Since the 1980s, seaport cities have been characterized by the spatiotemporal concurrence of highly modern terminals away from the city and derelict and/or sub-optimally used inner city harbours and waterfront sites. The post-Fordist city disintegrated into a polycentric fragmented structure with aggravated social confl icts between older residential areas of dockers and requirements for modern expensive waterfront condominiums. The cranes of the shipbuilders’ yards, which used to be a characteristic feature of the city silhouette and a symbol for dynamic port economies, have been dismantled, the land left derelict and contaminated. The formerly close functional and spatial relationship of port and city was relaxed from the end of the 1960s onwards and off ered opportunities for transformations. In this article different approaches for redevelopment und revitalization are discussed.
However we are still facing unforeseeable disasters, there is no possibility to leave seashores and riversides as the places of peoples activity of any time. Also there is no chance to implement everywhere more or less sophisticated systems of anti disaster preventions, mostly because of fi nancial shortages. But the other problem is lack of understanding that more important than prevention is so called “cooperation with water”. Such an approach is a part of sustainable development, and is creating safe conditions for any waterside localisation.
Port cities are having diff erent spatial structure than those located inlands. As a result of their seaside location, they face specifi c administrative and functional problems on a daily basis. In the economic and settlement structure of the country, they usually play the role of a “gate” through which streams of cargo are distributed further over the whole hinterland. It is the transport and logistics function of port cities, as well as the water bodies located in their area, that determine their spatial character to the greatest extent. The confi guration of the two above- mentioned factors, together with other development conditions, determines the model of spatial changes taking place in port cities. Additionally, evolving shipping technologies aff ect the contemporary development of the ports’ and port cities’ spatial structure.
Like other harbour cities in Europe, Lisbon has an axial development anchored in pre-existing confi gurations which dot from east, more industrial areas, to the west, a more monumental and urban type. The diversity of fabrics and the overlapping of various time layers become decoded through a functional specialization infrastructural line, which, from rural, becomes increasingly infrastructured as part of the on-going reinvention of the city of Lisbon.
Waterfront regeneration of port districts emerge as a tool for prestigious development of cities in urban re-imaging and growth. Creation of prestigious housing in these areas are part of a broader strategy of mixed-use and property-led development, but in absence of a holistic approach in planning and design, the urban landscapes may be developed merely on basis of the real estate frameworks. This article looks at how development trends of port cities can take an unintended stance in property-led regeneration of port districts, creating gated communities and failing to succeed in achieving the pre-determined objectives in urban planning. The discussion, which will address to issues of place-making, commodification of public space and planning policies, will take the port city of Izmir as the case. It is suggested that the adoption of a holistic approach to urban planning should guide the regeneration processes and design should take place-making into consideration.
The paper refers to the specific functional area, which identity was primarily based on the relationship with water – in major port cities, as well as related smaller settlemets. It discribes the phenomenon of using and reinterpreting the potential of a rich hydrographic network for constructing the contemporary spatial identity after the violent events of the 20th century. The case studies cited are differentiated due to the specifi city of the activities and the purpose of its implementation.
The subject discussed in this paper is the evolution of the ideas of organic development in urban planning, focused on the waterfront areas. The paper also aims to analyze and interpret current trends in urban water waterfront planning, which are infl uenced by the contemporary ideas related to environmental issues, landscape planning, new technologies in the fi eld of building design and civil- and hydroengineering or application of the renewable energy sources.
During the 1920s and 1930s Gdynia transformed from a small fishing village into a dynamically developing city through the construction in its vicinity of the largest seaport of interwar Poland. The city’s first expansion plan (1926, Adam Kuncewicz, Roman Feliński), designed for approximately 100 000 inhabitants, had to be revised already within a few years because development of the port has proved to be faster and the terrain requirements of the port substantially greater than originally predicted. In effect grounds originally planned for general city functions were yielded to the rapidly developing port. It was not until 2003 when the port boundaries shifted significantly as a result of restrictions and changes in the nature of port activity. These changes freed around 53 ha of post-harbour sites for new development, attractively located in the immediate vicinity of the existing city centre and waterfront. In 2015 the port boundaries shifted again adding 3 ha more of post-harbour sites. The changes also spurred investment in the north of downtown Gdynia – in accordance with the intentions of first city planners. Ideas how to make good use of post-harbour areas have been invented and evolved since 1990s. The concept which is currently under development was prepared in 2008 by the City Planning Offi ce of Gdynia. Since 2010 analyses and studies of future development have been conducted using 3D model. The concept is continuously updated and new details are added based on projects obtained through architectural competitions. Since 2015 development areas of the northern part of the city center were rebranded as Gdynia Sea City. In accordance with this concept Gdynia Sea City will be the modern city centre with areas designed for leisure, relaxation and business and will be inhabited by more than 10 thousand people. The area’s new grid is a continuation of the urban grid of historical downtown Gdynia and draws upon unrealized city plans of the interwar period. The scale of new buildings in the area is reminiscent of the historical buildings in the area. Groups of higher buildings are allowed outside of a protected area of the historic center, in areas selected through view and cityscape analysis. The residential and commercial complex Sea Towers together with two other newly constructed tall buildings is currently the dominant in this area. Several new development complexes are under construction. Planning concepts assume public availability of quays around the port basins and maintaining spacious openings towards the sea. Construction of marinas is expected using part of the docks and the ability to expand and reduce existing wharves, movement of pedestrians and cyclists between Fishermen Pier and South Pier will be facilitated through the construction of a bridge or a ferry connection. The planned enlargement into the post-harbour areas will double the current potential of Gdynia downtown, and enlarge the scope of representative areas and change the panorama from the historic city center and from the sea. Attractive downtown sites can provide an answer to the issue of uncontrolled urban spill into peripheral areas of adjacent municipalities.
The first post-war, comprehensive Gdynia Downtown Plan was at the same time one of the first spatial development plans in Poland defining the directions of transformation of multifunctional downtown structures in the new system and legal realities. It was the Plan of the Polish Breakthrough related to the realities of the downtown area of Gdynia. The study area included the Gdynia Valley limited by the hills of Kamienna Góra, Redłowo and Chylońskie Forests with the development of a complete pre-war city developing in accordance with the fi rst plan of Adam Kuncewicz from 1925 in the zone of 3 km, counted from the center of the inner port. The aim of the plan was to look for centralizing potential in the fi eld of research. This concept was treated as a power degree related to the then existing state, as well as the possibility of further development or transformation.
This paper examines the conservation master plan prepared for in Beyoglu, Istanbul’s Galata Persembe Bazaar waterfront and its Genoese and Ottoman port heritage. This paper initially contains an analytical perspective. This perspective informs the analyses of the evolution of planning process on the conservation of the port heritage. The results of relations between port heritage and conservation planning works have come up for discussion. Spatial interventions on the Persembe Bazaar waterfront began in the 1980s by removing industrial and commercial buildings in the area. These interventions, made in the framework of wiping away the Halic (Golden Horn) waterfront created pressure for urban regeneration in areas with historical and cultural heritage assets like Persembe Bazaar. Major projects such as Galataport and Halicport on the waterfronts of the Halic and the Bosphorus have increased this pressure. Huge functional transformations on the waterfront are desired along with the Persembe Bazaar Conservation Master Plan, which conforms neither to the content nor the context of general conservation principles or Turkey’s conservation legislation. Its content includes no interventions compatible with the theme of “living in harbour cities” and should thus be criticized. The conservation of the tangible and intangible heritage of historical port features, the preservation and development of the service sector and trade in the area requires adopting a holistic understanding of conservation and taking historical features into account. Such an important port heritage site should not be seen as having only touristic functions. It should emphasize more local features for their daily use of local residents and businesses.
Kadıköy is a central district of Istanbul and a public transportation hub located on the shores of the Marmara Sea. It has been highly affected by recent developments in Istanbul. The triggers of change in Kadıköy are both planned (developments in transportation facilities and redevelopment of old buildings) and unplanned (i.e. proliferating cafes, bars, and cultural facilities). It is also affected by metropolitan scale dynamics (changes in Beyoğlu, the culture and entertainment center of Istanbul). These changes in Kadıköy have inevitable eff ects on the inhabitants and users. This article discusses the positive and negative aspects of both planned and unplanned development on public life and spaces in Kadıköy. Vitality of public spaces seems increased. The main changes are increasing population and building densities, changes in public space usage, and a proliferation of cultural facilities led by recently opened theatre halls.
Within this article a large scope of issues associated with development conditions and specifics of shaping the new image of Gdańsk waterfront was presented. The special attention was paid to its part situated within its central zone, located within the city centre. This area was playing a key role in development of the city, as within its boundaries many activities associated with shipbuilding and port industry were located. One has to mention that the Granary Island – a place located in the heart of the waterfront area – was an area of special interest for the port and shipbuilding activities, which relates also to the embankments of both Old and New Motława rivers. But the technological changes in the maritime transportation as well as wart-time destruction of the city decided about the major changes in structure of this area and shifting the port and shipbuilding operations to other sites located to the north from the city centre. Therefore, starting from the year 1945, one could observe the on-going discussion regarding the future of this area, although only in 1990-ties it was possible to actually start implementation of these ideas. At the same time – along with appearance of the demand for the types of apartments, offi ce and commercial spaces that are located on the waterfront – the urban space of Gdańsk waterfront has become interesting for both municipal authorities and developers. In result, a large amount of projects have already been implemented or planned, which contributes towards creation of the new, waterfront urban district of Gdańsk. Within its structure one can distinguish a number of particular sites, including ones still awaiting for their development chances. In the text of this article there were presented the most important parts of these plans, as well as future development directions of urban waterfront structures.
The article attempts a comparison of two harbor districts, in Gdansk and in Hamburg. In 2013, a multiannual program - IBA Hamburg (International Building Exhibition) - was completed. The IBA, initiated with the a concept of the Leap over the Elbe River, part of the Growing City development agenda, addressed the problem of restructuring the port-nearby zones in Harburg and Wilhelmsburg, which have been recognised as areas of high potential in metropolitan development. The concept of metrozones (intra-peripheries or intra border zones), similarly to the term in-between City (German: Zwischenstadt), describes the current problems associated with the strive for creation of an original, but efficient and compact European city. Restructuring of the harbor districts enables new development of the urbanized, but never planned as urban space, areas. Shaped in accordance with the technological capabilities and with the regulation standards and norms of the second half of the 20th century, nowadays the areas form the resultative landscape, burdened with the image of an unfriendly or even dangerous zones. In the era of high technology, metrozones are becoming valuable intra-city developmental areas, opened to alternative urban programs, avoiding the homogenising global trends. In connection with the above, the article describes the situation of the area organized around Nowy Port in Gdansk.
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden, capital of Västra Götaland County Region. It is situated on the west coast of Sweden with the port area located along the Göta Älv River. Due to economic restructuring, waterfront redevelopment emerges as an attractive option to boost economic growth of the city. The aim of this paper is to shed light on conditions of the transformation process of two neighboring areas: Frihamnen and Ringön. Publicly initiated and privately executed waterfront redevelopment in Gothenburg transforms industrial grounds into residential and service oriented areas in Eriksberg, Lindholmen and Frihamnen. The collaborative process of a “developer dialogue” crafts a redevelopment in a consistent way with taking into consideration city’s long-term planning strategy, specifi c needs and opportunities of the neighbourhoods, but also market and fi nancial realities of development community. Another example is a slow and spontaneous transformation of post-industrial areas in Ringön, where still active small industrial fi rms, services, cultural and artistic initiatives take place in the close proximity to the city centre. Results show the waterfront transformation attracts “developers’ dialogue” giving the opportunity to build a coherence for spatial, environmental and socio-economic development. Yet fragmented redevelopment of brownfi eld areas strengthen polarization between dynamic and carefully planned Frihamnen and spontaneously growing Ringön. This paper contributes to the knowledge on the complexity of urban post-industrial transformation.
The transformation of the former docks in Dublin was one of the major urban regeneration projects in Ireland, which was built during the recent economic boom. Since the start of the project in the nineties, more than six thousand apartments have been built in the area. The construction of the apartments allowed for the diversifi cation of the character of this district into a living quarter. Initially the Docklands were considered as an offi ce district that would serve the Ireland’s service-based economy. New projects also allowed for the development of housing in a close proximity to existing city centre, although it did not happen not without avoiding the gentrifi cation and social polarization of this area.
The key role in the process was played by the operator – the urban development agency (Dublin Docklands Development Authority). It acted both as a strategic landowner and the coordinator of the development. The agency was responsible for the delivery of the infrastructure and the sale of the land. The actions of the operator included setting up the of the housing standards, requirements for the development of the infrastructure, both social and technical and public transportation systems. In the hindsight, the agency was praised for the management of the development of such large site. On the other hand, the lack of procedural oversight and a few dubious fi nancial decisions, as well as the other eff ects of the neoliberal policies, such as gentrification, fi nally lower the assessment of DDDA efficiency in that matter.
The article summarizes the main aims and achievements of the DDDA’s development policy and its assessment from the long-term perspective of two decades of transformation. This includes the eff ects of the actions in the aftermath of the fi nancial crisis. Such perspective allows to highlight the various stages of the development of the agency and to examine the efficiency and efficacy of these actions.
This article examines the ontological and spatial character of the waterfront and its influence on perception and design, with particular focus on the process of reproduction of space (Lefebvre) through the generation of mental maps. The convergence of land and water holds in itself an inherent tension between the accessible and the unattainable: the unconscious can be projected on the unknowable underwater space; the unseen domain beyond the horizon can hold a promise of a better world. Another polarity is that of the familiar and the unknown/exotic, off ering a new perspective, a reevaluation of the familiar through the process of ‘ostranenie’ (Shklovsky),’verfremdung’ (Brecht) or ‘estrangement’. The impact of these polarities reaches beyond the spectacle of urban life, the cinematic experience or the theatrum mundi: it enables the reevaluation of the preconceptions of beauty and utility, as exemplifi ed by Futurist Manifesto (Marinetti). These polarities manifest themselves in the hierarchy and dynamics of a waterfront community: physical impermanence of water dwellings foregrounds the contingent nature of human relationships. The waterfront community inhabits superimposed yet separate networks of land and water. First, mental maps have to be generated for each of these separately, then they have to be reconciled in a coherent whole in a separate process. That mapping of the separate networks necessitates a physical transition, a spatial translation that also has linguistic consequences: a different semantic field is assigned to the vocabulary of the everyday, for the significance of the basic terms like ‘home’ or ‘street’ need a modifi ed definition. All the aforementioned processes and phenomena infl uence the ability to perceive, design and reproduce waterfront areas of cities.
The article discusses the problem with modifications of plans of water areas and the forms of their borders which have been inscribed into the history of all city structures related to water. It can be observed that the modifications made in recent decades very often concern the transformations of former industrial sites. Many such structural changes are taking place within signifi cant areas which have fragmented central parts of cities and created voids in the urban fabric. They are being applied to many former shipyards and ports. Research shows that the formation of new connections between land and water in these transformation processes is essential. More frequently, those conversions that are currently being realized change the constructions of wharves and lead to the development of plans drawing new borders between land and water. In these cases water is introduced into land areas and new land surfaces are being created over existing bodies of water. These operations can be considered extremely valuable in achieving the intended eff ects of transformations of post-industrial areas. They are perceived as an excellent possibility to strengthen the relationship between the city structure and water. At the same time they create an opportunity to achieve a high quality of architectural and landscape solutions and the quality of spaces in both social and economic terms.
In Nantes, the last shipyard closed in 1986 leaving the city in a desperate situation. The cranes, symbolizing the industrial activity, one by one stopped. Unemployment stroked. The question was between turning the page, tearing down the workshops and reinventing a new story or trying to preserve would appear to most of the population, a kind of modern bulky legacy. In the early 2000’s, the revitalization of Nantes’ former industrial area, led to developing a new way thinking. Instead of designing an urban map with major spots and rows of housing, A. Chemetoff thought better to draw an urban landscape where the past could mix with the future. The industrial heritage has been then preserved in two diff erent ways: construction halls have been reshaped preserving the original structure, everything should be reversed. The intangible heritage, meaning worker’s knowledge, has been reinvested in the cultural industry. This way, the image of the city, its brand, moved from industrial to cultural, attracting a new kind of business, mainly high-tech, students, in a new: “art de Vivre” (Art of living).
The article deals with the process of restoring life into the Elblag’s waterfront – located in the heart of the city, which is the Old Town with still forgotten Granary Island, both damaged by the second world war. The conclusions are inspired by publications about Elblag deriving from various periods, as well by international or students’ workshops. The author describes various considerations how to bring Granary Island into cultivation simultaneously with rebuilding Elblag’s Old Town, that derive from the conservation concept based on a new method named retroversion, how to create new panorama of the waterfront and what is the best way to integrate it with The Old Town, using Elblag River.
The main purpose of this article is to present facts related to the history of Port Praski located on the right bank of the Vistula river in Warsaw, which is currently being built. The subject of the consideration is the area and development of the former Port Praski, which project and the fi rst works began after the First World War. It’s spatial and functional connections with the downtown area and surroundings are also key issue. The article presents plans, concepts, projects and investments, furthermore theirs level of implementation. Signifi cant eff ort was made to answer the research questions concerning social expectations regarding the function and the direction of Port Praski development. In the final part of the article was made a comparison of existing revitalization works in Port Praski with HafenCity – the district of Hamburg, where the revitalization project has been already implemented for 20 years. However, comparative analysis revealed several signifi cant differences, allowed to conclude that Polish model of revitalization is only a partially identical with the approach applied in Western Europe.
The paper aims to present directions of transformation of riverside areas in Wrocław implemented in 2012-2018 as well as planned investments within Przedmieście Oławskie revitalization program. Przedmieście Oławskie, a quarter housing estate from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries is another area being regenerated in Wrocław after Nadodrze. The article outlines projects defined in the Local Revitalization Program for the years 2016-2018, responding to the identified deficits in spatial, social, environmental and economic spheres. The program proposes various projects that will create conditions for further actions. The challenges posed before the revitalization process mean the necessity of undertaking various projects and flexible planning for many years ahead. One of the key actions is a redevelopment of degraded Oława riverfront, which will be an activity and recreation space not only for residents of densely built-up and devoid of green areas Przedmieście Oławskie but also residents of Wroclaw. Modernization of the more than a kilometer section of the wharf can be an impulse for the development of the whole river corridor, that will have high natural, landscape and recreational values. The article discusses the planning process, objectives, principles and methodology of planned activities.
The water’s edge is the most iconic and identifiable image related to the city of Durban and in seeking an ‘authenticity’ that typifies the built fabric of the city, the image that this place creates is arguably the answer. Since its formal establishment as a settlement in 1824, this edge has been a primary element in the urban fabric. Development of the space has been fairly incremental over the last two centuries, starting with colonial infl uenced built interventions, but much of what is there currently stems from the 1930’s onwards, leading to a Modernist and later Contemporary sense of place that is moderated by regionalist infl uences, lending itself to creating a somewhat contextually relevant image. This ‘international yet local’ sense of place is however under threat from the increasingly prominent ‘global’ image of a-contextual glass high-rise towers placed along a non-descript public realm typical of global capital interests that is a hallmark of the turnkey project trends by developers from the East currently sweeping the African continent.
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