The paper presents a global perspective of the current technologies used for steel production and the steel markets. The iron and steel industry is a very complex sector that is strongly related with the rest of the economy due to the importance of steel products for industries such as construction, automotive, and other manufacturing sectors. Moreover, the iron and steel industry demands significant amounts of raw materials and energy, and most companies producing raw materials are located remote from the areas of highest steel demand. In consequence, both steel products and inputs are traded internationally (mostly by sea) and in large quantities, what additionally complicates analyses of the iron and steel industry. Steel prices depend on several variables, and there is not a single price for steel since there is a great variety of steel products traded. Those prices depend on supply and demand interaction (between steel producers and consumers, but also on interaction with other industries competing for the same inputs), and on transport conditions. As concerns the ownership structure, the steel industry consists of some large firms that operate globally and produce significant output, and many small firms that operate at a lesser scale. Recently, some of those firms have consolidated into large multinationals (such as ArcelorMittal, formed in 2006 by the merger of Arcelor and Mittal Steel, Arcelor being the result of the previous merger of Aceralia (ES), Usinor (FR), and Arbed (LX) in 2002). The results of this article form the basis for further long- and mid-term analyses of the development of the global steel industry. The main conclusion of the paper is that any future analysis of the iron and steel industry should be based on quantitative modelling tools that: (i) properly capture the technological diversity of the industry and the key features of the supply chain, (ii) are able to consider the strategic behaviour of all the key players of the industry, and (iii) consider all those factors at the global scale.