Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

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Polish Polar Research | Accepted articles

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Abstract

This study reports on the accumulation rates and 210Pb fluxes in Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago, wetlands. Six peat cores were collected in the Hornsund region, SW Spitsbergen (77°N) in 2007. The ages of peat layers were obtained with the Constant Flux/Constant Sedimentation and Constant Rate of Supply models based on the 210Pb-dating technique. The obtained 210Pb flux values ranged from 28 to 50 Bq m –2 y –1, which was consistent with the level of 222Rn emanation estimated for northern latitudes. The values of vertical and mass accumulation rates were slightly lower than reference data for peatlands of 50°−70°N. Furthermore, the vertical variations of peat accumulation rates exhibited the highest values in the upper part of the examined cores. The increasing tendency may be due in part to low compaction and low decomposition in the youngest peat layers. The analysis of the peat accumulation rate as a function of organic matter content and bulk density revealed positive and negative correlations, respectively, rather strong in both cases. The air temperature and precipitation gradients in the last few decades may have affected peat growth rates, which should be thoroughly investigated in future projects. Undoubtedly, the reported findings have provided a valuable addition to the relatively sparse dataset on recent peat deposits in Spitsbergen.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Cwanek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Edyta Łokas
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

Humic substances are ubiquitous materials found in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Humic acids, a diagenetic product can interact with various components present in aquatic sediments. The present research is on the evaluation of sedimentary humic acids from the Krossfjorden glacial fjord situated within the Svalbard archipelago. The results of this study are needed to understand the structural characteristics of humic acids isolated from the fjord. Surface sediment samples were collected from four stations throughout the fjord during a summer period in 2018. Various spectroscopic techniques such as UV-visible, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were applied for studying the humic acids. The elemental composition as well as the presence of tannin and lignin were also analyzed. The results of this study revealed the variation in the structure of humic acids from aliphatic to aromatic from the outer to the inner region of the fjord. This change in humic acids was well supported by the FTIR and NMR results with differences in the spectrums.
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Authors and Affiliations

Aswathy Shaji
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anu Gopinath
2
ORCID: ORCID
Anoop Krishnan
3
ORCID: ORCID
Sabu Prabhakaran
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. School of Ocean Science and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Kochi, 682506, India
  2. Department of Aquatic Environment Management, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Kochi, 682506, India
  3. Biogeochemistry Group, National Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, 695011, India
  4. Ocean Science Group, National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research, Goa, 403804, India
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Abstract

The aim of this work was to study the polyphenolic composition of Deschampsia antarctica È. Desv. plants grown at natural conditions on different locations on the Galindez Island, Argentine Islands, the maritime Antarctic. The plants were collected during the summer season of the 26th Ukrainian Antarctic Expedition (2020–2022). The extracts of 21 plants were obtained and the composition of the extracts was analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The antioxidant properties of the extracts were characterized using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) test. The extracts were found to contain large amount of polyphenolic compounds, with flavonoids and phenolic acids, as well as their derivatives, being the most common classes of the phenols. Using the HPLC data the content of various phenols in the plants was systematic studied. It has been found that in all plants the most abundant phenols are flavonoids/flavonoid derivatives (on average about 75% of total mass of phenols). Among the flavonoids, luteolin derivatives predominate (86–94% of the total mass of flavonoids), and, among luteolin derivatives, the main compounds are orientin, orientin 2"- O-β-arabinopyranoside and isoswertiajaponin 2"- O-β-arabinopyranoside (67–83% of the total mass of luteolin derivatives). It has been also found that all the extracts possess the high activity in inhibition of DPPH radicals and that the antioxidant activity of the extracts correlates with total content of phenols in the samples. Thus, Deschampsia antarctica É. Desv. plants are a valuable source of natural phenolic antioxidants, and the most common antioxidants in the extracts are orientin, orientin 2"- O-β-arabinopyranoside and isoswertiajaponin 2"- O-β-arabinopyranoside.
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Authors and Affiliations

Roman Ivannikov
1
ORCID: ORCID
Viktor Anishchenko
2
ORCID: ORCID
Pavlo Kuzema
3
ORCID: ORCID
Oksana Stavinskaya
3
ORCID: ORCID
Iryna Laguta
3
ORCID: ORCID
Oksana Poronnik
4 5
ORCID: ORCID
Ivan Parnikoza
4 5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. M.M. Gryshko National Botanic Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Timiryazevska Str., 01014, Kyiv, Ukraine
  2. L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical-Organic Chemistry and Coal Chemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 50 Kharkivs'ke hwy, 02160, Kyiv, Ukraine
  3. Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 17 General Naumov Str., 03164, Kyiv, Ukraine
  4. Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 150 Acad. Zabolotnogo Str., 03143, Kyiv, Ukraine
  5. State Institution National Antarctic Scientific Center, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 16 Shevchenko Ave., 01601, Kyiv, Ukraine
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Abstract

Ozone depletion at southern latitudes has recently increased the fluence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation striking the ground. This phenomenon has sparked much interest in unravelling the effects of this harmful radiation on living systems. UV-B radiation triggers several responses that affect plant physiology, morphology and biochemistry. In this study, the effect of supplemental UV-B radiation on DNA profile and chlorophyll a (CHl a) fluorescence characteristics were analyzed. An increase in the genetic variability of irradiated plants was observed in the Inter Sequence Simple Repeats products. The effect on photosynthesis was studied through fluorescence emissions. The obtained data showed that photochemical quenching (qP) decreased in irradiated plants. This effect may be attributed to a decrease in the number of open reaction centers of photosystem II (PSII) as suggested by the decreased values of minimal and maximal fluorescence. Likewise, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased in both control and irradiated groups, but treated plants presented lower NPQ values than controls. The heat dissipation mechanism was also altered, probably due to a decrease in the yield of Fm´. According to these findings, UV-B radiation affects the CHl a fluorescence mechanisms and modifies DNA profile. Consequently, these changes influence the yield and growth of plants, which is an important consideration given the current climate change situation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Pedro Cuadra
1
ORCID: ORCID
Víctor Fajardo
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paula Pimentel
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Alejandra Moya-Leon
3
ORCID: ORCID
Raúl Herrera
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universidad de Magallanes, Facultad de Ciencias, Avenida Bulnes 01890, Punta Arenas 620000, Chile
  2. Centro Estudios Avanzado de Fruticultura (CEAF), Avenida Salamanca s/n, Los Choapinos, Rengo 2940000, Chile
  3. Laboratorio de Fisiología Vegetal y Genética Molecular, Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Talca, Avenida Lircay s/n, Talca 3465548, Chile
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Abstract

Previously, only three Candelariella species were known from Antarctica: C. aurella, C. flava and C. vitellina. After morphologically and phylogenetically examining our collections on soil from James Ross Island, located in the north-east Antarctic Peninsula region, and Horseshoe Island, a small rocky island in Bourgeois Fjord, Marguerite Bay in the south-west Antarctic Peninsula, we describe the lichen species Candelariella ruzgarii as new to science. Sequences of the nrITS, mtSSU and RPB1 gene regions of the new species were amplified and revealed that the phylogenetic position of the new species is in the C. aurella group, which is characterised by 8-spored asci and ± granular thalli. Candelariella ruzgarii is phylogenetically most closely related to C. aurella s. lat. but differs mainly in ecology as the new species grows on soil or on terricolous lichens, whereas the latter species grows on calcareous rocks, rarely on wood. Morphologically, C. ruzgarii is very similar to C. aggregata, a Northern Hemisphere species that grows on mosses and plant debris. Apart from the different phylogenetical position, C. ruzgarii has a thicker and sometimes slightly crenulated thalline margin and somewhat shorter ascospores than C. aggregata. We also report C. plumbea for the first time from Antarctica, a species with a thick and grey thallus that was previously known from Europe and Asia.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mehmet Gökhan Halici
1
ORCID: ORCID
Merve Kahraman Yiğit
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ekrem Bölükbaşı
2
ORCID: ORCID
Mithat Güllü
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Erciyes University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kayseri, Türkiye
  2. Amasya University, Department of Environmental Protection Technologies, Suluova Vocational School, Amasya, Türkiye

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