Humanities and Social Sciences

Ekonomista

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Ekonomista | 2020 | No 1 |

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Abstract

The article contains considerations on the historical evolution of globalization in the context of the rivalry between two basic concepts of economic system: pro-state option and pro-market option. The author assumes that globalization is a permanent feature of human aspirations. In the beginning of modern era it was interlocked with the alternating dominance of pro-market and pro-state tendencies, and it continues to appear in the same form until present times. The liberal economic thought has expressed these opposition in the state versus market formula. Over the last five centuries there have been five stages of alternating dominance of pro-market and pro-state forces, connected with globalization. First was the mercantilism with the significant role of state, and its antithesis was the XIX-century free-competition capitalism. Two last stages – the neo-liberalism dating from 1980 to 2008 and its antithesis from 2009 to 2019 – have been presented in detail. The previous stages are shown only as historical background. The analysis is preceded by the outline of a theoretical model of globalization connected with the alternating dominance of pro-state and pro-market tendencies, which can be seen as value added to the legacy of economic thought devoted to the relationship between market and state.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zbigniew Madej
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Abstract

The article includes considerations and author’s proposals concerning the regional dimension of social policy. This aspect of social policy has not been investigated widely so far. The scope of regionalism and its forms are linked with the dominant social doctrine in a given country. They reflected in the ratio of territorial self-governments’ own incomes against those of the state budget, and in the institutional freedom they have in the area of benefit structuring, that is in decentralization. In the case of Poland, the political changes connected with the doctrinal ones hamper the development of regional social policy. This may have a negative impact on the coordination and implementation of social policy actions undertaken on different government levels and on the adjustment of social benefits to the needs of a region’s residents.

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Authors and Affiliations

Józef Orczyk
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Abstract

Present study examines nonfinancial support granted for older people in Poland and other European countries in order to understand the relationships between family structures and that support and to diagnose the challenges that the Polish population may face in this respect in the nearest future. The analysis is based on the data from the Survey on Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The study attempts also to answer the question about the need for informal support in future generations of older Poles. The study is focused on the population of individuals aged at least 50+, because they will decide about the situation of older people in the near future. The author considers, in addition to personal care, help in running a household and help with paper work. The most frequently received type of support is the help in running a household, received primarily from neighbors and family members, which reduces the need for institutional care. Personal care is provided to the minority of the examined population, even in the highest age group, and, apart from household members, it concerns usually biological children.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Nicińska
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Abstract

Poland’s economy is closely connected with European markets, particularly within the European Union: almost 90% of Polish commodity export goes to European countries and 80% is absorbed by other EU countries. The common European market is absorptive, safe and stabile, and goods and services sold there are duty free. But the high concentration of exports in this market implies a strong dependence on the modest growth dynamics and local fluctuations of demand, while reducing the gains that could be obtained from the presence in emerging markets which include several large and rapidly growing developing economies. The paper gives a general characteristics of those markets, including the information on their economic and population potential, and their place in the world economy – at present and in the future (according to current statistical data and long-run forecasts). The statistics of Polish foreign trade indicates a very small share of emerging countries in the geographical structure of Poland’s exports. The author describes the chances and threats combined with export expansion to these markets, emphasizing that the net balance of benefits and risks is clearly positive, which should encourage Polish enterprises to take a more active part in trade and cooperation with those countries and regions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Rubaj
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Abstract

This study examines the impact of monetary policy on economic growth in Ukraine between 2006 and 2019. After the stationarity and co-integration tests, a vector- autoregressive model (VAM) was used to estimate the impact of monetary factors on economic growth in Ukraine. The research results show that GDP changes are largely explained by its own earlier dynamics, but in the long-run real GDP quite strongly depends on the money supply, exchange rate against euro, and basic interest rate. At the same time GDP is weakly dependent on the exchange rate against US dollar, CPI and PPI, the volume of loans to business and external debt. The authors explain their findings and compare them with several other empirical studies on the subject concerning some other countries.

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Authors and Affiliations

Vitalii Bondarchuk
Alina Raboshuk
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Abstract

The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility is now much better recognized and more widely discussed in Poland than before. The year 2018 was legislatively the first year in which, according to the directive of the European Union, large and medium- sized enterprises became obliged to report their CSR strategies or to explain the reasons of non-compliance. The article, referring to the existing literature on the subject and ongoing discussion, looks for the possibility of such cultural involvement of enterprises which would be an integral part of their social responsibility.

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Authors and Affiliations

Maria Magdalena Jagielska
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Abstract

The article presents scientific achievements of Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize Laureates in economic sciences in 2019: Esther Duflo, Abhijit Banerjee, and Michael Kremer. The paper describes their contribution to the research on the sources of poverty in the world and the ways of alleviating it, and their contribution to the development of experimental research in social sciences using randomized control trials (RCT). In this context, the authors explain the reasons for growing popularity of this approach in development economics and discuss its strengths and weaknesses.

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Authors and Affiliations

Dominik Buttler
Jan Szambelańczyk

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