Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Content

Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2006 | vol. 46 | No 4 |

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Abstract

Laboratory studies were carried out on the effects of an emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation of Azadirachtin (AZ) (6 g a.s./l EC) on four major cotton pests in Senegal: Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Helicoverpa armigera Hϋbner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). In both S. littoralis (SL) and H. armigera (HA), larval weight loss was observed 48 h after treatment. Appreciable weight gain was only observed in SL larvae at dosages of 0.05 and 0.1 g a.s. /l AZ, 72 h after treatment. In both SL and HA, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the control larvae and those treated with 0.1 to 1.5 g a.s. /l AZ. At a dosage of 1.5 g a.s./l, AZ caused 60% mortality in SL and 0% mortality in HA, 72 h after treatment. The treatment with AZ at dosages of 0.05 and 1.5 g a.s./l resulted in 50 and 30% malformation in SL and HA pupae respectively. The duration of development from the IV instar larva to pupa in both lepidopterans increased progressively with AZ dosage. SL was more susceptible to AZ than HA. No growth disrupting effects were observed in A. gossypii (AG) and T. urticae (TU) where EC50 values of 1.49 and 1.36 g a.s./l AZ respectively were obtained. The implications of the effects of AZ on further field trials against cotton pests are discussed.
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Authors and Affiliations

George Ekukole
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Abstract

Bacterial speck of tomato caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato appeared to be recently the most important disease on tomato in Poland. The genetic relationships among four Polish strains of race 0 P. syringae pv. tomato of different origin, isolated from tomato plants, were examined by RAPD and PCR-RFLP techniques. Amplification of bacterial DNA using 33 primers with RAPD technique showed, that similarity of strains expressed by the Nei-Li coefficient was very high (above 0.8). Next, the restriction analysis of amplified region ITS with the use of 5 endonucleases revealed, that profiles obtained from electrophoretic separation of DNA fragments were also very similar. On the basis of those analyses it was concluded that all strains tested constituted a closely related group. However, they showed various level of virulence as was demonstrated on the inoculated leaves of tomato plants growing in the greenhouse.
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Authors and Affiliations

Elżbieta U. Kozik
Joanna Puławska
Piotr Sobiczewski
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Abstract

Three plant extracts viz. bulbs of Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae), seeds of Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) and leaves of Vitex negundo L. (Verbenaceae) were evaluated against cowpea wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris by mycelial dry weight method under laboratory condtions. The mean mycelium dry weights of F. oxysporum of methanol and benzene extracts of A. sativum obtained from 125 g of crused dry plant material (bulbs) were 0.0113 and 0.0174 mg, respectively. This was followed by methanol and petroleum ether extracts of A. squamosa (0.2396 and 0.2381 mg). They effectively controlled mycelial growth of cowpea wilt pathogen, however V. negundo extracts did not cause any significant mycelium growth inhibition when compared to other plant extracts tested. Among the three plant extracts, methanol extracts of A. sativum bulbs could possibly be used for controlling F. oxysporum.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kitherian Sahayaraj
Sathasivam Karthick Raja Namasivayam
Jesu Alexander Francis Borgio
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Abstract

A biotic interaction between fungi from soil within and outside the rhizosphere of potato and fungi responsible for black scurf – Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and silver scurf – Helminthosporium solani (Dur., Mont.). It was found that fungi population connected with crop environment under investigation promoted the growth of Rhizoctonia solani, thus indicating no resistance of this environment to this pathogen. These fungi, however, inhibited the growth of Helminthosporium solani.
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Authors and Affiliations

Halina Kurzawińska

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Instructions for Authors

Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

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