The assurance of future raw materials supply to the EU mineral industry has become, in recent years, one of the priority tasks of the EU Commission, geological surveys and several research centers. After many years of negligence, the problem of developing supply risk of many raw materials in Europe has been perceived, along with the menace to the EU economy competitiveness coming from dynamically developing countries such as China, India and others - basically of Asian origin. This has initiated a new mineral policy within the EU zone, referring mainly to non-fuels. One of the starting points for this activity has become the assessment of the EU mineral resources potential and identification of the raw materials that are critical for the harmonious and sustainable development and technological progress. The paper briefly presents the results of research work focused on the critical raw materials assessment, which were conducted by the Initiative for the Raw Materials Supply. Its core is the presentation of Polish mineral reserve base and its potential as a possible source of critical raw materials for the European Union. The criticality analysis was based on three categories, i.e.: economic consequences of the supply limitation, supply risk of reduction (fluctuation or disruption), and environmental risk referring to countries with weak environmental performance in order to protect the environment that jeopardize the supply of raw materials to the EU. For their quantitative assessment there were proposed three aggregated indices, while for the forecast purposes - 10-year period. The criticality ratio was determined for the 41 most important and most frequently used raw materials. On the grounds of the research made up to now, these raw materials were preliminary divided into three groups. As a critical to the EU economy, 14 raw materials of major economic importance were discriminated, i.e.: antimony, beryllium, cobalt, fluorite, gallium, germanium, graphite, indium, magnesium, niobium, PGM, rare earths, tantalum, and tungsten. They are characterized by high supply risk, which is mainly due to limited number of their sources - dominated by a few countries, in particular China. The risk of supply disruptions is boosted by low rate of utilization of secondary sources, and limited scale of substitution as well. The majority of the above-mentioned raw materials are crucial for the new technologies development. The remaining minerals arealso - though to a lesser extent - imperiled with a supply deficit. Despite they are also of economic importance, their indispensability for the advanced technologies development is relatively smaller. Taking into account the raw materials that are critical for the European Union economy, Poland cannot be considered as its resource base. The source of these raw materials are not only scarce in Poland, but also they are not produced, and their demand is now - and according to forecasts is going to be in the future - met by imports. However, the role of our country as a manufacturer of finished products from components of foreign origin is anticipated to increase. The raw materials in question are not considered exactly critical for Polish economy, as any industrial branch based upon their utilization has emerged so far. Therefore, they are of limited economic importance. Presumable utilization of very limited sources of above-mentioned critical raw materials in Poland could be anticipated in a perspective of at least 20 years. The most probable in this respect are the following: opening out the new Mo-W-Cu ore deposit Myszków, and the promotion of exploration works for similar deposits.