The article is devoted to the problem of voice signals recognition means introduction in the system of distance learning. The results of the conducted research determine the prospects of neural network means of phoneme recognition. It is also shown that the main difficulties of creation of the neural network model, intended for recognition of phonemes in the system of distance learning, are connected with the uncertain duration of a phoneme-like element. Due to this reason for recognition of phonemes, it is impossible to use the most effective type of neural network model on the basis of a multilayered perceptron, at which the number of input parameters is a fixed value. To mitigate this shortcoming, the procedure, allowing to transform the non-stationary digitized voice signal to the fixed quantity of mel-cepstral coefficients, which are the basis for calculation of input parameters of the neural network model, is developed. In contrast to the known ones, the possibility of linear scaling of phoneme-like elements is available in the procedure. The number of computer experiments confirmed expediency of the fact that the use of the offered coding procedure of input parameters provides the acceptable accuracy of neural network recognition of phonemes under near-natural conditions of the distance learning system. Moreover, the prospects of further research in the field of development of neural network means of phoneme recognition of a voice signal in the system of distance learning is connected with an increase in admissible noise level. Besides, the adaptation of the offered procedure to various natural languages, as well as to other applied tasks, for instance, a problem of biometric authentication in the banking sector, is also of great interest.
This paper proposed a new OFDM scheme called damped zero-pseudorandom noise orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DZPN-OFDM) scheme. In the proposed scheme, ZPN-OFDM non-zero part is damped to reduce its energy, thus the mutual interference power in-between the data and training blocks with conservative the pseudo-noise conventional properties required for channel estimation or synchronization. The motivation of this paper is the OFDM long guard interval working in wide dispersion channels, whereas a significant energy is wasted when the conventional ZPN-OFDM is used as well as the BER performance is also degraded. Moreover, the proposed scheme doesn’t duplicate the guard interval to solve the ZPN-OFDM spectrum efficiency loss problem. Both detailed performance analysis and simulation results show that the proposed DZPNOFDM scheme can, indeed, offer significant bit error rate, spectrum efficiency and energy efficiency improvement.
Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a device which allows paralyzed people to navigate a robot, prosthesis or wheelchair using only their own brains reactions. By creating a direct communication pathway between the human brain and a machine, without muscles contractions or activity from within the peripheral nervous system, BCI makes mapping persons intentions onto directive signals possible. One of the most commonly utilized phenomena in BCI is steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP). If subject focuses attention on the flashing stimulus (with specified frequency) presented on the computer screen, a signal of the same frequency will appear in his or hers visual cortex and from there it can be measured. When there is more than one stimulus on the screen (each flashing with a different frequency) then based on the outcomes of the signal analysis we can predict at which of these objects (e.g., rectangles) subject was/is looking at that particular moment. Proper preprocessing steps have taken place in order to obtain maximally accurate stimuli recognition (as the specific frequency). In the current article, we compared various preprocessing and processing methods for BCI purposes. Combinations of spatial and temporal filtration methods and the proceeding blind source separation (BSS) were evaluated in terms of the resulting decoding accuracy. Canonical-correlation analysis (CCA) to signals classification was used.
Nowadays, the Internet connects people, multimedia and physical objects leading to a new-wave of services. This includes learning applications, which require to manage huge and mixed volumes of information coming from Web and social media, smart-cities and Internet of Things nodes. Unfortunately, designing smart e-learning systems able to take advantage of such a complex technological space raises different challenges. In this perspective, this paper introduces a reference architecture for the development of future and big-data-capable e-learning platforms. Also, it showcases how data can be used to enrich the learning process.
This work concerns measurements of the radiant intensity emitted by LEDs. The influence of selected factors and parameters on the final measurement result are discussed. The research was conducted using two type of detectors: light meter and CCD camera, to compare the degree of influence of these parameters depending on the measurement instrument used.
We present a new hash function based on irregularly decimated chaotic map, in this article. The hash algorithm called SHAH is based on two Tinkerbell maps filtered with irregular decimation rule. We evaluated the novel function using distribution analysis, sensitivity analysis, static analysis of diffusion, static analysis of confusion, and collision analysis. The experimental data show that SHAH satisfied valuable level of computer security.
The model is developed for the intellectualized decision-making support system on financing of cyber security means of transport cloud-based computing infrastructures, given the limited financial resources. The model is based on the use of the theory of multistep games tools. The decision, which gives specialists a chance to effectively assess risks in the financing processes of cyber security means, is found. The model differs from the existing approaches in the decision of bilinear multistep quality games with several terminal surfaces. The decision of bilinear multistep quality games with dependent movements is found. On the basis of the decision for a one-step game, founded by application of the domination method and developed for infinite antagonistic games, the conclusion about risks for players is drawn. The results of a simulation experiment within program implementation of the intellectualized decision-making support system in the field of financing of cyber security means of cloudbased computing infrastructures on transport are described. Confirmed during the simulation experiment, the decision assumes accounting a financial component of cyber defense strategy at any ratios of the parameters, describing financing process.
Based on the publications regarding new or recent measurement systems for the tokamak plasma experiments, it can be found that the monitoring and quality validation of input signals for the computation stage is done in different, often simple, ways. In the paper is described the unique approach to implement the novel evaluation and data quality monitoring (EDQM) model for use in various measurement systems. The adaptation of the model is made for the GEM-based soft X-ray measurement system FPGA-based. The EDQM elements has been connected to the base firmware using PCI-E DMA real-time data streaming with minimal modification. As additional storage, on-board DDR3 memory has been used. Description of implemented elements is provided, along with designed data processing tools and advanced simulation environment based on Questa software.
Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) with Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC) is one of the promising techniques proposed for 5G systems. It allows multiple users with different channel coefficients to share the same (time/frequency) resources by allocating several levels of (power/code) to them. In this article, a design of a cooperative scheme for the uplink NOMA Wi-Fi transmission (according to IEEE 802.11 standards) is investigated. Various channel models are exploited to examine the system throughput. Convolutional coding in conformance to IEEE 802.11a/g is applied to evaluate the system performance. The simulation results have been addressed to give a clear picture of the performance of the investigated system.
This paper presents the comparison of filtering methods – median filtration, moving average Kalman filtration and filtration based on a distance difference to determine the most accurate arm length for circular motion, as a model of wind turbine propellers movement. The experiments have been performed with the UWB technology system containing four anchors and a tag attached to 90cm arm that was rotated with speed up to 15.5 rad/s (as a linear speed of 50km/h). The trilateration concept based on the signal latency has been described in order to determinate the position of an object on circular trajectory. The main objective is the circle plane rotation (parallel and perpendicular) with respect to the anchors plane reference system. All research tasks have been performed for various cases of motion schemes in order to get the filtration method for object in motion under best accuracy goal. Filtration methods have been applied on one of two stages of the positioning algorithm: (1) on raw data got from the single anchor-tag (before trilateration); (2) on the position obtained from four anchors and tag (after trilateration). It has been proven that the appropriate filtering allows for higher location accuracy. Moreover, location capabilities with the use of UWB technology – shows prospective use of positioning of objects without access to other positioning forms (ex. GPS) in many aspects of life such as currently developing renewable, green energy sources like wind turbines where the circular motion plays an important role, and precise positioning of propellers is a key element in monitoring the work of the whole wind turbine.
Energy and spectral efficiency are the main challenges in 5th generation of mobile cellular networks. In this paper, we propose an optimization algorithm to optimize the energy efficiency by maximizing the spectral efficiency. Our simulation results show a significant increase in terms of spectral efficiency as well as energy efficiency whenever the mobile user is connected to a low power indoor base station. By applying the proposed algorithm, we show the network performance improvements up to 9 bit/s/Hz in spectral efficiency and 20 Gbit/Joule increase in energy efficiency for the mobile user served by the indoor base station rather than by the outdoor base station.
Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) has been proposed as a solution to reducing the huge cost of network upgrade while providing the spectral and energy efficiency needed for the new generation cellular networks. In order to reduce the interference that occur in C-RAN and maximize throughput, this paper proposes a sequentially distributed coalition formation (SDCF) game in which players, in this case the remote radio heads (RRHs), can sequentially join multiple coalitions to maximize their throughput. Contrary to overlapping coalition formation (OCF) game where players contribute fractions of their limited resources to different coalitions, the SDCF game offers better stability by allowing sequential coalition formation depending on the availability of resources and therefore providing a balance between efficient spectrum use and interference management. An algorithm for the proposed model is developed based on the merge-only method. The performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of stability, complexity and convergence to final coalition structure is also investigated. Simulation results show that the proposed SDCF game did not only maximize the throughput in the C-RAN, but it also shows better performances and larger capabilities to manage interference with increasing number of RRHs compared to existing methods.
This article investigates and evaluates a handover exchange scheme between two secondary users (SUs) moving in different directions across the handover region of neighboring cell in a cognitive radio network. More specifically, this investigation compares the performance of SUs in a cellular cognitive radio network with and without channel exchange scheme. The investigation shows reduced handover failure, blocking, forced and access probabilities respectively, for handover exchange scheme with buffer as compared to exchange scheme without buffer. It also shows transaction within two cognitive nodes within a network region. The system setup is evaluated through system simulation.
Queuing regime is one outstanding approach in improving channel aggregation. If well designed and incorporated with carefully selected parameters, it enhances the smooth rollout of fifth/next generation wireless networks. While channel aggregation is the merging of scattered TV white space (spectrum holes) into one usable chunk for secondary users (SU). The queuing regime ensures that these unlicensed users (SUs) traffic/ services are not interrupted permanently (blocked/dropped or forced to terminate) in the event of the licensed users (primary user) arrival. However, SUs are not identical in terms of traffic class and bandwidth consumption hence, they are classified as real time and non-real time SU respectively. Several of these strategies have been studied considering queuing regime with a single feedback queuing discipline. In furtherance to previous proposed work with single feedback queuing regime, this paper proposes, develops and compares channel aggregation policies with two feedback queuing regimes for the different classes of SUs. The investigation aims at identifying the impacts of the twofeedback queuing regime on the performance of the secondary network such that any SU that has not completed its ongoing service are queued in their respective buffers. The performance is evaluated through a simulation framework. The results validate that with a well-designed queuing regime, capacity, access and other indices are improved with significant decrease in blocking and forced termination probabilities respectively.
A trellis coded 4-ary Pulse Amplitude Modulation (4-PAM) is presented, where the encoding algorithm is derived from Distance Preserving Mapping (DPM) algorithm. In this work, we modify the DPM algorithm for 4-PAM and obtain a new construction for mapping binary sequences to permutation sequences, where the permutation sequences are obtained by permuting symbols of a 4-PAM constellation. The resulting codebook of permutation sequences formed this way are termed mappings. We also present several metrics for assessing the performance of the mappings from our construction, and we show that a metric called the Sum of Product of Distances (SOPD) is the best metric to use when judging the performance of the mappings. Finally, performance results are presented, where the mappings from our construction are compared against each other and also against the conventional mappings in the literature.
This paper presents an original method of designing reversible circuits. This method is destined to most popular gate set with three types of gates CNT (Control, NOT and Toffoli). The presented algorithm based on graphical representation of the reversible function is called s-maps. This algorithm allows to find optimal or quasi-optimal reversible circuits. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 recalls basic concepts of reversible logic. Especially the cascade of the gates as realization of reversible function is presented. In Section 2 there is introduced a classification of minterms distribution. The s-maps are the representation of the reversible functions where the minterms distribution is presented. The choice of the first gate in the cascade depends on possibility of improving the distribution. Section 3 describes the algorithm, namely how to find the optimal or quasi-optimal solutions of the given function.
PCFs (Photonic Crystal Fibers) with ‘T’ – shaped core have been proposed in this paper. ‘T’ –shaped core PCF structures have been analyzed using two different background materials: silica and lead silicate. A total of 3600 rotation at an interval of 900 has been introduced in the design of PCF structures. PCF structures A, B, C and D with rotation of 00, 900, 1800 and 2700 have silica as wafer. Similarly PCF structures E, F, G and H with similar rotation have lead silicate as background material. Numerical investigations shows structures ‘D’, ‘F’, ‘G’ and ‘H’ to have anomalous dispersion. PCF structures ‘F’, ‘G’, and ‘H’ have reported birefringence of the order of 10-2. Besides, other PCF structures report birefringence of the order of 10-3. Ultra low confinement loss has been observed in all the investigated PCF structures. Moreover, splice loss observed by the structure is very low. Large mode area has been shown by all the designed PCF structures.
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