The concept of a Circular Economy assumes that the value of products, materials and resources is to be maintained in the economy for as long as possible to ultimately reduce waste generation to a minimum. In this concept, raw materials are repeatedly put into circulation many times, often passing from one branch of industry to another. So energy, water, metal ores, oil, gas, coal and others, and wherever possible, their replacement with renewable resources (wind and solar energy, natural resources). It is important, and this is the essence of the Circular Economy, the maximum re-use of scarce materials and raw materials from already produced and used products. This concept has found the support of the European Commission and activities in this area will successively be implemented through appropriate legal acts of the European Union. The need to implement solutions in the field of minimizing the consumption of raw materials, materials and energy or reducing waste production is also felt by consumers and industry. The packaging industry is particularly interested in implementing the concept of a Circular Economy. Due to the dynamic growth of the packaging market, which in 2017 reached around EUR 9.6 billion in Poland (data from the Polish Chamber of Packaging) and the increasing amount of post-consumer waste, it is necessary to introduce solutions limiting the consumption of raw materials and energy throughout the product life cycle.
The aim of the article is to present current practices regarding the reduction of the negative impact of packaging on the environment and the indication of directions for the implementation of the Circular Economy concept in the packaging industry.
Mining wastes are by-products generated during search, excavation and processing, both physical and chemical, of ores and other minerals. In 2017, wastes from group 01 constituted 60% of total wastes produced in Poland. According to the statistical data, approximately 92% of the waste generated during the excavation and processing of hard coal is economically reused. 30% of this waste used in industry and nearly 70% is used for the reclamation of the degraded industrial areas. At present, there is a tendency in the E uropean Union to shift from a linear economy to the Circular E conomy. The goal is to maintain economical value of the resources, among others, by their reuse in a productive way, which at the same time eliminates waste. One of the industrial branch where the ideals of a Circular E conomy can be implemented is the mining industry. Mining wastes may form one of the sources of anthropogenic minerals, as they belong to alternative aggregates. Deposits of anthropogenic minerals are considered sources of valuable raw materials which guarantee that the products made on their basis will be of high quality. The article presents the results of physico-chemical tests, the leachability of contaminations and phytotoxicity tests carried out on the basis of the selected mining waste in light of a Circular E conomy.
It is worth mentioning that despite of the decrease of coal generation in the energy mix, the fuel remains crucial for energy sector stabilizing the energy system and securing the energy supply in Poland as well as has a positive impact on the energy security of the European Union. The development of renewable energy will be possible with conventional energy compensating the unstable operation of renewable energy sources as climate conditions in Poland do not allow for the sustainable usage of renewable energy sources and thus, their effective utilization. The modernization of 200 MW energy generating units as well as the possible construction of 2–3 similar units will enable the stabilization of the amount of electricity in the transmission grid. The modern and modernized 200 MW energy generating units are able to maintain grid operation if needed and it will be easier to phase them out gradually as prosumer energy and energy storage technologies are being developed. Due to the held and planned general and additional generation capacity auctions for years following 2020, we are assured that despite the substantial increase of distributed generation sources in Poland’s energy mix, the electricity supply to end-users will be stable and safe.
In this paper, selected aspects of the national technical level of electric energy supply security is shown. An analysis and assessment of the electric power infrastructure in area of generation, transmission and distribution in aspects of electric energy security is conducted. The profile of the generation sector and grid infrastructure in the area of transmission and distribution is shown. The present and future situation in a range of operation of electric power infrastructure in the area of generation, transmission and distribution in the frames of the National Electric Power System in the electric energy supply security context is determined. The level of national electric energy supply security in area of generation and grid infrastructure is assessed. Threats of electric energy supply security are described and the catalogue of essential actions for the assurance of electric energy supply security are proposed. In the area of electricity generation, at present there is no danger to the electricity supply security in normal load conditions, but there is a high probability that it will occur in the future (after 2025) when the forecasted increase in electricity demand takes place and the new stringent environment protection requirements (Directive IED, BAT conclusions, Winter Package) enter into force. The network infrastructure in area of transmission and distribution is admittedly adapted for presently occurred typical conditions of electric energy demand and the realization of internal tasks in normal conditions, but can create a potential threat for electric energy supply security. In the context of the forecasted increase of electric energy demand, inadequate power generation sources in the National Electric Power System and available through intersystem connections, their uneven location on the territory of Poland in the shortage of proper network transmission capacities, the necessity of improvement of the quality and electric energy supply reliability to final consumers and the intensive development of renewable energy sources, the present network infrastructure in area of transmission and distribution will be insufficient.
The article discusses issues related to improving the energy efficiency of heat supply systems. It draws attention to the need to take action not only for large objects and systems, but also for individual buildings and their boiler plants. Heat supply system monitoring allows for the diagnosis of the weakest elements and making decisions leading to the improvement of energy efficiency. In the case of the boiler room where the research was carried out, the results of such monitoring convinced to equip boilers with an additional automatic control system, with an algorithm limiting the number of burner switching cycles and shutdowns. Limiting the number of switching on the burners, as in the case of other combustion and electric devices, has a significant impact on the energy efficiency of the entire system. In addition, it also increases the durability of the devices, and thus reduces costs of servicing and repairs. The simplest control algorithms, often used in controllers installed in the boiler units, do not provide optimization in this respect. The external device used has allowed the number of burners on and off cycles to be limited while maintaining the quality of the heat supply to the heating installation and the heat treatment system.
The material also presents other ways to improve the energy efficiency of the heat supply system in existing multi-family buildings.
Polska od lat zmaga się ze złą jakością powietrza, co bezpośrednio przekłada się na zdrowie ludzkie. Badania wskazują, że największy wpływ na przekraczanie poziomów dopuszczalnych i docelowych stężeń zanieczyszczeń, szczególnie pyłów oraz bezno(a)pirenu, ma niska emisja, w szczególności z sektora gospodarstw domowych. Powodem takiego stanu jest spalanie złej jakości paliwa w starych, mało efektywnych i wysokoemisyjnych paleniskach. Mając na uwadze powyższe zagrożenia, idąc śladem Krakowa i Małopolski, kolejne województwa, miasta i gminy wprowadzają lub rozważają wprowadzenie ograniczenia spalania paliw stałych na swoim terenie oraz całkowitą likwidację kotłów na paliwa stałe niespełniające wymogów ekoprojektu lub ewentualnie normy 5 klasy emisji spalin.
Określenie wielkości emitowanych zanieczyszczeń do atmosfery ma kluczowe znaczenie w przypadku podejmowania wysiłków i określania działań zmierzających do poprawy jakości powietrza. W Polsce ruszyły ambitne programy zarówno na poziomie rządowym, jak i regionalnym, które mają na celu wymianę kotłów i pieców w kilku milionach domów. Na przykład szacuje się, że prawie pół miliona kotłów należy wymienić w ramach realizacji uchwały antysmogowej w województwie małopolskim. W artykule zostały przedstawione opracowane współczynniki emisji zanieczyszczeń mających bezpośredni wpływ na lokalną jakość powietrza tj.: współczynniki emisji pyłów, bezno(a)pirenu, tlenków siarki i azotu, tlenku węgla. Zostały wskazane zakresy stosowanych i prezentowanych współczynników emisji dla różnych technologii oraz różnych paliw. Wskazane zostały również standardy emisji obowiązujące dla nowych kotłów oraz ilości zużywanych paliw w gospodarstwach domowych w Polsce.
Przedstawiono możliwe zmiany wielkości emisji w przypadku likwidacji starych kotłów i używania nowoczesnych urządzeń do spalania biomasy oraz węgla w gospodarstwach domowych oraz przeprowadzenia termomodernizacji.
The heat supply systems energy efficiency improvement requires the use of increasingly complex methods. The basic ways to reduce heat consumption is by using better thermal insulation, although they have more and more limited possibilities and need relatively large financial outlays. Good effects can be achieved by the better heat source adaptation to the conditions of a specific facility supplied with heat. However, this requires research that identifies the effectiveness of such solutions as well as the tools used to describe selected elements of the system or its entirety. The article presents the results of tests carried out for a gas boiler room supplying heat to a group of residential buildings. The goal was to build a model that would forecast the day range in which the maximum gas consumption occurs for a given day. Having measurements of gas consumption in subsequent hours of the day, it was decided to build a forecasting model determining the part of the day in which such a maximum would occur. To create the model the random forest procedure was used along with the mlr (Kassambara) package. The model’s hyperparameters were tuned based on historical data. Based on data for another period of boiler room operation, the results of the model’s quality assessment were presented. Close to 44% efficiency was achieved. Tuning the model improved its predictive ability.
The future and development of energy is one of the most important problems in both domestic and global politics. Limiting the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector results from new legal conditions related to the protection of the natural environment. These changes require the development of a new energy strategy, taking the limits of greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union and the requirements of the Community energy policy into account. One of the documents affecting the structure of Poland’s energy mix is the Directive on renewable energy sources (2009/28/EC). Poland has committed to achieving the goal of a 15% share of energy from renewable sources (RES) in gross final energy consumption by 2020. Current changes in Polish RES support systems – in particular the transition from the system of green certificates to auctions for green energy – may threaten the achievement of the above-mentioned goal. The article analyzes whether Poland will meet renewable energy obligations by 2020 under the current conditions. In addition, the article presents current energy consumption in the world and in the country, legal conditions taken into account when creating the country’s energy mix and forecasts of renewable energy demand.
The overriding objective of the National Electric Power System (KSE) is to ensure the security of electricity supply. In summer, the upward trend in the demand for electric energy is caused by, among others, the proliferation of air conditioners. Therefore, the upward trend in summer’s on-peak demand is expected to be maintained. Examples from 2015, 2016 or 2018 indicate that National Electric Power System needs a summer’s on-peak source that will be able to produce electricity regardless of the hydrological conditions. Photovoltaics is a source of energy that can cover the peak demand during sweltering heat. This article briefly characterizes the problem of increasing demand for electricity in summer and uses examples that have taken place in recent years. The main conclusion is the postulate for the extension of photovoltaic power in the National Electric Power System, the purpose of which will be the production of electricity during sweltering heat, covering the peak load in the system. This article presented both the advantages and disadvantages of such a solution. Unfavorable weather conditions (high air temperature, low water level, lack of wind) limit the production of electricity from wind farms or conventional power plants, and also increase transmission losses, which is why photovoltaics is a desirable source from the National Electric Power System’s point of view. The article refers to examples from the Czech Republic and Germany, where a significant installed capacity of photovoltaics enables the stable operation of the power system during sweltering heat. It was also pointed out that the role of photovoltaics in the National Electric Power System is growing, which is consistent with the assumptions of the Polish Energy Policy Project until 2040.
Geological and Mining Law enforced in Poland does not provide adequate regulations assuring financial means for a mine closure and mined land rehabilitation. The gradual accumulation of funds within a framework of a mine rehabilitation fund may not provide the full coverage of costs of all the necessary works in the event the exploitation is terminated before lifting all minable resources.
Regulations defining the duties of mining enterprises lack specific preclusions related to assurance of financial means for mine closures in the event a mining license is issued by a staroste (prefect). To address this problem a simplified estimation method for establishing closing costs is put forward in the first stage. This is based on unified indicators related to deposits’ reserves or acreage used for mining activities.
The equivalent of the closure costs established in this manner shall be paid to an escrow account on a similar basis as means of rehabilitation funds are put aside. However, paying the entire amount either in one (preferably) or two instalments is recommended. The introduction of this recommendation requires an amendment to the Geological and Mining Law as well as securing appropriate competences in staroste’s offices along with a convincing communication campaign.
The issues discussed in the study mainly relate to the costs presented by the structure of positions. This study, on the example of the KGHM Polska Miedź SA mining company (three mining plants), examines the position and cost calculation structure relating to technological works, cost settlement and receivables between branches and mining plants. Cost comparisons were also carried out from the perspective of the organizational structure. The cost centers, registration and settlement of costs in the accounting records, i.e. SAPR3 were highlighted. In the course of the examination, a comparative analysis was carried out aimed at determination of common features and differences between the cost of technological works by their function in the technical cost of manufacturing. As a result of the analysis, it was determined that in the years 2000–2017, the cost structure based on the position function underwent changes. The changes occurred as a result of organizational and technical and geological and mining conditions. The cost analysis allows to identify the directions of specialization of the entity in the future. The basic operating activity of the mines concentrates on extraction. Due to copper extraction in the concession areas, the analysis was to evaluate the costs incurred in the KGHM Polska Miedź SA mining plants.
A proper description of ground motions generated by seismic and paraseismic events requires gathering data of six components of seismic waves. T hree of them, the so called translational waves, are well researched and identified. Unfortunately, until recently, the remaining three components named as rotational waves were generally estimated with the use of indirect methods based on theoretical calculations. T his was related mostly with the lack of proper instruments for the recording of rotational seismic waves. T hus, rotational waves were not fully recognized thus far. Recently, several types of advanced instruments for direct measurements of rotation were invented. Based on the measurements of strong ground motions it was indicated that the amplitude of the rotational components in close distances from the seismic source can be significantly larger than expected. Apart from this, there is still a lack of analyses considering the characteristic of rotational seismic waves generated by induced seismic events. In this paper, the results of preliminary measurements of rotational motions generated by induced seismic waves were presented. Ground movements related with mining tremors were analyzed in terms of amplitude, frequency and duration.
The public and, above all, scientists clearly emphasize that the cause of global climate change caused mainly by carbon dioxide emissions is, above all, human activity and its combined emission. It is associated with the processes of fuel combustion in the energy, industry and transport, as well as with poverty being the main cause of difficulties in meeting basic energy needs in households and the incorrect way of heating them. The public is often made aware that the climate should be protected and at the same time convinced that global warming has no impact on the everyday lives of Poles. Meanwhile, Poland, due to the high share of coal in the energy sector, is indicated as one of the main culprits of carbon dioxide emissions in the European Union and exposed as a significant shareholder of climate change causing global warming. The aim of the work is to show the opinions of young people aged 15–24, in terms of their awareness of the human impact on climate change and indication of desirable directions of the modern energy policy, defining the level of support for these directions, which will significantly contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions.
The research conducted among young people shows that it is aware of the consequences of climate change, especially on a global scale, and to a much lesser extent in Poland, and still less in the Podkarpackie province. The studied youth emphasizes that climate change is currently one of the greatest threats, but it is one of many threats.
The young people emphasize that the energy policy in Poland should aim at the better utilization and reduction of energy consumption as well as increasing the share of energy based on renewable energy sources, associated mainly with public health protection, reduction of air pollution, as well as the energy security of the country. Young people show a lack of determination regarding the use of nuclear power plants, where we see supporters and opponents of this source of electricity in a similar relationship.
The article presents the results of surveys to assess the attractiveness of centralized heat supply systems in comparison with other heat sources. The heat source is an important element of the heat supply system which determines heating costs, comfort and environmental impact. The decision on the choice of the type of heat supply system is usually made by the investor or designer. Sometimes the equipment supplier or contractor has a part in this decision. The choice can be influenced by many different factors, also resulting from the specific location of the building. This is only partly determined by local law in the form of a local spatial development plan. the technical conditions (i.e. availability of heating or gas network), economic and financial, as well as much more subjective factors, such as the designer’s or contractor’s preference are also important. Aversion to district heating is growing, even when there are favorable conditions and the possibility of connecting the building to the heating network. Instead, a gas boiler or electrically powered heat pump is selected. This raises the question of whether such decisions are right and how they can be justified. As a research method, surveys were used, which were conducted among people who already have or will have an impact on design and investment decisions in the near future. The obtained results confirmed a large interest in district heating, appreciating their advantages in comparison with other methods of heat generation. The respondents also had the disadvantages that may lead to the use of an alternative methods of heat supplying in mind.
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