The emergence of life on Earth and its almost infinite diversity, reflected by a myriad of living organisms, are among the dilemmas that have forever fascinated scientists and philosophers. Today, we are still not able to determine what exactly initiated the chain of events leading to the rise of life – the mechanism of replication of initial structures or perhaps the occurrence of first metabolic reactions. Further approximations of these issues shall probably constitute an overwhelming driving force for future development of life sciences.
The article confronts key notions framing our understanding of modernity, such as rationality, knowledge, freedom and democracy, opening the space of a critical interpretation undermining the superficial take on modernity as an embodiment of integrity, putting together the noble principles of knowledge and liberty. Drawing on the thought of Max Weber, exploring the symbolism of his metaphor of “iron cage of rationality”, the article emphasizes a paradoxical sense of the experience of modernity. In concluding statements it defies and calls into question a standard reading of democracy, viewed as an embodiment of freedom and rational self-definition.
Since the 1970s, social psychology has investigated real human behavior to an increasingly smaller degree. The author of the article suggests that the phenomenon of cognitive revolution in psychology naturally boosted the interest of researchers in such phenomena like attitudes, values, social judgments and stereotypes; at the same time, it decreased interest in others important topics like aggression, social influence or altruism. In recent decades, we have also witnessed a growing conviction among social psychologists that explaining why people perform certain actions holds greater importance that demonstrating the conditions under which people really display particular reactions. The key question appears in this situation of whether social psychology remains of science of (real) behavior, and whether the current condiction of the discipline is desirable or rather pathological.
When it comes to research into changes which took place in Poland in the 10th and the first half of the 11th century and the emergence of the Piast dynasty’s state, the presence of an ethnically foreign population, its conditioning and effects have not been fully recognised. The few historiographical sources do not devote much attention to the arrival of foreign tribes; the single mentions typically pertain to the representatives of the elites, especially dynasties. Attempts have been made to analyse the phenomena by means of toponomastics and archaeology. Due to their ambiguity and late source confirmations, the results of toponomastic surveys do not allow to resolve the issue of migrations or displacement from the 10–11th centuries independently. However, the archaeological research carried out to date has revealed (beside a number of single historical objects related to the culture of Poland’s southern neighbours) grave fields and strongholds which could be potentially related to the representatives of foreign ethnic groups. The Poznań-Sołacz grave field (2nd half of the 10th century) and the Morawy grave field in Kuyavia (2nd half of the 11th century or possibly earlier) are related to a population from (Great) Moravia. Presence of a Hungarian population is traditionally attributed to the “old Hungarian” grave field in Przemyśl-Zasanie (dating back from the late 9th to the first quarter of the 11th century). On the other hand, the stronghold and the grave field in Niemcza in Silesia (dated back to the 970s and 980s) are connected with a Czech population. Unconfirmed grave fields and a handful of artefacts of Great Moravian origin are typical remains of strongholds in Gilów in Silesia and Czerchów near Łęczyca where presence of foreign warriors has not been ruled out. A question remains to what extent the material determinants of a foreign culture indicate presence of representatives of different ethnic groups and to what extent they are imports or copies. Undoubtedly, in a discussion of a foreign population genetic research may prove helpful, especially in grave fields associated with foreign populations. However, in order to analyse the issue in a comprehensive way, an interdisciplinary approach is required i.e. a combination of the methods of historical, archaeological and genetic research.
Baudelaire’s Catholicism seems difficult to interpret, therefore some authors declare the poet a Satanist. In my opinion, this is rather problematic to call Charles Baudelaire a Satanist. It is very debatable and doubtful, but there are several reasons for this. In the collection of poetry entitled “Les Fleurs du mal” (“The Flowers of Evil”), Baudelaire gave a voice to the Devil many times. He wrote a scandalous poem “Litanies de Satan” (“The Litany of Satan”). In fact, Satan tempts us and leads us, after all he is closer to man that God! Was Baudelaire a Satanist? It is question to be answered.
The following paper, in its sense, is a summary of the broad qualitative and quantitative authorial research on the historically-themed materials from the social media video platform YouTube. The main research problem dealt with the matter of the meaning of the historical narrative for the contemporary polish society and the specificity of its historical consciousness. 635 videos from 6 channels since 2013 till 2019 were analyzed. Authors point out the relation between the quantitative analysis of the videos’ topics with the current trends of interests in history present in the society. Functioning of the most popular videos’ trends were emphasized and its connection with their qualitative layer of the historical narrative. Further research on the hypothesis on the ethnocentric interest in history was conducted. Slightly advantage of the political and military narrative was observed and a little less advantage of the factographical and processual perspective in history which is the matter for the further analysis. Conducted research showed that interest in history on the YouTube platform confirms the special status of the XX century and II World War narrations in the historical consciousness of the Polish society.
Mitral regurgitation is the second most common valvular disease. The etiology is either primary or functional-secondary to the left ventricle dysfunction in the course of coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension and diabetes. Along with the population aging and increasing number of comorbidities the number of patients with mitral regurgitation soars. In patients with heart failure the mitral regurgitation significantly decreases the quality of life and worsens the survival prognosis. Surgical correction is the treatment of choice in patients with mitral regurgitation. However, up to 50% of potential candidates are denied surgery for its prohibitive risk. The minimally invasive, percutaneus procedures are potential solution for those subjects. Currently the „edge to edge” technique with use of the MitraClip system is most commonly performed. This procedure is less efficient in MR reduction than open heart surgery. However, the number of periprocedural complications is smaller. It has been shown the MR correction with the MitraClip device improves the duration and quality of life. There are several ongoing preclinical studies on the percutaneusly implanted mitral valve prosthesis. First in men procedures have been performed. However the mitral valve anatomy is much more complex as compared to aortic. Therefore the breakthrough comparable to TAVI procedure will not occur in the very close future.
Five years ago, the Act on the protection of animals used for scientific or educational purposes entered into force. It is the implementation of Directive 2010/63/ EU into the Polish legal system. During the work on the Directive, most scientists were convinced that the previous Act on animal experiments of 2005 was in line with the new EU law and only minor modifications would be necessary. Legislators, however, decided to create a completely new legal act. Already at the time of the Act's creation, the scientific community made many critical comments regarding the law. Significant discrepancies between the Directive and the proposed provisions of the Act were far more stringent, and in many places with imprecise provisions which could have resulted in difficulties in conducting research using animals. Unfortunately, most of the postulates of the scientific community were not considered at that time. What does the Act look like 5 years after its adoption? Instead of a transparent and balanced law modeled on the EU Directive, which provides real protection for experimental animals, while safeguarding the intellectual rights of animal testing units, a patch of underdeveloped, sometimes mutually exclusive provisions has been issued. Instead of raising the welfare of the animals used for research to a higher level, it significantly increased the costs of operating research units and increased bureaucracy. Instead of rationalizing the system of issuing consents for research, it has been weakened and entangled in administrative and legal disputes without the provision of basic administrative facilities. Instead of increasing the international mobility of scientists and technicians working with experimental animals, the implementation of the law created a training “system” that is not recognized in any other EU country. In the light of the 5-year experience of the scientific community and the expert part of the composition of local ethics committees, we postulate to introduce a number of significant changes to the act so that its amended version actually ensures animal protection, respect for researchers and returns to the current of European legislation.
The report encompasses the activity of the Commission for Ethics in Science in the year 2019.
NAUKA jest czasopismem Polskiej Akademii Nauk wydawanym kwartalnie w języku polskim lub angielskim. Czasopismo publikuje recenzowane prace naukowe, artykuły przeglądowe, polemiczne, wspomnieniowe, recenzje oraz listy do redakcji.
Nadsyłane prace prosimy przygotowywać za pomocą typowego edytora tekstu zgodnie z podanymi poniżej zaleceniami. Prosimy o dostarczenie dwóch egzemplarzy wydruku pracy na papierze formatu A-4 z szerokim marginesem po lewej stronie, po około 30 wierszy na stronie.
Wydruk nie powinien zawierać poprawek, podkreśleń i spacjowań. Praca powinna zawierać streszczenie (maksymalnie 200 słów) oraz słowa kluczowe (trzy do sześciu). Kolejne akapity należy rozpoczynać wcięciem. Jeśli praca napisana jest w języku polskim, to wówczas tytuł pracy, słowa kluczowe oraz streszczenie należy dostarczyć również w języku angielskim.
Do przesyłanego wydruku tekstu pracy i kompletu ponumerowanych rycin (po 2 egzemplarze) prosimy dołączyć:
a) pismo, w którym pierwszy autor zwraca się do redakcji o wydrukowanie pracy w czasopiśmie (jest to formalna zgoda autora na publikację pracy), podaje swój dokładny adres, zatrudnienie, numer telefonu, adres e-mailowy oraz podpis wraz z podaniem tytułu naukowego oraz stanowiska;
b) pisemne oświadczenie, że praca nie była dotąd ogłoszona drukiem i nie została złożona w innej redakcji. W przypadku wykorzystywania rycin uprzednio opublikowanych lub pochodzących od innych autorów należy dołączyć pisemną zgodę autorów i wydawnictwa na ich wykorzystanie;
c) opisaną dyskietkę lub CD z tekstem całej pracy; w przypadku stosowania nietypowego edytora tekstu należy dołączyć również plik w formacie RTF lub ASCII. Zawartość wersji elektronicznej powinna być identyczna z przesłanym wydrukiem. W przypadku przesyłania elektronicznej wersji ilustracji należy umieszczać poszczególne ilustracje w oddzielnych plikach, podając nazwę programu, za pomocą którego zostały wykonane.
Jakość ilustracji powinna pozwalać na ich bezpośrednią reprodukcję. Ilustracje w formie map bitowych muszą mieć rozdzielcz
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