Applied sciences

Geodesy and Cartography

Content

Geodesy and Cartography | 2020 | vol. 69 | No 1 |

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Abstract

The suitability of a land plot in a real estate market could be identified as a good investment because the land plot is deemed as popular. This activity is important for economic growth, who is one of the sustainable development goals. Mostly, all research in this field is focused on sustainability as well as the opinions of professionals. However, this field should be explored from another side which is based on real geodata. Criteria and its weight are very important in decision support systems. The correct criteria can help in selection of the best real estate object for an investment, but it is not only useful but also and a challenging task that has not yet been solved. The methods of research are data graphical analysis, correlation, decision supporting systems, etc. The research aims at determining the significance of the connections and using them as the criteria in the selected decision supporting method. In addition, it will be determined which decision supporting method defines the most suitable object for investment. These new criteria are proposed for operation in the land use models. Furthermore, it has been identified as one criterion, which is significant in the urban and agrarian territories. Also it turned out, that the land plot is the most active when it is as far from a densely built-up residential territory as possible and as close to a school, and when the land plot is as large as possible.

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Authors and Affiliations

Rimvydas Gaudesius
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Abstract

Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission data is widely used in various fields of science. GRACE explored changes of the gravity field regularly from April 2002 to June 2017. In the following research, we examine variance of signal contained in two different formats of GRACE data: standard spherical harmonics and mass concentration blocks (so-called “mascons”) solutions, both provided in the most recent releases. For spherical harmonics-based solution, we use monthly gravity field solutions provided up to degree and order (d/o) 96 by three different computing centers, i.e. the NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Center for Space Research (CSR). For the mass concentration blocks, we use values of total water storage provided by the CSR, JPL and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) computing centers, which we convert to spherical harmonic coefficients up to d/o 96. We show that using the anisotropic DDK3 filter to smooth the north-south stripes present in total wate storage obtained from standard spherical harmonics solution leaves more information than common isotropic Gaussian filter. In the case of mascons, GSFC solution contains much more information than the CSR and JPL releases, relevant for corresponding d/o. Differences in variance of signal arise from different background models as well as various shape and size of mascons used during processing of GRACE observations.

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Authors and Affiliations

Artur Lenczuk
Grzegorz Leszczuk
Anna Klos
Janusz Bogusz
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Abstract

In order to ensure the territorial development of land use in the region, there is a need to change the trajectory of spatial and urban planning factors. The ways for implementation of the proposed system measures are defined in the article. For investment and environmental indicators, the integrated indicator of territorial development of land use in the region, depending on their change, is predicted. The article presents the results of forecasting the integrated indicator of land use territorial development in the region based on the growth of systemic investment factors and the results of forecasting the integrated indicator of land use territorial development based on the growth of systemic environmental factors. Practical scientific-based recommendations for ensuring the territorial development of land use in the region by applying the results of its integrated assessment and modeling are proposed. Developed recommendations made it possible to form directions and build the basis for ensuring the territorial development of land use in the region. The development of methodological recommendations for ensuring the territorial development of land use in the region is based on the results of the study of the influence of systematic spatial, urban, investment, and environmental factors on the integrated indicator of land use territorial development.

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Authors and Affiliations

Kostiantyn Mamonov
Elena Kondrashenko
Yuliia Radzinskaya
Maria Myronenko
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Abstract

The transformation processes that occur in the technical, informational, and economic spheres of the regions require the development of new conceptual approaches to the development of a full-fledged land use system based on an analysis of the problems of using underground real estate. Determination of the features of land use of underground real estate is based on a quantitative basis, which is built on a systematic, integrated approach. Indicators that determine the condition and use of underground real estate are of particular importance for the development of the approach. A method of estimating a generalized indicator of the use of underground real estate in the system of land use of regions based on an integrated approach, which includes the method of expert assessments by applying qualitative indicators characterizing the status and level of use of underground real estate, considering urban, spatial, investment and innovation legal and safety features is developed. The assessment results of the integrated indicator of underground real estate land use, as well as the results of the assessment by region, showed a low level of use of underground real estate in the land use system of the regions. It is determined that most of the lands in the regions have low levels of underground real estate use. Besides, there is a need to increase the use of underground real estate by developing appropriate methodological recommendations.

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Authors and Affiliations

Kostiantyn Meteshkin
Volodymyr Shipulin
Serhii Nesterenko
Serhii Kobzan
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Abstract

When conducting geodetic and gravimetric measurements, there is a problem of projecting them to the reference surface. Since the gravitational field is inhomogeneous under the real conditions, the problem arises of determining the corrections to the measured values of gravitational acceleration in order to use the obtained data for the subsequent solutions of projection problems. Currently, the solution to this problem is performed using a Bouguer reduction, which requires information about the internal structure of the upper layer of the earth’s surface, topography, etc. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodological approach that would allow to determine the reduction (projection) corrections for gravitational acceleration on technogenic and geodynamic polygons without using data about the distribution of surface layer density and topography. The research process is based on the use of mathematical analysis methods and a wide range of experimental geodetic and gravimetric measurements. In the course of the performed researches, an algorithm was obtained and a practical implementation of the determination of the corrections in the measured values of gravitational acceleration on the basis of geodetic and gravimetric measurements was carried out at the certain geodynamic polygon in order to bring all corrections to one level surface.

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Authors and Affiliations

Lev Perovych
Igor Perovych
Valeriy Gorlachuk
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Abstract

On 16 July 2019, another significant amendment to the provisions of the Act on the transformation of the right of perpetual usufruct to land built-up for residential purposes into the ownership title to that land was introduced. The purpose of this research paper is to analyse the influence of the amendments to the regulations on the scope of the real properties subject to the transformation of perpetual usufruct into ownership, to identify the problems and to assess the status of the implementation of the transformation process in practice. The conducted research has resulted in the presentation of the structure of land on the example of a selected city, in particular with reference to real estate let into perpetual usufruct for residential purposes. The author has also determined the status of the implementation of the transformation process in practice as well as the problems hindering the issuance of certificates for all transformed properties within the statutory period. The progress of the transformation process in a given area depends, inter alia, on the scope of real properties subject to this transformation, the requirement to perform additional analyses, including those regarding non-compliance of the legal and factual state of the property, and the assessment of the existence of public aid and related payments. This study is a continuation of the earlier research, extended by the effects of the regulations introduced in July 2019, as well as by the assessment of the progress in the transformation process in practice.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Trembecka
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Abstract

This article applies radar interferometry technologies implemented in the ENVI SARscape and SNAP software environment provided by the processing of data from the Sentinel-1 satellite. The study was carried out based on six radar images of Sentinel-1A and Sentinel -1B taken from September 2017 until February 2018 with an interval of one month and on the radar-module of the already mentioned SNAP software. The main input data for solving the considered problem are radar images received from the satellite Sentinel-1B on the territory of Stebnyk-Truskavets for six months with an interval of one month. Monitoring of the Earth’s surface using radar data of the Sentinel-1A with a synthesized aperture is implemented with the application of interferometric methods of Persistent Scatterers and Small baselines interferometry for estimating small displacements of the Earth’s surface and structures. The obtained quantitative and qualitative indicators of monitoring do not answer the processes that take place and lead to vertical displacements the six months but do provide an opportunity to assess the extent and trends of their development. The specification in each case can be accomplished by ground methods, which greatly simplify the search for sites with critical parameters of vertical displacements which can have negative consequences and lead to an emergency.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ihor Trevoho
Borys Chetverikov
Lubov Babiy
Mariia Malanchuk
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Abstract

Renewable energy from solar power plants is becoming more and more popular due to the depletion of raw materials and reduction of dependence on oil and gas and is also harmless to the natural environment. The management and rational use of land resources is currently a pressing problem in the world, including in Ukraine. One of the solutions is the development of technologies for the use of these areas and the establishment of environmentally friendly technologies for reducing air pollution, namely electricity facilities – solar power plants based on the use of photovoltaic panels. Choosing the right location for obtaining solar energy depends on many factors and constraints. Optimal location of solar farms is important to maximize the beneficial features of projects while minimizing the negative. A method of finding places in the vicinity of large cities that could be suitable for installing power plants was developed. The proposed method uses an analytical hierarchical process, analytical network process, Boolean logic and weighted linear combination. It has been implemented in the QGIS program. The method was successfully used for the city of Zaporizhia, but it can be directly implemented in any other region. That is why the presented works constitute a scheme that can be easily used to estimate large areas in order to optimally choose a place for a solar park in the vicinity of large cities. Such a model can be very useful for investors to find potential locations for solar energy before conducting detailed field research.

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Authors and Affiliations

Liubov Yankiv-Vitkovska
Bohdan Peresunko
Ireneusz Wyczałek
Joanna Papis
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Abstract

Water is the main source of daily life for everyone and everywhere in the world. Sufficient water distribution depends on the place and design of water tank in certain areas. Water storage tanks are relatively flexible structures and they can tolerate greater settlements than other engineering structures. Deformation of tanks may cause severe damages to tank or even loss of life and injury to people, so monitoring the structural deformation and dynamic response of water tank and its supporting system to the large variety of external loadings has a great importance for maintaining tank safety and economical design of manmade structures. This paper presents an accurate geodetic observations technique to investigate the inclination of an elevated circular water tank and the deformation of its supporting structural system (supporting columns and circular horizontal beams) using reflector-less total station. The studied water tank was designed to deliver water to around 55000 person and has a storage capacity about 750 m3. Due to the studied water tank age, a non-uniform settlement of tank foundation and movement of pumps and electric machines under tank’s body will cause stress and strain for tanks membrane and settlement of sediments. So the studied water tank can tend to experience movement vertically, horizontally or both. Three epochs of observations were done (July 2014, September 2014 and December 2014). The results of the practical measurements, calculations and analysis of the interesting deformation of the studied elevated tanks and its supporting system using least squares theory and computer programs are presented. As a results of monitoring the water storage tank, circular reinforced concrete beams and columns at three monitoring epochs. The body of water storage tank has an inclination to the east direction and the value of inclination is increased with the time.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zaki Zeidan
Ashraf A.A. Beshr
Sara Sameh

Editorial office

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF:

ELŻBIETA BIELECKA

Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

e-mail: elzbieta.bielecka@wat.edu.pl

DEPUTY EDITOR-IN CHIEF:

ANNA KŁOS

Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

e-mail: anna.klos@wat.edu.pl

THEMATIC EDITORS

Geodesy

KRZYSZTOF SOŚNICA

Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland

Geodynamics

JANUSZ BOGUSZ

Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Photogrametry and Remote Sensing

PIOTR SAWICKI

University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland

Cartography and GIS

DARIUSZ DUKACZEWSKI

Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw, Poland

Cadastre

RYSZARD ŹRÓBEK

University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland

Statistical Editor

PAWEŁ KAMIŃSKI

Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Technical Editor

BEATA CAŁKA

Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Language Editor

PETER HALLS

York University, UK

SCIENTIFIC EDITORIAL BOARD

JOSEF ADAM, University of Technology and Economics, Hungary

TEMENOUJKA BANDROVA, University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy, Bulgaria

MYRIAM SOUSANA BARRERA LOBATON, National University of Colombia, Colombia

ALEKSANDRA BUJAKIEWICZ, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland

ADAM CHRZANOWSKI, University of New Brunswick, Canada

ALGIMANTAS ČESNULEVIČIUS, Vilnius State University, Lithuania

DEMETRIOU DEMETRIS, District Land Consolidation Officer of Larnaca and Famagusta, Cyprus

DOROTA GREJNER-BRZEZIŃSKA, Ohio State University, USA

MANUEL HERNANDEZ-PAJARES, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain

SHUANGGEN JIN, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

AMIR KHODABANDEH, Curtin University of Technology, Australia

JAN KRYNSKI, Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Poland

BOFENG LI, Tongji University, China

XINGXING LI, Wuhan University, China

JAAKKO MAKINEN, Finnish Geodetic Institute, Finland

BEATA MEDYNSKA-GULIJ, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland

HELMUT MORITZ, Graz University of Technology, Austria

PAVEL NOVAK, University of Western Bohemia, Czech Republic

EDWARD OSADA, University of Lower Silesia, Poland

VOJTECH PALINKAS, Geodetic Observatory Pecný, Czech Republic

JERZY ROGOWSKI, Gdynia Maritime University, Poland

HEINZ RUTHER, University of Cape Town, RSA

MARCELO SANTOS, University of New Brunswick, Canada

JÜRGEN SCHWEIKART, Beuth University of Applied Sciences Berlin, Germany

MONIKA SESTER, Universität Hannover, Germany

MICHAEL SIDERIS, University of Calgary, Canada

GABRIEL STRYKOWSKI, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark

ZBIGNIEW WISNIEWSKI, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland

KEFEI ZHANG, RMIT University, Australia

JAROSLAW S. YATSKIV, Main Astronomical Observatory, Ukraine

Contact

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Elzbieta Bielecka

Military University of Technology

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy

2 Witolda Urbanowicza St (building 53)

00-908 Warsaw, Poland

tel.: +48 261-83-70-96

e-mail: elzbieta.bielecka@wat.edu.pl

DEPUTY EDITOR-IN CHIEF

Anna Kłos

Military University of Technology

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy

2 Witolda Urbanowicza St (building 53)

00-908 Warsaw, Poland

e-mail: anna.klos@wat.edu.pl

Instructions for authors

The Geodesy and Cartography accepts a wide range of papers including original research papers, original short communication papers, review articles, symposium pieces and book reviews. Details of submission are provided below. Please, note, that at the submission stage, the author(s) ensure(s) that the submitted work will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright owners. All co-authors also agree on the publication ethics statement.

For all parties involved in the act of publishing (the author, the journal editor(s), the peer reviewer and the publisher) it is necessary to agree upon standards of expected ethical behaviour. The ethics statements for GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY are based on the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors (https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines ).

TYPES OF MANUSCRIPTS

Original Research papers:

Research papers can have 6000 words in length, although longer articles will be accepted on an occasional basis if the topic demands this length of treatment.

Original Short communication papers:

Short communication papers can have 2500 words as a maximum and contain at most 1 table and 3 figures. Such a note is technical and well-focused, for example illustrating a new technique, describing a well worked-out case study or a specific new algorithm.

Original research and short communications papers should contain the following sections: Abstract (max. of 250 words), Introduction, Data used and methods applied, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments, References

Review article:

The journal also considers short reviews (not exceeding 12 pages in print) intended to debate recent advances in rapidly developing fields that are within its scope. Such articles may have ample references. Reviews should contain the following sections: Abstract (max. of 250 words), Introduction, Topics (with headings and subheadings), Conclusions and Outlook, Acknowledgments, References

Symposium pieces:

Symposium pieces describe a research symposium or seminar and present the topic covered in the form of a news brief, opinion piece, or mini-review. A news brief summarizes a few talks on the same general topic or issues at a given symposium. This can include a summary of the discussion that followed the symposium or the significance of the talks at a large symposia to a particular field. It is important to indicate the main point of the symposium.

An opinion piece discusses the personal perspectives after a given symposium, including an analysis of the symposium and how this affected the author.

A mini-review can be based on a theme from a given symposium. This may require the author(s) to review articles written by a speaker at that symposium.

These articles should be no more than 3,000 words. All symposium pieces should include the following sections:Abstract (max. of 250 words), Introduction, Topics (with headings and subheadings) [specifically required for a mini-review], Conclusions and Outlook, References

Book reviews:

The journal publishes reviews for books falling within its aims and scope. A book review consists of maximum 250 words. It should clearly identify the book's contents, the addition to current books and literature and a recommendation by the reviewer. All book reviews should be clearly identified as such and will be handled by the journal's book review editor.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS

The author(s) guarantee(s) that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright owners, that the rights of the third parties will not be violated, and that the publisher will not held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.

Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.

ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF AUTHORS

Submission of the manuscript implies: that the work has not been published before (except in form of an abstract or as a part of a published lecture, review or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.

In case the manuscript has more than one author its submission should include the list specifying contribution of each author to the manuscript with indicating who is the author of the concept, assumptions, research methodology, data processing. Major responsibility is on the corresponding author.

The Editor will counteract in GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY against Ghostwriting, i.e. when someone substantially contributed to the preparation of the manuscript but has neither been included to the list of authors nor his role is mentioned in the acknowledgements as well as Ghost authorship, i.e. when the author/co-author did not contribute to the manuscript or his contribution is negligible. Any detected case of Ghostwriting and Ghost authorship will be exposed and the appropriate subjects, i.e. employers, scientific organisations, associations of editors etc, will be informed.

MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION

The manuscripts are submitted online https://www.editorialsystem.com/geocart/and should be submitted in Word. Please, do not exceed the number of words intended to a specific submission. Please, count the number of words before submitting, with abstract, acknowledgements and references excluded.

Names of authors and their affiliation should be removed from the manuscripts for the review process in order to have a fair evaluation of their manuscript. All authors of the manuscript are responsible for its content; they must have agreed to its publication and have given the corresponding author the authority to act on their behalf in all matters pertaining to publication. The Corresponding Author is responsible for informing the coauthors of the manuscript status throughout the submission, review, and production process. The editorial system requires: the name(s) of the author(s), the name(s) and address(es) of the affiliation(s) of the author(s), the e-mail address of the corresponding author, the 16-digit ORCID number of the author(s). The corresponding author is required to provide his/her ORCID number. ORCID numbers of co-authors are not necessary, but advised.

Manuscript preparation

Manuscripts should be typed in single-line spacing throughout on the A4 sheet with 2.5 cm margins. Use plain 11-point Times Roman font for text, italics for textual emphasis, bold for mathematical vectors.

1. Abstract: The paper must be preceded by a sufficiently informative abstract presenting the most important results and conclusions. It should not be longer than 250 words and should not contain any unexplained abbreviations and unspecified references.

2. Keywords: Three to five keywords should be supplied. These are used for indexing purposes.

3. Introduction: It should explicitly state the purpose of the investigation and give a short review of the pertinent literature.

4. Main text: It should include all methods and input data (working details must be given concisely; well-known operations should not be described in details); results presented in tabular or graph form, with appropriate statistical evaluation, discussion of results - statement of conclusions drawn from the work and conclusions.

5. Acknowledgements: Please, include all institutions, names or numbers of grants that require acknowledgement. The names of funding organizations or institutions providing data should be given in full. This information is mandatory for all submitted. papers

6. References: The list of references should be prepared in alphabetical order and should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications could only be mentioned in the text. References in the text, should be cited by author(s) last name and year: e.g. (Beutler, 2003a), (Featherstone and Kirby, 2000), (Schwarz et al., 1990), (Sjöberg et al., 2000; Strykowski, 2001b; 2002). The details on the reference list preparation is provided below.

7. Formulae and symbols: They must be written legibly and will be typeset in italics. One-layer indexing is preferable. Numbering of formulae, if necessary should be given in brackets fitted to the right margin. use the equation editor or MathType for equations

8. Illustrations and tables: All figures (photographs, graphs or diagrams) and tables should be cited in the text and numbered consecutively throughout. Lowercase roman letters should identify figure parts. Figure legends must be brief and must contain self-sufficient explanations of the illustrations. Each table should have a title and a legend explaining any abbreviation used in that table. Tables and illustrations have to be placed in the text and send as separate files.

9. Units: SI units must be used.

10. Short title: Please, include a running head consisting of at most 60 characters. This concise banner represents the title of the article and must be submitted by the author(s).

Proofreading

Proofreading is the responsibility of the author. Corrections should be clear; standard correction marks should be used. Corrections that lead to a change in the page layout should be avoided. The author is entitled to formal corrections only. Substantial changes in content, e.g. new results, corrected values, title and authorship are not allowed without the approval of the editor. In such case please contact the Editor-in-chief before returning the proofs.

Reference list

a. Journal Article (one author)

Nikora, V. (2006). Hydrodynamics of aquatic ecosystems: spatial-averaging perspective. Acta Geophysica, 55(1), 3-10. DOI: 10.2478/s11600-006-0043-6.

b. Journal Article (two or more authors)

Cudak, M. and Karcz J. (2006). Momentum transfer in an agitated vessel with off-centred impellers. Chem. Pap. 60(5), 375-380. DOI: 10.2478/s11696-006-0068-y.

c. Journal article from an online database

Czajgucki Z., Zimecki M. & Andruszkiewicz R. (2006, December). The immunoregulatory effects of edeine analogues in mice [Abstract]. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 12(3), 149-161. Retrieved December 6.

d. Book (one author)

Baxter, R. (1982). Exactly Solvable Models in Statistical Mechanics. New York: Academic Press.

e. Book (two or more authors)

Kleiner, F.S., Mamiya C.J. and Tansey R.G. (2001). Gardner’s art through the ages (11th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Harcourt College Publishers.

f. Book chapter or article in an edited book

Roll, W.P. (1976). ESP and memory. In J.M.O. Wheatley and H.L. Edge (Eds.), . (pp. 154-184). Springfield, IL: American Psychiatric Press.

g. Proceedings from a conference

Field, G. (2001). Rethinking reference rethought. In Revelling in Reference: Reference and Information Services Section Symposium, 12-14 October 2001 (pp. 59-64). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Library and Information Association.

h. Online document

Johnson, A. (2000). Abstract Computing Machines. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved March 30, 2006, from SpringerLink http://springerlink.com/content/w25154. DOI: 10.1007/b138965.

i. Report

Osgood, D. W., and Wilson, J. K. (1990). Covariation of adolescent health problems. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. (NTIS No. PB 91-154 377/AS).

j. Government publication

Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy. (1997). The national drug strategy: Mapping the future. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

MANUSCRIPT REVIEW PROCEDURE

The editor of a peer-reviewed journal is responsible for deciding which articles submitted to the journal should be published, and, moreover, is accountable for everything published in the journal. In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers when making publication decisions. The editor maintain the integrity of the academic record, preclude business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, and always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed. The editor evaluate manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s). The editor do not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

The editor is guided by COPE’s Guidelines (https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) for Retracting Articles when considering retracting, issuing expressions of concern about, and issuing corrections pertaining to articles that have been published in GEODESY and CARTOGRAPHY.

Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and, through the editorial communication with the author, may also assist the author in improving the manuscript.

Any manuscripts received for review is treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor.

Manuscript evaluations are assigned one of four outcomes: Accept without changes, accept after changes suggested by reviewer, rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review, reject, withdraw

Manuscripts requiring minor revision (accept after changes suggested by reviewer) not require a second review. All manuscripts receiving a "Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review " evaluation must be subjected to a second review. Rejected manuscripts are given no further consideration. Normally, manuscripts that receive a "Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review " decision have only one additional chance for revision and the revised version should be uploaded to the Editorial System within six weeks. If the author(s) failed to make satisfactory changes, the manuscript is rejected. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit house style. The article should be withdraw due to technical reason (e.g. names of authors are placed in the text, lack of references, or inappropriate r structure of the text) or plagiarism (more than 30% of plagiarism).

Reviewers are requested to provide theirs comments in two forms; confidential information for Editors (it will not appear in the review sent to the authors) and information for Authors are included. Reviewers are also requested to answer YES/NO to the questions included in a review form. These will be useful for the Editorial Board to assess the quality of the manuscript. If NO answer is provided, please justify.

Transfer of Copyright Agreement

Once the paper is initially accepted, the authors are assumed to have transferred the copyright of the paper to the publisher.

Charges

GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors are invited so a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article. In addition, each color page will be charged an additional fee according to the current cost of printing. Otherwise, the paper will be printed in black-white. More details see in Information for Authors https://www.editorialsystem.com/geocart/

Open Access policy

OPEN ACCESS

GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-SA 4.

All articles published in GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors are invited so a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article. In addition, each color page will be charged an additional fee according to the current cost of printing. Otherwise, the paper will be printed in black-white. More details see in Information for Authors www.editorialsystem.com/geocart

ETHIC POLICY

Editor Responsibilities

The editor of GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY is guided by COPE’s Guidelines (https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines ) for Retracting Articles when considering retracting, issuing expressions of concern about, and issuing corrections pertaining to articles that have been published in the journal. The editor evaluates manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s). The editor do not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

The editor seeks so ensure a fair and appropriate peer review process. Editors recuse themselves (i.e. ask a co-editor, associate editor or other member of the editorial board instead to review and consider) from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or (possibly) institutions connected to the papers. Editors require all contributors to disclose relevant competing interests and publish corrections if competing interests are revealed after publication. If needed, other appropriate action should be taken, such as the publication of a retraction or expression of concern.

Reviewer Responsibilities

Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and, through the editorial communication with the author, may also assist the author in improving the manuscript. Any invited referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should immediately notify the editor so that alternative reviewers can be contacted.

Any manuscripts received for review is treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inacceptable. Referees should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.

Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge.

Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review is kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission.

Author Responsibilities

Authors reporting results of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.

The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.

An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Parallel submission of the same manuscript to more than one journal constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable.

Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should also cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be named in an Acknowledgement section.

The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors (according to the above definition) and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the author list of the manuscript, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the authors must clearly identify these in the manuscript.

All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or their interpretation in the manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal’s editor or publisher and cooperate with them to either retract the paper or to publish an appropriate erratum.

Publisher’s Confirmation

In cases of alleged or proven scientific misconduct, fraudulent publication or plagiarism the publisher, in close collaboration with the editors, will take all appropriate measures to clarify the situation and to amend the article in question. This includes the prompt publication of an erratum or, in the most severe cases, the complete retraction of the affected work.

Additional information

The Geodesy and Cartography is a semi-annually scientific journal publishing peer-reviewed articles with original solutions of theoretical, experimental or applicable problems in the field of geodesy, surveying engineering, cartography and GIS, cadastre and land management, photogrammetry, remote sensing and related disciplines. Besides original research papers, the journal includes commissioned review papers on topical subjects and special issues arising from chosen scientific symposia or workshops.

The Geodesy and Cartography is published under the umbrella of the Committee on Geodesy of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS).

Indexed in:

Geodesy and Cartography is covered by the following services:

Arianta, Astrophysics Data System (ADS), Baidu Scholar, BazTech, Clarivate Analytics - Emerging Sources Citation Index, Clarivate Analytics - Web of Science, CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), CNPIEC, Current Geographical Publications, Dimensions, DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), EBSCO (relevant databases), EBSCO Discovery Service, Elsevier - Engineering Village, Genamics JournalSeek, GeoArchive, GeoRef, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), J-Gate, JournalTOCs, KESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders), Microsoft Academic, Naviga (Softweco), POL-index, Primo Central (ExLibris), Publons, ReadCube, Sherpa/RoMEO, Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest), TDNet, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb, WanFang Data, WorldCat (OCLC)

Disclosures:

Please, note that the journal uses plagiarism detection software for all the submissions. If plagiarism is identified, the submission will be returned to the corresponding author.

Content published in this journal is blind peer-reviewed.

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