-ethical practices.

Decisions on publication
Editor-in Chief is obliged to apply present legal status as to defamation, violation of author’s rights and plagiarism and bears the responsibility for decisions. He/she may consult thematic editors and/or referees in that matter.

Selection of referees
Editorial Office provides appropriate selection of referees and takes care about appropriate course of peer –reviewing (the review has to be substantive).

Every member of editorial team is not allowed to disclose information about submitted paper to any person except its author, referees, other advisors and editors.

To counteract discrimination the Editorial Office obeys the legally binding rules.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Not published papers or their fragments cannot be used in the studies of editorial team or ref-erees without written consent of the author.

Referees' duties

Editorial decisions

Referee supports Editor-in-Chief in taking editorial decisions and may also support author in improving the paper.

Back information
In case a selected referee is not able to review the paper or cannot do it in due time period, he/she should inform secretary of the Editorial Office about this fact.

Objectivity standards
Reviews should be objective. Personal criticism is inappropriate. Referees should clearly ex-press their opinions and support them with proper arguments.

All reviewed papers should be dealt with as confidential. They should not be discussed or revealed to persons other than the secretary of the Editorial Office.

All reviews should be made anonymously and the Editorial Office does not disclose names of the authors to referees.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Confidential information or ideas resulting from reviewing procedure should be kept secret and should not be used to gain personal benefits. Referees should not review papers, which might generate conflict of interests resulting from relationships with the author, firm or institution involved in the study.

Confirmation of sources
Referees should indicate publications which are not referred to in the paper. Any statement that the observation, source or argument was described previously should be supported by appropriate citation. Referee should also inform the secretary of the Editorial Office about significant similarity to or partial overlapping of the reviewed paper with any other published paper and about suspected plagiarism.