Applied sciences

Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management

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Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management | 2011 | No 2 |

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Abstract

Applying new technologies basing on coal utilization demands precise identification of coal-bed composition. It is suggested, that such possibility is enabled by coal-bed logging with use of - adjusted to this aim - microlithotype analysis. Modification of this research method relies on ten-fold augmentation of 20 point grid size dimensions - up to 500 x 500 [...]. Maceral associations - as identified duringmicroscope observations - are placed in computer database according to their localization in logging. This allows for later graphic interpretation - microlithotype profile drawing. 13 associations has been educed in description, in majority being consistent with commonly used microlithotypes. However, a few changes has been introduced: in description of vitrite, telovitrite, macroscopically recognized in logging as vitrine layers, has been distinguished, as well as detro-gelo-vitrite, macroscopically recognized in logging as durain, while within bimaceralic microlithotypes there has been distinguished: vitrinertite (W), vitrinertite (I), clarite (W), clarite (I), durite (L), durite (I), all on the basis of dominant ingredient named in parenthesis. Accepted research methodology enables precise characteristics of petrographic variation within coal-bed logging. This allows especially to describe variation within dull coal (durain). Basing on research results, it is suggested that the biggest share in seam composition belongs to duroclarite - 23.8%, then vitrite - 18.7% and clarodurite - 17.6%, lower share of few percent belongs to: vitrinertite (I), vitrinertite (W), inertite, clarite (W), vitrinertoliptite, durite (I), durite (L), while both liptite and clarite (L) are less than one percent . Sequence of following microlithotypes also illustrate facies variation, what allows interpretation of environments of peat deposition in paleo-peat bog 116/2. Dominating percentage in log belongs to Forest Moor facies - 33.5%, while the lowest is Forest Terrestial Moor - 12.5%.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Misiak
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Abstract

The location, geological structure and characteristics of the Kamionki Anticline is presented in terms of possibility of underground CO2 storage. It is situated in the Płock Trough, in the SW part of the Płońsk Block, and represents a synsedimentary graben originated in the Early and Middle Jurassic. It has been explored by a semi-detailed reflection seismic survey and three deep boreholes (Kamionki 1, Kamionki 2 and Kamionki IG-3). Assuming that the anticline is conventionally outlined by a contour line of the top of the Lower Jurassic, its length is about 15 km, width is about 5 km and the area reaches approximately 75 km2. Geological, seismic and reservoir property data allow concluding that this structure is suitable for underground carbon dioxide storage. The primary reservoir level for underground CO2 storage is represented by Barremianmiddle Albian deposits of the Mogilno Formation with an average thickness of 170 metres, containing on the average 85% of sandstones, and showing porosity of about 20% and permeability above 100 mD up to 2000 mD. The sealing series is composed of Upper Cretaceous marls, limestones and chalk reaching the thickness of about 1000 metres. The secondary reservoir level is represented by upper Toarcian deposits of the Borucice Formation.

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Authors and Affiliations

Sylwester Marek
Lidia Dziewińska
Radosław Tarkowski
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Abstract

When mineral processing separation results, for either constant or varying quality of the feed, can be approximated on the so-called Fuerstenau upgrading plots with the same one-fitting parameter a, then this parameter can be used as a selectivity indicator. If the equation has a form [...], where [...] stands for recovery of non-useful component in tailing while\ksi is the recovery of useful component in the concentrate, then at the same selectivity of upgrading (constant a) the increase of the useful component in the feed \alfa results in an increased amount of this component in both concentrate \beta and tailing [...] while the ratio of [...] to \beta is linearly dependent on \alfa when \epsilon is constant. Thus, at a constant selectivity a and constant \epsilon an increase in \alfa leads to a greater increase of the considered component in the tailing \theta than in the concentrate \beta.

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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalena Duchnowska
Jan Drzymała
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Abstract

The industrial grinding devices, which work in the high-energetic fluidized bed conditions make it possible to obtain guaranteed particle size distribution of product and decrease of consumption energy. The matrix model for transformation of particle size distribution in the fluidized bed opposed jet mill is presented in the part IV of article. The proposed model contains the mass population balance of particle equation, in which are block matrices: the matrix of circuit M, the matrix of inputs F and the matrix of feed F0. The matrix M contains blocks with the transition matrix P, the classification matrix C, the identity matrix I and the zero matrix 0. The matrix was marked using with discrete forms of the selection and breakage functions, mean while the matrices of classification - using the equation, describing classification of grains in the grinding chamber of mill. In paper was discussed this model in details (part 2.1). The correctness of received form of the selection and breakage functions was confirmed. The method determination of the transition matrix for fluidized-jet grinding of grains (part 2.2) and the classification matrix for gravitational and centrifugal zones of grains (part 2.3) are presented. The verification of model obtained on basis results with experimental investigations, which were performed on a laboratory fluidized bed opposed jet mill. The experiment contained grinding of selected narrow size fractions of limestone in turbulent fluidized layer conditions, what in part I and part II of article (Zbroński, Górecka-Zbrońska 2007a, b) are presented. The parameters of parametric identification were: factor of proportionality - contained in the equation on the discrete form of selection function and sizes of limiting grains - contained in equation on the diagonal elements of classification matrix for stage of gravitational and centrifugal (part 3). The classic Fisher-Snedecor test was applied for estimation of prediction particle size distribution of grinding product (part 4). The significant divergences between numerical and experimental results of particle size distribution weren't affirmed. The experimental verification, parametric identification and statistical estimation of the proposed model showed that this model make it possible to forecasting particle size distribution of grinding product.

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Authors and Affiliations

Daniel Zbroński
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Abstract

The article discusses possibilities and usefulness of application of the cost approach for mineral deposits valuation. Author focuses on the ones related to exploration for and documentation of hypothetical deposits, looking in their case for possible areas of application of the approach in consideration. Analyses covers the three most commonly used valuation methods: Appraised Value Method (AVM), Multiple of Exploration Expenditure Method and Killburn's Method, indicating their strengths, deficiencies and dangers of potential misuse. In conclusion author indicates areas of potential application of the cost approach where it's proper application may deliver credible and useful results.

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Authors and Affiliations

Robert Uberman
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Abstract

The paper presents an impact of the metallurgical wastes dumping site on the following parts of the environment: air, soil and surface waters. Some of the methods used to prevent wastes interactions were showed. The results of the metallurgical wastes leachate samples research, in which toxic metal ions have been found, are presented results of examinations performed on water extracts derived from two types of metallurgical wastes were given. The chemical analysis of water extracts indicate exceeded concentration of toxic metals, such as: lead, arsenic, barium and others. Preliminary results of some metals elimination from the water extracts with PUROLITE ion-exchangers were also presented. The utilised acidous cationit with Na+ groups exchanges the Ba2+ ions in almost 90%, similar to S 930 ionit with chelating groups (Table 5 and 7). Whereas the anionit with hydroxyl groups removes the arsenic ions(V) from the solution with the 60% efficacy (Table 7).

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Authors and Affiliations

Stanisława Sanak-Rydlewska
Agnieszka Gala
Łukasz Wajda
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Abstract

A large amount of solid and liquid wastes produced by mines and mills each year needs to be managed and minimized by alternative disposal methods like paste and dry stack. Increasingly strict environmental legislation and cost competitiveness also dictate the utilization of technically suitable, economically viable, environmentally acceptable, and socially responsible techniques. This paper reviews some of these techniques that could potentially reduce large volumes of mine wastes (with a focus on mine tailings and waste rocks) without causing significant environmental hazards. The new emerging techniques such as environmental desulphurization, covers built with sulphide-free tailings, co-disposal of tailings and waste rocks, geotextile tube dewatering, and use of tailings in the cement production and road construction for both industrial and environmental purposes are discussed in terms of waste minimization. The existing methods and approaches for efficient waste treatment and disposal are also discussed in this review paper.

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Authors and Affiliations

Erol Yilmaz
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Abstract

Mining activities from exploration to final material handling up to shipment pass through various stages where environmental pollution results. Mining method can and should be selected in such a way that their impact on individuals and environmental to be minimized. Until now, different mining specialists have carried out many studies on mining method selection. Unfortunately neither of previous approaches takes into account of the environmental consideration and methodology for assessment of environmental impacts criterion. This paper discusses environmental impacts of mining operations associated with different mining methods. For this purpose, the Folchi approach was modified for environmental impact assessment which associates the mining methods inherently and developed of a procedure to assist a selecting of mining method. Firstly, the general and explanatory information about effects of mining on the environmental pollution are given in the paper. Moreover field and purposes of the study are introduced. The paper presents an environmental assessment for different mining methods. And, secondly, the impacts of each mining methods on environment are focused and discussed. Finally, some concluding remarks are made and the related applications for the mining method selection are discussed by using in a case study. As the main advantage, this new algorithm takes several environmental issues and their interaction takes into consideration for environmental assessment of a mining method selection.

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Authors and Affiliations

F. Samimi Namin
K. Shahriar
A. Bascetin
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Abstract

Open pit mining has severe environmental impacts on the environment of mining region. Mined land reclamation procedure in open pit mining contains numerous activities in order to prevent, monitor, control reduce environmental impacts of a project from exploration stage to exploitation, to mine closure and beyond. After mine closure, a permanent Post Mining Land Use (PMLU) should be implemented as an appropriate choice for use of different sections of mined land in an open pit mine. Mined land in open pit mining comprise different sections as pit(s), waste dump(s), tailing pond(s), roads, areas for on site facilities and free land zones which are not mined. The selected PMLU for each section of mined land as the most appropriate alternative based on the different points of view is presented as Optimum Post Mining Land Use (OPMLU). OPMLU for each section of mined land and the specifications of mine site are the most decisive parameters which affect the quality and volume of mine closure procedure, reclamation process and their costs. Furthermore, to define Ultimate Pit Limit (UPL) in open pit mining, consideration of mine closure and reclamation costs is essential as other costs of a mining project. Therefore, defining OPMLU for each section of mined land is essential within planning phase of an open pit mining project. In this paper the applicable alternatives of PMLU, the effective criteria, attributes and sub-attributes for defining OPMLU are presented for pit area amongst different sections of mined land. Pit area amongst different sections of mined land has more significant effects on the adjacent environment and also on defining OPMLU for the other sections of mined land. As there are several alternatives of PMLU, several criteria, attributes and sub-attributes for defining OPMLU, Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM) methods are efficient techniques to define OPMLU for pit area. Fuzzy sets use a spectrum of numbers instead of using absolute numbers. As well, the nature of the effective parameters for defining OPMLU is same as Fuzzy numbers including incremental changes without definite limits thus the use of Fuzzy MADM modeling can produce more reliable results than the other techniques. As pair-wise comparisons and judgments through Fuzzy numbers have proper consistency with the nature of the effective parameters for defining OPMLU accordingly, a model is developed to attain OPMLU for pit area through Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Processing (FAHP). As a case study the model was implemented in Sungun copper mine in Northwest of Iran. Lumber production was defined as OPMLU for the pit area in this mine. It is finally concluded that using the developed model, OPMLU is defined for pit area as a key parameter to estimate reclamation costs in planning phase of an open pit mining project.

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Authors and Affiliations

A.H. Bangian
M. Ataei
A. Sayadi
A. Gholinejad
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Abstract

The corporate cost of capital is used by valuators to discount future flows of income from an entity in order to derive a present-day, forward-looking value of that entity. The cost of capital is therefore determined as the weighted cost of the various sources of funding, being typically equity, debt and preference instruments. The tricky and important part is estimating the cost of equity, which usually needs the application of finance models. The study on the texts on mineral valuation or mineral project evaluation demonstrates that the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is a general model for estimating the cost of equity. However, according to shortfalls and problems relating to it a relatively similar and simpler model i.e. the single-index market model is proposed. The single index market model is an important tool in contemporary research in finance. Much of the importance of the model follows from its 'beta' parameter which, ideally, measures the sensitivity of returns on a security to changes in a market model. To estimate the cost of equity of the mining and cement companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) The single-index market model is selected because of the shortfalls and problems of the CAPM as well as the lack of commercial services for determining the market premium. The regression analysis as well as the statistical analysis is carried out using Excel spreadsheet. The statistic significance of the model is tested using t and F test statistics. The results showed that the independent variable (the rate of return on the market index) has a genuine effect on the dependent variable (the rate of return for the stock) and there is a statistically significant linear relationship between the two variables at significance level of 5%. Finally, the cost of equity formining and cement companies is estimated 25.0% and 31.0% respectively. Knowing the cost of equity, calculating the discount rate will not be very difficult.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mohsen Taheri
Mehdi Irannajad
Majid Ataee-Pour

Additional info

The subject matter of the articles published in Mineral Resources Management covers issues related to minerals and raw materials, as well as mineral deposits, with particular emphasis on:

  • The scientific basis for mineral resources management,
  • The strategy and methodology of prospecting and exploration of mineral deposits,
  • Methods of rational management and use of deposits,
  • The rational exploitation of deposits and the reduction in the loss of raw materials,
  • Mineral resources management in processing technologies,
  • Environmental protection in the mining industry,
  • Optimization of mineral deposits and mineral resources management,
  • The rational use of mineral resources,
  • The economics of mineral resources,
  • The raw materials market,
  • Raw materials policy,
  • The use of accompanying minerals,
  • The use of secondary raw materials and waste,
  • Raw material recycling,
  • The management of waste from the mining industry.

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