The paper deals with dynamics of present morphologic processes and cover deposits of nival and subnival stages in the area to the north of the Hornsund Fiord. Qualitative and quantitative parameters of the processes are described on the basis of direct measurements and radiocarbon datings. A particular attention was paid to the action of frost and gravitational processes in the specific morphoclimatic conditions of a nival landscape stage. The cover deposits are described from the point of view of their origin and physico-chemical properties. The age of the covers is defined on the ground of radiocarbon datings of fossil plants found at the nunataks for the first time in 1973. These datings enabled to distinguish the development phases of the morphogenetic processes during Late Holocene.
A structure of recent morainic sediments, mainly of gravel — boulder fraction (15—60 mm) was studied in the extremely marginal part of the Werenskiold Glacier. The data were collected within three environments of glacial deposition i.e. supraglacial of dead glacial ice and layer of relegation ice adhering to the glacier bottom and subglacial ones. A distinct textural individuality is typical for supraglacial deposits. Arrangement and orientation of boulders coming from the basal part of a glacier as well as from the morainic subglacial sediment deposited under the active ice show many similarities. But in both latter zones as well as certain differentiation was found to be caused by morphology of the older bedrock, changes during a subglacial deposition and preliminary epigenetic changes that occur in the conditions of a subglacial regelation before a stabilization of a passive zone of subglacial permafrost.
Hot point drills were carried through in the Hans Glacier (Spitsbergen). For that purpose a non-cored hot point drill of 700 wattage was constructed. It was used among others for installing the ablation-movement stakes, for hydrological observations and in the boreholes an ice temperature was controlled.
A surface gravimetric survey in Dobrowolski Station in Bunger Oasis was made. The maps of free-air anomaly, Bouguer anomaly and residual Bouguer anomaly were prepared as result of compiling the gravimetric data. An image of isoanomalies proved an occurence of gravitational disturbances in the studied area. The depth of Mohorovićić discontinuity was also defined on the ground of Woolard's theories.
During a Polish Antarctic Expedition to Dobrowolski Station the astronomic co-ordinates of a main geodetic point have been determined. The observations were performed by Kavrajski's method. In result 26 pairs of bright stars were observed. Longitude and latitude were defined with an estimated accuracy about ± 1".
The paper presents a construction of magnetic observatory "Arctowski" on King George Island. The parameters of magnetic instruments and mean values of D, H, Z and F(T) of magnetic field are presented. Examples of registration of changes of the magnetic field are noted.
The paper informs about a foundation of seismic observatory at Arctowski's Station in the beginning og 1978. Descriptions of the object and of registration seismic instruments are included. Conditions of registration and parameters of instruments are noted. Registration sequence of seismic tremors from March 1978 to October 1979 is described. A preliminary statistics of tremors is also announced.
This study contributes to the knowledge of morphology, biology and ecology of Euphausia crystallorophias. The structure of the filtratory apparatus and analysis of the stomach contents are described. Among 41 identified algae taxa 40 were diatoms. Benthic algae, numbering as many as 12 taxa constituted a high percentage in the total of food content, which may indicate that this species feeds near the bottom in the relatively shallow shelf-waters.
In adults of both sexes of Euphausia superba analysed in total without alimentary tract there were identified with help of chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods: β-carotene, free and ester astaxanthine, cantaxanthine, β-cryptoxanthine. lutein and dihydroxy-ζ-carotene, and additionally in females zeaxanthine and flavoxanthine. However, particular parts of body (with an exception of eyes, legs and trunk) and especially the exosceleton cotain less carotenoids, mainly carotene and astaxanthine.
Recording of krill swarms and the observations of the state of the sea and the force of wind were conducted on the M/T "Gemini" from 6 to 26 February, 1978, eastwards of the South Orkneys Archipelago. It has been found that a heavy sea and strong winds disperse krill swarms. At night krill swarms occur much more frequently than during the day.
232 specimens of Notothenia coriiceps neglecta and 578 specimens of Notothenia rossi marmorata were collected in the region of Admiralty Bay during the period from March to December 1977. The age of the fish was determined from scales. Length — weight relationship was calculated for both species. The parameters of the von Bertalanffy equation were calculated for Notothenia coriiceps neglecta, whereas mean lengths for Notothenia rossi marmorata were given according to the particular age groups.
From July to October 1977, during the polar winter and at the beginning of spring, line-fishing was carried out at Admiralty Bay, near the Arctowski Station on King George Island, (South Shetland Islands). At that time only three species of fish were caught: Notothenia rossi marmorata, Notothenia coriiceps neglecta and Trematomus newnesi. Fish was caught in the irshore zone at depths ranging from 2 to 40—60 m.
The red blood picture was studied in 7 species of the Antarctic birds from the regions around Arctowski Station. King George Island (South Shetland Islands). The values of hematological indices were analysed, dependent on the mode of life and body weight of the examined species.
Changes in the red blood picture were studied during the development of Pygoscelis adeliae, P. antarctica and P. papua. It has been found that the respiratory function of a unit of the blood volume increases with the age of the investigated birds. The mechanism of this changes is described.
The observations carried out on Haswell Island on 20—24 January 1979 showed the occurrence of 7 species of nesting birds: Pygoscelis adeliae — about 36000 individuals including about 11300 young. Stercorarius skua maccormicki— 76 adults and 15 young, Daption capensis — 220+/- 10 nests, Fulmarlus glacialoides — 3150 +/- 200 nests, Thalassoica antarctica — 250 +/- 10 nests, Oceanites oceanicus — about 500 nests and Pagodroma nivea — about 10 nests. The time of hatching and moulting was found to be 15—20 days earlier, and the percentage of two-egg clutches in nests of Procellariidae was lower as compared with the literature data. More of the two-egg clutches were found for Stercorarius skua maccormicki. The krill dominated in the food of studied species of Procellariidae. Biometrical data for eggs of the majority of studied bird species were gathered.
Distribution and numbers of Lobodon carcinophagus and Leptonychotes weddelli were evaluated. Lobodon carcinophagus dominated on ice floes in offshore zone of Mirnyj Station and in regions of open pack ice close to the northern edge of ice fields. Leptonychotes weddelli dominated only on the shore-ice close to Leningradskaja Station in March 1979. A thesis of the lowered daily activity of Leptonychotes weddelli was confirmed by observations.
On the basis of observations and markings of Weddell seals in the region of the Admiralty Bay it was estimated that numbers of this species decreased systematically from about 500 to about 100 individuals from December to February. The sex structure of the local population also changed, showing a growing domination of females. Males were observed more often on coastal snow patches, females prevailed on rocky beaches close to the sea. A thesis of an increased nocturnal activity of Weddell seal was confirmed, indicating also a possibility of a two days activity cycle of this species. Synchronized among the individuals of local populations by atmoshperic conditionds.
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