Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

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Polish Polar Research | 2015 | No 2 |

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Abstract

Receiver function provides the signature of sharp seismic discontinuities and the information about the shear wave (S−wave) velocity distribution beneath the seismic station. This information is very valuable in areas where any or few reflection and/or refraction studies are available and global and/or regional models give only rough information about the seismic velocities. The data recorded by broadband seismic stations have been analysed to investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of the Svalbard Archipelago. Svalbard Archipelago is a group of islands located in Arctic, at the north−western part of the Barents Sea continental platform, which is bordered to the west and to the north by passive continental margins. The new procedure of parameterization and selection of receiver functions (RFs) has been proposed. The back−azimuthal sections of RF show a strong variation for the HSPB and KBS stations. Significant amplitudes of transversal component of RF (T−RF) for the HSPB station indicate a shallow dipping layer towards the southwest. The structure of the crust beneath the SPITS array seems to be less heterogeneous, with very low amplitudes of converted phase comparing to the KBS and HSPB stations. Forward modelling by trial−and−error method shows a division of the crust into 3–4 layers beneath all stations and layering of the uppermost mantle beneath the SPITS array and the HSPB stations. The thickness of the mantle transition zone is larger for western part of archipelago and smaller for eastern part comparing to iasp91 model.
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Authors and Affiliations

Monika Wilde-Piórko
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Abstract

This paper presents the results of direct 3−D fault displacement monitoring along the northern shore of Hornsund Fjord, SW Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The fault displacements have been recorded using three permanently installed optical−mechanical crack gauges since 2009. The monitoring data from all three sites provided evidence for a remarkable slip event that lasted from September 2011 to May 2012. The cause is discussed in some detail with consideration given to both exogenic (temperature changes, surface processes) and endogenic processes (isostatic rebound and regional seismicity). It is proposed that transient fault slips recorded had a tectonic origin and were caused by approximately W−E oriented compression corresponding to regional compression in the Svalbard area.
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Authors and Affiliations

Josef Stemberk
Miloš Briestenský
Stefan Cacoń
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Abstract

The Ebbabreen ice−cored moraine area is covered with a sediment layer of up to 2.5 m thick, which mostly consists of massive diamicton. Due to undercutting by lateral streams, debris flow processes have been induced in marginal parts of this moraine. It was recognized that the sedimentology of deposits within the deposition area of debris flows is the effect of: (1) the origin of the sediments, (2) the nature of the debris flow, and (3) post−debris flow reworking. Analysis of debris flow deposits in microscale (thin sections) suggests a common mixing during flow, even though a small amount of parent material kept its original structure. The mixing of sediments during flow leads to them having similar sedimentary characteristics across the deposition area regardless of local conditions ( i.e. slope angle, water content, parent material lithology). After the deposition of sediments that were transported by the debris flow, they were then reworked by a further redeposition process, primarily related to meltwater stream action.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Pleskot
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Abstract

This paper offers a comparison of Muriella decolor specimens from different geographical regions and habitats (limestone caves in Poland and ice denuded areas near the Ecology Glacier, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, West Antarctic). Morphological and cytological variability, ecology and life strategies of M. decolor were studied in fresh samples, and also in cultures grown on agar plates. The complete life cycle, with de − tailed ultrastructural (LM and TEM) analysis are presented. The electron microscopic observations prove that materials identified as M. decolor collected in Poland and the Antarctic have distinct ultrastructural features. These include the chloroplast lamella arrangement, mitochondrial cristae structure and the cell wall thickness.
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Authors and Affiliations

Maria Olech
Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska
Andrzej Massalski
Anna Wojciechowska
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Abstract

Lichens, as typical obligate associations between lichenized fungi and their photosynthetic partners, are dominant in Antarctica. Three Antarctic lichens, Ochrolechia frigida , Umbilicaria antarctica , and Usnea aurantiaco−atra with different growth forms, were sampled nearby the Great Wall Station, King George Island. Molecular data revealed that the photosynthetic algae in these three lichens were Trebouxia jamesii . The net photo − synthesis (Pn) of three individuals from these species, together with environmental factors such as light and temperature, were recorded by CO 2 gas exchange measurements using a CI−340 portable photosynthetic system in situ . Differences between T(leaf) (the temperature of the thalli) and T(air) (the air temperature) for these lichens were not consistent, which reflected that environment and the growth form of thalli could affect T(leaf) significantly. Strong irradiation was expected to have adverse effects on Pn of Ochrolechia frigida and Umbilicaria antarctica whose thalli spread flat; but this photoinhibition had little effect on Usnea aurantiaco−atra with exuberant tufted thallus. These results indicated that photo − synthetic activity in lichens was affected by the growth forms of thalli besides microhabitat factors. One species of lichenized alga could exhibit diversified types of photosynthetic behavior when it was associated with various lichenized fungi in different microhabitats. It will be helpful for understanding how lichens are able to adapt to and colonize in extreme environments.
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Authors and Affiliations

Shunan Cao
Jie Zhang
Hongyuan Zheng
Chuanpeng Liu
Qiming Zhou
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Abstract

This paper refers to lichen biota growing on driftwood in the Kaffi ø yra Plain (NW Spitsbergen, Svalbard). The presented list of 25 lichenized fungi includes both the eurytopic, accidental, typical, and stenotopic species. Taxa that belong to the last two groups can be considered as lignicolous. This study confirms the existence of a specific group of lichen species, for which the driftwood is a main substrate in the Arctic. Additionally, five lichen species new for the whole Svalbard were recorded, namely: Candelariella coralliza , Elixia flexella , Lecanora saligna , Lecidea plebeja , and Xylographa sibirica .
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Authors and Affiliations

Michał Węgrzyn
Paulina Wietrzyk
Edyta Adamska
Paweł Nicia

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