Traditional methods of mineral exploration are mainly based on very expensive drilling and seismic methods. The proposed approach assumes the preliminary recognition of prospecting areas using satellite remote sensing methods. Maps of mineral groups created using Landsat 8 images can narrow the search area, thereby reducing the costs of geological exploration during mineral prospecting. This study focuses on the identification of mineralized zones located in the southeastern part of Europe (Kosovo, area of Selac) where hydrothermal mineralization and alterations can be found. The article describes all the stages of research, from collecting in-situ rock samples, obtaining spectral characteristics with laboratory measurements, preprocessing and analysis of satellite images, to the validation of results through field reconnaissance in detail. The authors introduce a curve-index fitting technique to determine the degree of similarity of a rock sample to a given pixel of satellite imagery. A comparison of the reflectance of rock samples against surface reflectance obtained from satellite images allows the places where the related type of rock can be found to be determined. Finally, the results were compared with geological and mineral maps to confirm the effectiveness of the method. It was shown that the free multispectral data obtained by the Landsat 8 satellite, even with a resolution of 30 meters, can be considered as a valuable source of information that helps narrow down the exploration areas.
For much of the last two decades, the Central and East European (CEE) economies have experienced a deep structural reform, moving away from a socialist economic system towards a market economy. The political situation of the second half of the 20th century had a significant impact on the economic development and competitiveness of these transition countries, when compared with their Western European counterparts. A vast number of studies have been conducted to analyze the structural changes required for resource-dependent economies to achieve long-term development and to understand the synergies between commodities and diversification. Yet, the dynamics of resource extraction and the resource dependence of regions that have experienced periods of sustained levels of growth have largely been overlooked, especially the Central and Eastern European region. In this context, this article presents an analysis of the level of resource dependence of six countries which joined the European Union between 2004 and 2007. Using data spanning from the year 2000 to 2017, we calculate the Extractives Dependence Index (EDI) of six former Soviet satellite nations and one former Soviet state. Our results indicate that the commodity structure of trade in the six countries which joined the European Union has changed considerably. These countries have reduced their economic dependence on extractive resources by developing their high value-added and technology-intensive sectors. Our findings also reveal that Poland experienced the highest decrease in EDI scores among the six CEE countries.
During the geological prospecting works conducted in 2013 on Bangka Island (Indonesia), high monazite content was identified in the wastes produced during processing of cassiterite deposits. Monazite, among 250 known minerals containing REE , is one of the most important minerals as primary source of REE .The monazite content in this waste is up to 90.60%. The phase composition of the investigated tailing proves that the sources of minerals accompanying the placer sediments tin mineralization are granitoids. The tailing is composed of numerous ore minerals, including monazite, xenotime, zircon, cassiterite, malayaite, struverite, aeschynite-(Y), ilmenite, rutile, pseudorutile and anatase. Monazite grains belong to the group of cerium monazite. Its grains are characterized by high content of Ce2O3 27.12–33.50 w t.%, La2O3 up to 15.46 w t.%, Nd2O3 up to 12.87%. The total REE 2O3 + Y content ranges from 58.18 to 65.90 wt.%. Monazite grains observations (SEM -BSE) revealed the presence of porous zones filled with fine phases of minerals with U and Th content. The radiation intensity of 232Th is ATh = 340 ± 10 Bq and 238AU = 114 ± 2 Bq. High content of monazite and other REE minerals indicates that tailing is a very rich, potential source of REE s, although the presence of radioactive elements at the moment is a technological obstacle in their processing and use. The utilization of monazite bearing waste in the Indonesian Islands can be an important factor for development and economic activation of this region and an example of the good practice of circular economy rules.
The paper discusses the issue of the utilization of selected raw materials obtained as by-products of rock mining and processing in the ceramic industry in Poland. The raw materials in question are: kaolinite-rich clayey substance remaining after quartz sand washing and alkalis-rich finest fractions generated in the course of the production of granite crushed aggregates. Despite usually high content of coloring oxides, they have been utilized for the production of ceramic goods, the high whiteness of which is not required after firing. High interest in these materials was connected with the implementation of the fast firing method as well as modernization and large scale expansion of the domestic ceramic industry, especially ceramic tiles and sanitaryware sectors. Between the mid-1990s and 2018, the annual consumption of kaolinite raw materials being by-products of quartz sand washing increased from ca. 20,000 to 100,000–120,000 Mg. At the same time the sales of secondary granite fractions utilized as a flux in the ceramic industry rose from 30,000 to 120,000 Mg per year in 2007–2008, and 50,000–70,000 Mg per year most recently. The development of the utilization of these raw materials has been an example of the rational and comprehensive management of all the minerals that occur in deposits in operation. This is particularly important in the context of the depletion of these raw materials reserves and the limited availability of their new deposits. Furthermore, this also makes a contribution towards reducing the scale of imports of raw materials for the ceramic tile industry, which is inevitable due to insufficient supplies from domestic sources.
Ch-chalcedony is a green colored member of the quartz group of gem stones. The appearance of Ch-chalcedony is very similar to that of chrysoprase. Differently, Ch-chalsedonies have a chromium element instead of a nickel element as a trace element. Green quartz used in jewelery as a seal stone, in necklaces and rings and has been one of the most valuable quartz varieties throughout history, with its beautiful green color,more rare than other quartz varieties. The Ch-chalcedonies in the North Anatolian region is yellowish-white, brownish gray, light green to dark green in color ranging from several centimeters to one meter thick in veins and lenses in the Lower-Middle Eocene dolomitic limestones. Ch-chalcedonies are composed of fine-grained and occasionally fibrous needle-like quartz; in some examples, quartz is present together with cristobalite, tridimite and cuspidine minerals. According to geochemical investigations in Ch-chalcedonies, the main oxides that were determined are as follows: SiO2 was observed in the range of 95.86–97.81%, Fe2O3 was observed in the range of 0.61–0.91% and Cr2O3 was observed in the range of 0.125–0.168%. A trace element analysis of Ch-chalcedonies, shows their significant enrichments in: Ni, Mo, Cu, Mn, V, Cr and W, especially in the Cr (up to 705 ppm). The green color of the studied Cr-chalcedonies originates from the element chromium. Taking the possible reserves into account, the hardness, color, massive structures, mineralogical, petrographical and gemological features of Ch-chalcedonies in the region are evaluated together. It is determined that they are suitable for the production of jewelry and ornaments.
Global brown coal resources are estimated to be extracted at around 512 million Mg. They are found in over a dozen countries, including primarily: Australia, China, the Czech Republic, Greece, Germany, Poland, Russia, the United States and Turkey. More than 80% of total brown coal production in the EU takes place in: Germany, Poland, Greece and the Czech Republic. This means that the majority of production still uses conventional fuels, including both hard coal and brown coal. Given the current energy needs in the context of brown coal reserves depletion and the impacts of the current climate and energy policies of the EU, it is very important that all new investments in mining and energy complexes based on brown coal resources must be prepared carefully to ensure high production efficiency and minimize negative environmental impacts. This article attempts to solve a problem involving the choice of the location of the opening cut to expose brown coal deposits. Due to the stratified nature of brown coal deposits and the associated open-cast mining technology used in a continuous mining system with bucket wheel excavators, belt conveyor systems and spreaders, the location of the opening cut is not completely random and the number of potential solutions is finite. The multifaceted technical, organizational, economic, social and environmental problems require a holistic approach to this research problem. Such an approach should take the different, often opposing, perspectives of the many stakeholders into account. These issues can be solved using mathematical tools designed for multiple-criteria decision support. With the proposed method, a ranking of alternatives can be created, depending on the predefined location of the opening cut.
There was done an inventarization of 41 coal mining dumping grounds, gathering waste material from 27 mines. Considering the fact, that five mines belong to multi-motion plants the research comprised 32 hard coal deposits. Source data with localization of particular dumps have been obtained from archival materials from the mines and municipalities, in the boundaries where the dumps occur as well as free accessible published materials (books, scientific papers). The data have been verified, in the beginning on the basis of topographical maps, orthophotomaps and aerial photographs and then, after vision done during field works they have been drawn on the topographic base, what resulted in creating the map of post-mining dumping grounds. Valorisation of coal mining waste dumps, using already repeatedly presented method, included defining of: name of the dump, coal mine from where the wastes come from, state of the dump, surface of the dump, type of technical and biological reclamation, accessibility of the object, possibilities of recovery of coal and the results have been drawn on the map. On the basis of collected and elaborated data there was done an attempt of defining of potential possibilities of recovery of coal from the dumps and connecting of coal quality in exploited deposits and coal content in waste material. The results showed that in spite of initial information that the majority of the dumps comprise potential objects of coal recovery of coal from waste material, eventually only in some cases (thirteen objects) the recovery seems to be economically justified.
Poland belongs to the countries with limited waters intended for drinking resources. To meet this problem, the Management Board of Geotermia Mazowiecka SA carries out activities to determine the possibilities of using exploited geothermal waters other than energy purposes. In addition to energy, the geothermal water is used for recreation and balneotherapy in “Termy Mszczonów” and for the production of drinking water for the local water supply system. Some water needs to be discharged into surface watercourses due to a lack of coherence of heating and water supply needs. For recognizing this problem innovative research project entitled: “The development of a method for injecting after energy-used geothermal waters into selected geological structures” was prepared and implemented as part of the Regional Operational Program of the Mazowieckie Voivodship for 2014–2020 (Priority Axis: Research and development activities of enterprises). This project has resulted in the launch of the installation pumping excess water to the quaternary sandy leyer. Based on the results from the first year of operation of the project, it can be assumed that it is possible to achieve nearly 100% reduction of water discharge and, consequently, the full use of producted geothermal waters. In summary, it can be stated that the geothermal plant in Mszczonów is a unique installation not only on the Polish but also international scale. The proof of this is not only the scale of rational use of water for energy purposes (cooling from 41°C to about 17°C), but also their development in other areas, for example in “Termy Mszczonów” and for the production of waters intended for drinking. The article presents the results of the first year (2019) of operation of the water injection system. During this period, in cooled water discharged into surface watercourse nearly 50% reduction was achieved.
All the restructuring programs that have been implemented in Polish bituminous coal mining as a primary way to reduce mining costs relied on the increased concentration of mining operations. Those efforts especially involved a significant simplification of existing or newly developed structures for accessing or cutting the deposits intended for extraction; implementation of advanced mining technologies, and upgrading of machines used in mine faces. However, in order for these to deliver the expected results, it is important to organize mining operations in such a way so that those advanced, and usually very expensive, mining-related fixed assets – machinery and equipment – are used sensibly. In order to define a reasonable production capacity of each longwall face, it is necessary to apply various criteria related to the mining and technical aspects, occupational safety, and organizational and economic aspects. Only then will it be possible to evaluate the expected effects in the field of concentration of mining in a mining company and in the mines which form part of such enterprises. Decisions in this respect should always be made at the planning stage, based on analysis results. The aim of this article is to explore the factors involved in concentration-related decision-making in mining companies, including the underlying mining/technical, organizational, and economic/ /financial aspects. A mining company is understood as a group of related mines, the primary business operations of which include bituminous coal mining, processing, and trading.
The presented article touches upon corporate social responsibility, a topic of a current and interdisciplinary nature. The aim of the article was to examine the CSR knowledge of two groups of stakeholders and indicate the need to include issues related to sustainable social and environmental responsibility in the technical study program. The research conducted within this domain have been the first results obtained among the academic communities of a technical university and employees in Poland who are the representatives of a selected business group, i.e. the mining sector. The obtained results are the effect of combining scientific research with the business environment. The main part of the article constitutes a description, course and results of the applied research method, which is a survey carried out amongst the selected target groups. The authors’ intention was to list the results obtained in two contexts: environmental and social. The conclusions of these studies are of a utilitarian nature, following towards the need to consider issues concerning sustainable social and environmental responsibility in the program of technical studies (as obligatory subjects). The authors argue that the increase in knowledge will be accompanied by an increase in awareness among (future) industry employees and among the public. This may mean an increase in expectations towards enterprises, which will result in raising standards both when it comes to aspects related to the natural environment, working conditions, and social dialogue.
The subject matter of the articles published in Mineral Resources Management covers issues related to minerals and raw materials, as well as mineral deposits, with particular emphasis on:
To subscribe to the magazine enter the email address:
*Fields marked with an asterisk are mandatory to be filled in and checked. To Subscribe to the journal you must agree to the processing of personal data.