Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

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Polish Polar Research | 2011 | No 4 |

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Abstract

This paper presents new records of stenothoids from the Scotia Arc (West Antarctic). Altogether twenty species were recorded, two of which are reported in the West
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Jażdżewska
Traudl Krapp-Schickel
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Abstract

Two new species of desmosomatid isopods, Eugerdella margaretae sp. n. and Eugerdella celata sp. n. are described from Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetlands. Information is added to the original description of Eugerdella falklandica (Nordenstam, 1933) based on re−examination of the holotype. Both new species are similar to E. falklandica, for example by the body shape, the shape of pleotelson and presence of rows of four horn−like spines on the head. They are distinguished from E. falklandica by the number of setae on pereopod articles. Eugerdella celata sp. n. is distinguished by the presence of ventral spines on pereonites 1–4
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Authors and Affiliations

Karol Zemko
Saskia Brix
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Abstract

Eleven species of cumaceans were found in 105 samples collected in Admiralty Bay (King George Island) in the summers of 1984/85 and 1985/86, from 20 to 500 m depth range. Four cumacean assemblages were distinguished using the multivariate analysis. They were characterized by the dominance of one or two species often with low density values. Two assemblages were found in open waters of Admiralty Bay. The first inhabited on sandy−clay−silt and silty−clay−sand bottom deposits in the depth range from 140 to 330 m, with Campylaspis maculata (1.6 ± 2.1 ind./0.1m 2 ; F = 72.4%) and Leucon sp. (1.4 ± 1.6 ind./0.1m 2 ; F = 68.9%) as key species. The second assemblage was found in the depth range from 50 to 120 m with silty−sand sediments, and it was characterized by the presence of Vauthompsonia inermis (6.5 ± 6.6 ind./0.1m 2 ; F = 92.0%). A third assemblage was found in shallow waters influenced by glaciers in the bottom area of Ezcurra Inlet. It was characterized by sandy−clay−silt sediments and the presence of Eudorella splendida (14.6 ± 9.4 ind./0.1m 2 ; F = 100.0%) as a core species. The last assemblage was found in the shallow sublittoral (50–100 m) of Ezcurra Inlet and the central basin, with Diastylis anderssoni armata (1.5 ± 1.1 ind./0.1m 2 ; F = 85.7%) and Diastylopsis goekei (1.1 ± 1.0 ind./0.1m 2 ; F = 71.4%) as the most frequent and abundant species. V. inermis is considered a eurytopic species with high frequency in the whole material, and was present in all four distinguished assemblages. E. splendida and D. goekei were also recorded in each of the assemblages, but their total frequency was lower.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Pabis
Magdalena Błażewicz-Paszkowycz
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Abstract

Here we report a photo−documented record of a barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica ) from the South Shetland Islands. We also review previous records of passerine vagrants in the Antarctic (south of the Antarctic Convergence Zone). This barn swallow is the first re− corded member of the Hirundinidae family on King George Island and is only the second passerine recorded in the South Shetland Islands. This sighting, along with previous records of austral negrito and austral trush represent the southernmost sightings of any passerine bird anywhere in the world.
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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata Korczak-Abshire
Alexander C. Lees
Agata Jojczyk
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Abstract

The occurrence and temporal variations of polar shallow groundwater systems and associated seasonal springs and seeps are studied using the example of springs and seeps in the vicinity of the eastern coast of Petuniabukta in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Altogether, 37 groundwater outflows were documented. The outflows were mostly located at the foot of talus slopes and were characterised by small discharges (<1 dm 3 s −1 ). The water emerging from the outflows varied widely in terms of temperature and specific electrical conductivity (SpC). These outflows were supplied mainly by water from permafrost, melting snowfields and rainfall. Daily changes were studied in four of the outflows during July 2006. The observed water discharges ranged from 0.04 to 0.7 dm 3 s −1 , and the temporal variations for the particular outflows were on the order of 50% of the average value. The water temperature amplitude for particular outflows was up to 1.5 ° C. The SpC was approximately 200 μScm −1 and increased with time by almost 40 μScm −1 in the case of two outflows drain − ing talus slopes. The water emerging from two springs in carbonate and sulphate rocks had an SpC up to 1295 μScm −1 , and in one case, its increase with time was observed to be 300 μScm −1 . The increase in the SpC with time probably reflects a decrease in the contribution of snow meltwater in the groundwater recharge. Among the major local factors affecting the groundwater outflows’ water quality and discharge rate were the following: geomorphology, rock type, meteorological conditions, state of permafrost and local water storage
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Maria Szczucińska
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Abstract

In marine seismic wide−angle profiling the recorded wave field is dominated by waves propagating in the water. These strong direct and multiple water waves are generally treated as noise, and considerable processing efforts are employed in order minimize their influences. In this paper we demonstrate how the water arrivals can be used to determine the water velocity beneath the seismic wide−angle profile acquired in the Northern Atlantic. The pattern of water multiples generated by air−guns and recorded by Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) changes with ocean depth and allows determination of 2D model of velocity. Along the profile, the water velocity is found to change from about 1450 to approximately 1490 m/s. In the uppermost 400 m the velocities are in the range of 1455–1475 m/s, corresponding to the oceanic thermocline. In the deep ocean there is a velocity decrease with depth, and a minimum velocity of about 1450 m/s is reached at about 1.5 km depth. Be − low that, the velocity increases to about 1495 m/s at approximately 2.5 km depth. Our model compares well with estimates from CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth) data collected nearby, suggesting that the modelling of water multiples from OBS data might be − come an important oceanographic tool.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Grad
Rolf Mjelde
Wojciech Czuba
Aleksander Guterch
Johannes Schweitzer
Ipy Project Group
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Abstract

The spatial distribution of snow thickness on glaciers is driven by a set of climatological, meteorological, topographical and orographic conditions. This work presents results of snow accumulation studies carried out from 2006 to 2009 on glaciers of different types: valley glacier, ice plateau and ice cap. In order to determine snow depth, a shallow radio echo−sounding method was used. Based on the results, the following snow distribution patterns on Svalbard glaciers have been distinguished: precipitation pattern, precipitation−redistribution pattern, redistribution pattern and complex pattern. The precipitation pattern assumes that the snow distribution on glaciers follows the altitudinal gradient. If the accumulation gradient is significantly modified by local factors like wind erosion and redeposition, or local variability of precipitation, the accumulation pattern turns into the precipitation−redistribution pattern. In the redistribution pattern, local factors play a crucial role in the spatial variability of snow depth. The complex pattern, however, demonstrates the co−existence of different snow distribution patterns on a single glacial object (glacier/ice cap/ice field).
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Budzik
Mariusz Grabiec
Dariusz Puczko
Grzegorz Gajek

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