A central element in the theory of clustering is the idea that physical clustering of businesses within specialized sectors is a source for regional economic growth. The spatial proximity of companies and institutions within related industries create a specific setting in which learning, knowledge sharing and mutual competition are encouraged. Additionally, active participation within the innovation eco-system of a Science & Technology Park provides actors access to knowledge, facilities and complementary contacts and network structures. Collective ideation helps an organization to improve the positioning within the technological field and economic market, especially within an innovation ecosystem because actors are dependent on each other’s behaviour to be successful in innovation. This research focuses on the question how to design the collective ideation process in particular to foster interactions within the context of a science & technology parks? This research is based on semi-structured interviews, conducted at all development stages (idea, startup, grow and mature) of Dutch science & technology parks with stakeholders from different perspectives, based on the triple-helix structure (government, industry, research). The study describes how multiple stakeholders benefit from collective ideation, what mechanisms and tools are used in practice and also describes prerequisites and limitations of collective ideation.
The emphasis on the territorial dimension of the public policy can be reduced to transition from a sectorial approach to an integrated territorially approach, which is based on the integration of activities of various public entities towards the territories referred not so much administratively as functionally. The functional areas (FA) is defined as spatially separated territory, which shares a common geographical differences, spatial and socio-economic conditions and the system of functional relationships and on this basis shares the uniform development objectives, ensuring effective use of its space. This understanding of the functional areas are to be the subject for intervention of the public policies. The regional development policy implemented by the voivodeship governments closely follows the findings of EU and the national strategic documents and intentionally uses a territorial approach to developmental challenges and problems. Such policy is focused (and will be focused) on the use of endogenous potential, including the territorial resources and knowledge, and will also allow for the interventions adapted to the local conditions. Thus, implementation of policy conceived in that matter is associated with geographic and thematic concentration with respect to the areas and key issues in achieving goals of the regional development. Identification of areas for which public intervention is necessary to fully exploit their endogenous potential – will be pursued with the assumption that they can have a problem character, but they can also be the potential poles of regional growth. The aim of the paper is to identify the integration processes between territorial units forming urban functional areas on regional level. In particular, it focuses on clarification the intensity of existing relationships and on the attempt to create and verify a list of criteria for delimitation of functional areas at the sub-regional level (by k-Means and Huff’s methods), assuming that each urban centre on metropolitan, national and regional level also carry-out the functions at sub-regional level.
The policy set by the European Commission for Programming Period 2014–2020 introduced new instruments supporting regional development but also posed new requirements that must be met by European regions. One of them is smart specialization. To implement Strategy for Europe 2020, published by the European Commission in 2010, EU Member States and their regions develop strategies for smart specialization that show directions for providing support to the strengthening of research, development and innovation. Smart specialization is an important instrument for strengthening of competitiveness as well as for defining and building the knowledge-based economy. This article presents analysis of processes responsible for identifying smart specialization in Pomeranian and West Pomeranian Regions (in Polish: Voivodeships). This analysis is a continuation and extension of the research on the process of emergence of smart specialization in Pomeranian Region by the inclusion of the West Pomeranian Region into this study. Both Regions are situated on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea and are seats of main Polish harbours and shipyards. Their regional capitals Gdańsk and Szczecin are the cores of emerging metropolitan areas. The aims of the article are: (1) assessment of methods of smart specialization emergence and selection; (2) analysis of differences and similarities of areas of smart specialization of two coastal regions. In Pomeranian region the process of emergence of smart specialization was a bottom-up one where the Regional Government organized the competition and invited actors to build partnerships. In other regions of Poland it was more of a top-down process, but with participation of stakeholders. The West Pomeranian Region is an example of this approach. Methods of the research applied for this study include: analysis of literature, documents from Voivodeship Marshal Offices, individual interviews, participation in the process of emerging of smart specialization in Pomeranian Voivodeship and comparative analysis of the methods of their emergence in both regions.
Trade is one of the key factors determining sustainable city development and its surroundings. City development is a result of provision of goods and services to city inhabitants, and residents of its surrounding areas. Retail trade in Poland belongs to economy sectors in which the processes of market changes were started the earliest. Discount stores that apply the strategy of low prices in the in the process of market conquering are currently one of the most dynamically developing selling formats. These shopping facilities are located in many Polish cities, including small towns and rural areas. The aim of the article is to show the scale of investments in new discount shops in small towns and rural areas in Poland in 2012–2015. Research focused at devoted to this field is important from the point of view of choosing the location of new investments related to discount chains and of the small towns and rural areas development strategies. Identification of consequences of discount chains operations in chosen rural areas and small towns can impact the verification of the policy adopted by local authorities in relation to spatial planning and forming the functional structure of the space. It will result in more conscious (rational) decisions in terms of localizing new discounts, which will reduce the number of local conflicts related to location of such facilities.
Urban regeneration is driven by many different engines. These engines, however, in some circumstances may appear to turn to either a success or failure factor. In this context, it is appropriate to analyse how factors that serve the regeneration process are affected by embedding research in a particular paradigm set by the theories of so called “regional development”. The choice of these concepts analysed in the article was the result of literature review. The article consists of four parts. The first part defines the development factors and shows how the concentration of negative phenomena in degraded areas may inhibit their optimal use in the context of the city as a whole. Two subsequent chapters analyse how major theories of regional development picture external and internal factors that influence the development of a specific territory. Then, in the summary the author discusses, how main urban and regional development theories reflect the rationale for mitigating barriers in using local development factors as real driving forces of urban regeneration.
In this article the author attempts to define the specificity of the tools for development planning at the local level in the context of: institutional resources of community (gmina) (and means of strengthening them), models of public management as well as the specifics of the Polish public administration system and its ensuing dysfunctions. These dysfunctions rely mainly on a limited awareness of the need to create mechanisms of coordination for: socio-economics, spatial and financial planning. These factors contribute to a decrease in the effectiveness of measures for the development of communities. Socio-economic planning answers the question: WHAT we want to do in the community; spatial planning: WHERE we would like to carry out certain activities, and financial planning: HOW MUCH it will cost and where the financial sources are. We can see the theoretical causal links between the areas of development planning, therefore, the main purpose of this article is to offer conceptual framework and a relevant case study of Kraków serving as its validation attempt.
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