Humanities and Social Sciences

Nauka

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Nauka | 2021 | No 1 |

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Abstract

COVID-19 has been devastating the health of millions of people around the globe and causing untold damage to the economy for many months. Teams of researchers have been working tirelessly on developing an effective vaccine since the outbreak of the pandemic, and we are on the threshold of a breakthrough. However, a large proportion of our society has been expressing concerns about the vaccine. In this statement, we discuss the possible risks and explain why vaccination is the only rational choice which will help us emerge from the pandemic, save the lives and health of countless people and limit the damage already inflicted on the economy.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zespół ds. COVID-19 przy Prezesie PAN
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Abstract

In response to a legislative initiative of the Minister of Education and Science to regulate academic freedom, the Committee of Ethics in Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences states that the initiative does not identify a problem with freedom of expression of worldview, religious or philosophical convictions but produces it. The initiative does not distinguish between the methodological demands of science that apply to individuals as researchers and the freedom of expression enjoyed by citizens. It encourages legitimization of non-scientific and anti-scientific claims within academic debate. In consequence, implementation of the proposed regulation will have a negative impact on the quality of scientific research and public debate in Poland.
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Komitet Etyki w Nauce Polskiej Akademii Nauk
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Abstract

In these remarks I make the attempt to draw a picture of the tradition, as well the modern forms of panpsychism, parapsychology and psychoanalysis. What connects these notions is situating those notions either outside the disciplines or at least on the edge of them. The problem is not just the fact that they did experienced various transformations and some of them did get closer to the criteria of being scientific. And on other occasions they distanced themselves from those criteria. Another issue is the fact that these criteria also changed what was considered scientific in one period, in another was perceived as pseudoscience, quasiscience or even parascientific. It had and still has to this day an important influence on what is often higher regarded in social terms. ie. pseudo- and quasiscientific theories rather than real science.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zbigniew Drozdowicz
1

  1. Instytut Kulturoznawstwa, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza
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Abstract

We examined the male-female collaboration practices of all internationally visible Polish university professors (N = 25,463) based on their Scopus-indexed publications from 2009–2018 (158,743 journal articles). We merged a national registry of 99,935 scientists with the Scopus publication database, using probabilistic and deterministic record linkage. Our database (“The Polish Science Observatory”) included all professors with at least a doctoral degree employed in 85 researchinvolved universities. We determined an “individual publication portfolio” for every professor. The gender homophily principle (publishing predominantly with scientists of the same sex) was found to apply to male scientists — but not to females. The majority of male scientists collaborate solely with males; most female scientists, in contrast, do not collaborate with females at all. Gender homophily in research-intensive institutions proved stronger for males than for females. Finally, we used a multi-dimensional fractional logit regression model to estimate the impact of gender and other individual-level and institutional-level independent variables on gender homophily in research collaboration.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Kwiek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Wojciech Roszka
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Centrum Studiów nad Polityką Publiczną, Katedra UNESCO Badań Instytucjonalnych i Polityki Szkolnictwa Wyższego UAM w Poznaniu
  2. Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Poznaniu
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Abstract

The scope of water management is to meet water demand by supplying water to the population and to the national economy; to provide water to the users in such sectors as agriculture, energy, navigation, tourism and recreation, as well as the environment; and to warrant water safety (including protection against floods and droughts). Health and well-being of the Polish population depends on the quality of the environment, therein access to water in adequate quantity and quality. The country struggles with management of low water resources whose quality is still inadequate. The present paper, co-authored by numerous Polish experts, leaders in research and in practice, presents a critical view on the water management in Poland. Among the specific topical areas covered by this paper are: water needs, policies and legislation, as well as governance. The authors specify recommendations for a range of necessary, and urgent, actions to be taken by decision makers and politicians, who are responsible for formulation of appropriate principles and their implementation. Development of adequate legal framework at various spatial levels (EU, national, regional, local, as well as at the river basin scale) is of essential importance for warranting people’s well-being. It is necessary to establish control aimed at keeping the subtle balance between the governance, legal acts, and adequate financing.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zbigniew Kundzewicz (red.)
1
Janusz Zaleski (red.)
Elżbieta Nachlik (red.)
Anna Januchta-Szostak (red.)

  1. Instytut Środowiska Rolniczego i Leśnego PAN w Poznaniu
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Abstract

The idea of students giving official grades to teachers is new in the centuries-old history of education. Today, the technical side of its implementation is usually discussed, while the purposefulness and usefulness are rarely in focus. The article provides a justification for the view that the student survey is a poor measuring instrument and it is used contrary to its intended use. First, it is unclear what exactly it measures, but it does so imprecisely as there are many known factors that are potentially sources of bias. Second, only to a small extent is the survey actually used to improve the quality of teaching. A separate argument was also given for the opinion that student evaluation of classes not only brings little benefit, but also causes some harm.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Grzegorek
1

  1. Katedra Psychologii Ogólnej, Instytut Psychologii, Akademia Ignatianum w Krakowie
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Abstract

Demand for energy and resources has been growing as a result of population growth and increased consumption to the point where all the scientific evidence shows we are bumping up against fundamental planetary boundaries on which our civilizations depend. In new EASAC report trends that lead calls for “transformative” change, with a focus on some of the systemic and structural failures that are driving our current unsustainable development has been discussed.
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Rajmund Michalski
1

  1. Instytut Podstaw Inżynierii Środowiska PAN w Zabrzu
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Abstract

Report of the EASAC’s Environment Programme is an interdisciplinary publication on how to stop the current climatic and ecological crisis. It also raises the question of whether and how the necessary transformation is affected by the current pandemic. I start this refection article by shortly presenting some of the causes and consequences of CO2 rise in the atmosphere. I then summarise the reports diagnosis on the state of civilization and the potential impact of pandemic on our planet. Finally, I suggest further readings on the issue.
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Authors and Affiliations

Joanna Rutkowska
1 2

  1. Komitet Biologii Środowiskowej i Ewolucyjnej PAN
  2. Instytut Nauk o Środowisku, Wydział Biologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński
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Abstract

The article discusses the efforts of Polish women to be admitted to pharmaceutical studies and to obtain the right to practice as a pharmacist. Based on the published memoirs of one of the first three students of the Pharmaceutical Department of the Jagiellonian University Jadwiga Klemensiewiczowa nee Sikorski ( Przebojem ku wiedzy) and the world's first owner of a female pharmacy Antonina Leśniewska ( Po neprotorennoj doroge) the struggle of pharmacy pioneers in the fight for equality and professional emancipation was presented. There was also mention of a precedent on a global scale, i.e. obtaining a master's degree in pharmacy by the sisters Konstancja and Florentyna Studziński who were the first women in Europe to do so before the gates of the Galician university were opened to women. Stanisława Dowgiałłówna and Janina Kosmowska were also among the first Polish pharmacists, who practiced this profession.
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Dorota Pietrzkiewicz
1

  1. Wydział Dziennikarstwa, Informacji i Bibliologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego
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Abstract

The life of Jerzy Ignacy Skowronski, Professor of High Voltages, Dean of the Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the first Dean of the Electrical Faculty of the Wrocław University of Science and Technology, member of the real Polish Academy of Sciences and President of the Wrocław Scientific Society, founder of the Wrocław Scientific School of Electrical Materials, was described. Documents contained in the Archives of the Wrocław University of Science and Technology, works published by Jerzy I. Skowronski, previously published publications on his scientific merits written by his former Ph.D. students and information from his grandson Jan Paweł Skowronski were used. The author's intention was to show unknown facts from the life of the Professor and his works unknown until now.
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Krystian Leonard Chrzan
1

  1. Politechnika Wrocławska
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Abstract

The authors criticize the claims relating to the functioning of the National Committee on Ethical Review of Animal Research made in the paper „Five years of difficult experiences with the Act of the protection of animals used for scientific or educational purposes dated of January 15, 2015” published in „Nauka” (3/2020) relating to the functioning of the National Ethics Committee on Animal Experimentation. The comment proves many statements of that paper blatantly false given either statistical data or legal regulations. It includes the duties of the National Ethics Committee, right of non-governmental organizations to participate in administrative proceedings, conflict of interest, and the approach of the National Ethics Committee to appeals from the decisions made by local committees. The authors prove that the paper’s suggestions of the alleged misconduct by the National Ethics Committee on Animal Experimentation are ill-founded and result from the poorly understood legal situation as well as lack of reference to relevant empirical data.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Pietrzykowski
1 2
Hanna Kalamarz-Kubiak
3 2

  1. Uniwersytet Śląski
  2. Krajowa Komisja Etyczna do spraw Doświadczeń na Zwierzętach (KKE)
  3. Instytut Oceanologii PAN
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Abstract

Professor Piotr Francuz conducted innovative experimental research in cognitive psychology and neuroscience. He was the author of numerous publications on perception and information processing, audiovisual communication, imagination and perception of beauty, and psychology methodology. The paper presents the Professor's scientific profile and his research, teaching, and organizational achievements. Professor passed away on November 14, 2020.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jerzy M. Brzeziński
1
Piotr K. Oleś
2

  1. Wydział Psychologii i Kognitywistyki UAM
  2. Instytut Psychologii KUL
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Abstract

Wacław Tadeusz Szybalski (1921–2020) was born in the city of Lwów. Gradueted from School of Chemistry of Technical University of Lwów (Politechnika Lwowska). In 1945 he obtained diploma of chemical engineering from Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice and PhD in 1949 from Gdańsk University of Technology. He left Poland in 1949, first for Denmark and later USA. From 1951–1955 Wacław Szybalski joined the famous Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, NY, as a Staff Member. From 1960 to 2003 he has position of Professor of Oncology at the McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. Prof. Wacław Szybalski published over 260 scientific papers, covering many areas of biology, including bacterial genetics, mechanisms of drug resistance and radiosensitization, mutagenesis, multi-drug therapy, molecular biology of bacteriophages, particularly phage lambda, genetic engineering, gene therapy, synthetic biology and DNA biochemistry/sequencing. Prof. Wacław Szybalski retired in 2003, and held the rank of Emeritus Professor of Oncology and of Genetics since then. During all years in USA Wacław Szybalski relations with Poland, especially Gdańsk remained very strong. He was a Mentor of several Polish postdocs. Prof. Wacław Szybalski received many science awards over the years, was a Foreign Member of the Polish Academy of Sciences and Polish Academy of Art and Sciences. In 2011, he received the highest honor awarded in Poland, becoming a Knight of the Order of Polonia Restituta, First Class, presented by President of Poland Bronisław Komorowski. He has also received five honorary doctorates from leading universities in Poland.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Łojkowska
1 2

  1. Międzyuczelniany Wydział Biotechnologii Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego i GUMed
  2. Fundacja Profesora Wacława Szybalskiego

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