Applied sciences

Opto-Electronics Review

Content

Opto-Electronics Review | 2016 | vol. 24 | No 4 |

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Abstract

In cyclic articles previously published we described and analysed self-organized light fibres inside a liquid crystalline (LC) cell contained photosensitive polymer (PP) layer. Such asymmetric LC cell we call a hybrid LC cell. Light fibre arises along a laser beam path directed in plane of an LC cell. It means that a laser beam is parallel to photosensitive layer. We observed the asymmetric LC cell response on an external driving field polarization. Observation has been done for an AC field first. It is the reason we decided to carry out a detailed research for a DC driving field to obtain an LC cell response step by step. The properly prepared LC cell has been built with an isolating layer and garbage ions deletion. We proved by means of a physical model, as well as a numerical simulation that LC asymmetric response strongly depends on junction barriers between PP and LC layers. New parametric model for a junction barrier on PP/LC boundary has been proposed. Such model is very useful because of lack of proper conductivity and charge carriers of band structure data on LC material.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Moszczyński
A. Walczak
P. Marciniak
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Abstract

There exists a need in a quality and accuracy of a three-dimensional laser metrology operating in numerically controlled automatic machines. For this purpose, one sends three laser beams mutually perpendicular. These three beams of the wavelength λ = 0.6328 μm are generated by the same laser and are directed along three independent, orthogonal, mutually perpendicular, optical paths with a given light polarization plain. Using these beams, constituting the frame of coordinates, three independent laser rangefinders are able to determine spatial coordinates of a working tool or a workpiece. To form these optical pulses, a special refractive index matched Half-Wave Plate with nematic Liquid Crystal (LCHWP) was applied. The presented half-wave plate is based on a single Twisted Nematic (TN) cell (with the twist angle Φ = π/2) of a rather high cell gap d ~15 μm filled with a newly developed High-Birefringence Nematic Liquid Crystal Mixture (HBLCM) of optical anisotropy as high as Δn ~0.40 at λ = 0.6328 μm, where the Mauguin limit above 5.00 ~ Δnd >> λ/2 = 0.32 is fulfilled.

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Authors and Affiliations

W. Piecek
L.R. Jaroszewicz
ORCID: ORCID
E. Miszczyk
Z. Raszewski
M. Mrukiewicz
P. Perkowski
E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki
J. Zieliński
M. Olifierczuk
J. Kędzierski
X.W. Sun
K. Garbat
K. Kowiorski
P. Morawiak
R. Mazur
J. Tkaczyk
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Abstract

The Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) based temperature optical sensor has been designed and demonstrated. FBGs have been modelled and fabricated so as to convert the Bragg wavelength shift into the intensity domain. The main experimental setup consists of a filtering FBG and two scanning FBGs, respectively, left and right scanning FBG, whereby scanning FBGs are symmetrically located on the slopes of the filtering FBG. Such an approach allows for the modulation of power for the propagating optical signal depending on the ambient temperature at the scanning FBG location. A positive or negative change of power is determined by the spectral response of the FBG. Experimental research of the scanning FBGs’ sensitivities emphasized that the key issue is the filtering FBG. A different level of sensitivity could be achieved due to the spectral characteristic of the filtering FBG. Omitting advanced and high-cost devices, the FBG-based temperature sensor is presented. The FBG-based sensor setup could yield resolution of 1°C for the range of temperature 0.5°C to 52.5°C. The experimental study has been performed as a base for an easy-placed sensor system to monitor external parameters in real environment.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Mądry
K. Markowski
K. Jędrzejewski
E. Bereś-Pawlik
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Abstract

A novel all optical measurement scheme is proposed to measure wideband microwave frequencies up to 30 GHz. The proposed method is based on a four-wave mixing (FWM) approach in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) of both even order side-bands generated by an unknown microwave frequency modulating an optical carrier. The optical power of a generated FWM signal depends on frequency spacing between extracted side-bands. A mathematical relation is established between FWM power and frequency of an unknown signal. A calibration curve is drawn based on the mathematical relation which predicts the unknown frequency from power withdrawn after FWM

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Kumar
V. Priye
R. Raj Singh
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Abstract

The paper presents results of a simulation of the plasmon effect achieved between a thin precious metal layer and a biconical optical fibre taper, manufactured on a standard single mode fibre. Gold, silver and titanium were used as a metal which fulfilled a cladding function for a small diameter structure. For simulation Mode Solution software was used on which modal and frequency analyses of a wavelength were provided in the range of 800–1700 nm. A displacement of a plasmon pick in dependence of thickness of a deposited precious layer for the highest plasmon effects was observed.

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Authors and Affiliations

K.A. Stasiewicz
J.E. Moś
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Abstract

We experimentally studied three different D-shape polymer optical fibres with an exposed core for their applications as surface plasmon resonance sensors. The first one was a conventional D-shape fibre with no microstructure while in two others the fibre core was surrounded by two rings of air holes. In one of the microstructured fibres we introduced special absorbing inclusions placed outside the microstructure to attenuate leaky modes. We compared the performance of the surface plasmon resonance sensors based on the three fibres. We showed that the fibre bending enhances the resonance in all investigated fibres. The measured sensitivity of about 610 nm/RIUfor the refractive index of glycerol solution around 1.350 is similar in all fabricated sensors. However, the spectral width of the resonance curve is significantly lower for the fibre with inclusions suppressing the leaky modes.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Gasior
T. Martynkien
G. Wojcik
P. Mergo
W. Urbanczyk
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Abstract

Photonic devices often use light delivered by a single-mode telecommunication fibre. However, as the diameter of the core of the optical fibre is of 10 microns, and the transverse dimensions of the photonic waveguides are usually micrometer or less, there is an issue of incompatibility. The problem may be solved by application of tapered optical fibres. For efficient light coupling, the taper should be prepared so as to create a beam of long focal length and small spot diameter in the focus. The article describes the design, fabrication and characterization of tapered optical fibres prepared with a fibre-optic fusion splicer. We modelled the tapers with FDTD method, for estimation of the influence of the tapered length and angle on the spot diameter and the focal length of an outgoing beam. We fabricated tapers from a standard single mode fibre by the Ericsson 995 PMfi- bre-optic fusion splicer. We planned the splicing technology so as to get the needed features of the beam. We planned a multistep fusion process, with optimized fusion current and fusion time. The experimental measurements of best tapered optical fibres were carried out by the knife-edge method.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Zakrzewski
A. Pięta
S. Patela
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Abstract

We demonstrated two methods of increasing the bandwidth of a broadband light source based on amplified spontaneous emission in thulium-doped fibres. Firstly, we have shown by means of a comprehensive numerical model that the full-width at half maximum of the thulium-doped fibre based broadband source can be more than doubled by using specially tailored spectral filter placed in front of the mirror in a double-pass configuration of the amplified spontaneous emission source. The broadening can be achieved with only a small expense of the output power. Secondly, we report results of the experimental thulium-doped fibre broadband source, including fibre characteristics and performance of the thulium-doped fibre in a ring laser setup. The spectrum broadening was achieved by balancing the backward amplified spontaneous emission with back-reflected forward emission.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Písařík
Pavel Peterka
ORCID: ORCID
J. Aubrecht
J. Cajzl
A. Benda
D. Mareš
F. Todorov
O. Podrazký
Pavel Honzátko
ORCID: ORCID
I. Kašík

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Opto-Electronics Review was established in 1992 for the publication of scientific papers concerning optoelectronics and photonics materials, system and signal processing. This journal covers the whole field of theory, experimental verification, techniques and instrumentation and brings together, within one journal, contributions from a wide range of disciplines. Papers covering novel topics extending the frontiers in optoelectronics and photonics are very encouraged. The main goal of this magazine is promotion of papers presented by European scientific teams, especially those submitted by important team from Central and Eastern Europe. However, contributions from other parts of the world are by no means excluded.

Articles are published in OPELRE in the following categories:

-invited reviews presenting the current state of the knowledge,

-specialized topics at the forefront of optoelectronics and photonics and their applications,

-refereed research contributions reporting on original scientific or technological achievements,

-conference papers printed in normal issues as invited or contributed papers.

Authors of review papers are encouraged to write articles of relevance to a wide readership including both those established in this field of research and non-specialists working in related areas. Papers considered as “letters” are not published in OPELRE.

Opto-Electronics Review is published quarterly as a journal of the Association of Polish Electrical Engineers (SEP) and Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS) in cooperation with the Military University of Technology and under the auspices of the Polish Optoelectronics Committee of SEP.

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