Life Sciences and Agriculture

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica


Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica | 2015 | No 1 |


Abstract In recent years there has been growing interest in selenium (Se) as an important micronutrient not only for animals and humans but also for plants. In particular, its protective effect in plants exposed to stress conditions has been suggested. In spite of many studies, the mechanism of Se action is not fully understood. In this review, possible ways of interaction of Se with stress factors leading to optimal growth and development of plants are presented. As the majority of experiments have focused on the effects of Se application under stress conditions induced by heavy metals, special attention is paid to the results obtained in such studies. Changes of physiological and biochemical properties of plant cells, with particular regard to the influence of Se on the activation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants under this stress, are summarized. Experiments in which Se was used in some other environmental stresses (drought, UV, cold and high temperature) are also cited. On the basis of the presented literature it is suggested that a positive effect of Se depends on both its doses and on chosen plant genotypes and is mainly connected with activation of antioxidative defense in plant cells.
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Abstract In the last decade contradictory results have been published as to whether exogenous salicylic acid (SA) can increase salt stress tolerance in cultivated plants by inducing an antioxidant response. Salt stress injury in tomato was mitigated only in cases when the plant was hardened with a high concentration of SA (~10−4 M), low concentrations were ineffective. An efficient accumulation of Na+ in older leaves is a well-known response to salt stress in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Rio fuego) but it remains largely unexplored whether young and old leaves or root tissues have a distinct antioxidant status during salt stress after hardening with 10−7 M or 10−4 M SA. The determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity revealed that the SA-induced transient increases in these enzyme activities in young leaf and/or root tissues did not correlate with the salt tolerance of plants. Salt stress resulted in a tenfold increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities of young leaves and significant increases in APX and glutathione reductase (GR) activities of the roots hardened with 10−4 M SA. Both total ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione pools reached their highest levels in leaves after 10−7 M SA pre-treatment. However, in contrast to the leaves, the total pool of AsA decreased in the roots under salt stress and thus, due to low APX activity, active oxygen species were scavenged by ascorbate non-enzymatically in these tissues. The increased GR activities in the roots after treatment with 10−4 M SA enabled plants to enhance the reduced glutathione (GSH) pool and maintain the redox status of AsA under high salinity, which led to increased salt tolerance.
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Abstract The study investigates the genetic differentiation among two subspecies of Allium ursinum L., namely A. ursinum subsp. ursinum and subsp. ucrainicum as well as their putative hybrid that is represented by individuals with intermediate morphology. Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) were applied to determine the status of intermediate morphotypes in terms of their genetic pattern and to assess the level of genetic variability within and between various populations of A. ursinum. The study comprises 144 specimens from nine populations along the east-west transect in Poland, which includes localities of both subspecies and their putative hybrid. Among the examined populations, 48 bands were amplified, of which 45 were found to be polymorphic. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), the neighbour-net analysis and Mantel test showed a strong correlation between genetic variability and geographic distance. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that a greater proportion of total genetic variation resided within populations rather than among them. The Structure Bayesian clustering analysis revealed the presence of three distinct genetic groups within studied populations, where ‘eastern’ genotypes correspond to A. ursinum subsp. ucrainicum, and ‘western’ to subsp. ursinum; whereas the third genetic group has the largest share in the individuals occurring at the border of the distribution ranges of both subspecies. The emergence of the third genetic group is probably an effect of hybridization events occurring within the secondary contact zone. Typical morphologically intermediate populations occur only in a relatively narrow geographical zone, but the hybrid zone revealed by molecular markers is actually much wider than it is suggested by the morphological pattern of individuals. The current distribution pattern of both subspecies of A. ursinum and their hybrid zone is related to the two main directions of postglacial migration of Fagus sylvatica to the area of Poland. The hybrid zone arose as an effect of the secondary contact of two divergent lineages of A. ursinum.
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Abstract Several studies have used A. thaliana as a model to identify the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying iron deficiency tolerance in plants. Here, Arabidopsis thaliana and Thellungiella salsuginea were used to investigate the differential responses to iron deficiency of these two species. Plants were cultivated in hydroponic medium containing 5 or 0 μM Fe, for 10 days. Results showed that rosette biomass was more reduced in T. salsuginea than in A. thaliana when grown on Fe-deficient medium. As a marker for iron deficiency tolerance, the induction of ferric chelate reductase (FCR) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities was observed only in A. thaliana roots. In addition, we found that the accumulation of phenolic acids in roots of N1438 ecotype of A. thaliana was stimulated by Fe deficiency. Furthermore, an increase of flavonoids content in the root and exudates was observed under Fe-deficiency in this ecotype. Unlike other abiotic stresses, it appears that iron deficiency effects were more pronounced in Thellungiella than in Arabidopsis. The higher tolerance of the Arabidopsis plant to iron deficiency may be due to the metabolic changes occurring in the roots.
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Abstract In this study, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots were treated with hypoxic water. The staining of cell preparations with DAPI revealed morphological changes of the cells such as nuclear condensation, deformation and fragmentation. Under TEM, cellular membrane shrinkage and breakage, chromatin condensation and apoptotic-like bodies were displayed. The number of mitochondria increased dramatically; their cristae were damaged; the interior became a cavitation and only some flocculent materials were distributed. Indirect immunofluorescence staining indicated that cytochrome C diffused from mitochondria to nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. TUNEL positive nuclei indicated double strand breaks of DNA. DAB staining was used for the identification of hydrogen peroxide and examination showed that the longer the treating time, the darker the staining of the meristematic zones of the roots which suggested the increased accumulation of these Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The elevation of hydrogen peroxide production was paralleled with the increase of SOD and POD activities. A negative correlation between the exposure time under hypoxia and the contents of soluble proteins was found. No obvious effect of hypoxia on MDA was established. The obtained results demonstrate that hypoxia causes programmed cell death in the root-tip meristematic cells of Triticum aestivum L. which is most probably attributed to the accumulation of large amounts of ROS.
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Abstract The aim of the study was to determine the effect of exogenous sucrose and cytokinin on ethylene production and responsiveness in relation to the shoot formation of Pelargonium × hortorum ‘Bergpalais’ in vitro. Increasing the concentration of sucrose from 15 to 40 g L−1 in medium containing meta-topolin (mT) resulted in a two-fold decrease in the number of shoots and leaves as well as a reduction in ethylene production. The addition of ethylene synthesis inhibitor (AVG) to mT-medium significantly reduced the ethylene production and the shoot growth, but it had no significant influence on the shoot formation. The mT-induced shoot formation was, however, significantly reduced in the presence of ethylene action inhibitor (AgNO3), in a manner dependent on sucrose levels. At the end of the subculture period, increased sucrose concentrations (15–40 g L−1) in the presence of mT and AgNO3 resulted in a 3.7-fold increase in ethylene emission. At the same time, the supply of sucrose caused a 2.8-fold increase in the level of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA). Our results may suggest that the inhibitory effect of high sucrose concentration (30 and 40 g L−1) may depend on its influence on ethylene sensitivity. It also suggests that sucrose-regulation of the shoot formation of Pelargonium in vitro is mediated by ABA.
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Abstract Germination responses of Galium cracoviense Ehrend. (Rubiaceae), a narrow endemic species from southern Poland, were tested in light and dark conditions at three constant temperatures (5, 10, or 22°C), before and after cold-wet stratification. Additionally, seeds were germinated under different calcium carbonate (CaCO3) concentrations (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25 mM/L CaCO3) at 22°C in light. The high germination capacity of seeds incubated at different temperatures, shortly after collection, already suggested the absence of dormancy in this species. Thus, the seeds are ready to germinate immediately in the field when water resources are available and the temperature is adequate. Light was a significant factor for G. cracoviense; more seeds germinated in light than in darkness at all temperatures tested. Cold stratification decreased germination especially at higher temperatures. The light requirement for G. cracoviense germination ensures their successful germination on or near the soil surface, and in cracks and crevices in limestone, when temperature and edaphic conditions are favourable. Seeds of this species show temperature enforced dormancy throughout the winter. Germination was significantly affected by calcium carbonate. Non-germinated seeds germinated well after being transferred from higher CaCO3 concentrations to distilled water. The results indicate that the seeds of this species can endure CaCO3 stress without losing their viability and start germination once CaCO3 concentration is reduced. It can be concluded that the seeds of this species require lower Ca2+ ion concentration, moderate temperatures and the presence of light to germinate.
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Abstract The co-occurrence of hybrids and parental species in similar ecological niches poses a question on the role of traits additivity and overdispersion (emergence of new traits) in microevolutionary processes. We analysed genetic polymorphism of Bromus benekenii, B. ramosus and the spontaneous hybrid B. benekenii × B. ramosus in sympatric and allopatric parts of the species distribution in Europe, based on non-coding regions of the taxon genomes (ISSR genetic fingerprinting). We tested 68 individuals in 7 populations, including a hybrid population in N France. Altogether 233 polymorphic ISSR bands (loci) were obtained. We found that the parent species were genetically distinct and the hybrids had an additive pattern of ISSR bands found in the putative parental species (NMDS, STRUCTURE); however, there was evidence of introgression towards B. ramosus (NEWHYBRIDS, UPGMA classifications, Nei's D genetic distance). Bromus benekenii had 72, B. ramosus 21 and the hybrids 9 private bands (genetic overdispersion), probably resulting from the rearranged genomes. Based on its low genetic divergence index DW, the hybrid population seems to be at a young age. We argue that in the face of anthropogenic landscape transformations favouring secondary contacts, the hybrids may competitively replace the parental species in sympatric areas.
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Abstract The electrical penetration graph (EPG) method was used to quantify the effect of surface waxes on probing behaviour of the grain aphid Sitobion avenae F. (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The experiments showed that wax removal significantly affected probing behaviour of S. avenae. Generally, the aphids feeding on the plants without wax had a shortened non-probing (EPG-pattern np) and prolonged penetration of peripheral tissues – epidermis and mesophyll (EPG-pattern C). The EPG tests also showed that the three tested extracts of surface waxes from waxy plants RAH 122 were active as aphicides against the grain aphid.
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Abstract Since M. sinensis Anderss., M. sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Hack. and M. ×giganteus J.M.Greef & Deuter ex Hodk. and Renvoize have considerably the highest potential for biomass production among Miscanthus Anderss. species, there is an urgent need to broaden the knowledge about cytological characteristics required for their improvement. In this study our objectives were to assess the genome size variation among eighteen Miscanthus accessions, as well as estimation of the monoploid genome size (2C and Cx) of the M. sinensis cultivars, which have not been analyzed yet. The characterization of three Miscanthus species was performed with the use of flow cytometry and analysis of the stomatal length. The triploid (2n = 3x = 57) M. sinensis ‘Goliath’ and M. ×giganteus clones possessed the highest 2C DNA content (8.34 pg and 7.43 pg, respectively). The intermediate 2C-values were found in the nuclei of the diploid (2n = 2x = 38) M. sinensis accessions (5.52–5.72 pg), whereas they were the lowest in the diploid (2n = 2x = 38) M. sacchariflorus ecotypes (4.58–4.59 pg). The presented study revealed interspecific variation of nuclear DNA content (P<0.01) and therefore allowed for recognition of particular taxa, inter- and intraspecific hybrids and prediction of potential parental components. Moreover, intraspecific genome size variation (P<0.01) was observed in M. sinensis cultivars at 3.62%. The values of the stomatal size obtained for the triploid M. ×giganteus ‘Great Britain’ (mean 30.70 μm) or ‘Canada’ (mean 29.67 μm) and diploid M. sinensis ‘Graziella’ (mean 29.96 μm) did not differ significantly, therefore this parameter is not recommended for ploidy estimation.
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Abstract Flow cytometry estimation of 2C nuclear DNA content of the examined Nasturtium species resulted in taxonomic identification of N. × sterile in eight new localities, N. microphyllum in four new localities and N. officinale in one new locality in western Poland. Scanning electron microscopy proved a few of the micromorphological traits of seeds and fruits (size and shape of cells on the fruit septum surface, their anticlinal walls; secondary sculpture on the outer periclinal walls of cells on the siliqua valve internal surface) to be of taxonomic importance.
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Abstract The total antioxidant activity of three apple cultivars conventionally farmed (Jonagold, Golden Delicious and Idared) and two cultivars organically farmed (Jonagold and Golden Delicious) were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The spin label used for experiments was TEMPO radical (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) with a well-defined EPR spectrum consisting of three equidistant peaks. The results obtained indicated difference in the total antioxidant activity of apples grown in two different ways, conventional and organic, as well as between different cultivars grown in the same way. The Golden Delicious cultivar is richer in antioxidants than the Jonagold and Idared, regardless of the method of farming. The difference between them is higher in conventionally grown apples than in organically farmed apples. Experimental data was fitted with non-linear curve fit for exponential decay of the first order based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The high values of the R2 parameters for all data indicated correctness in the proposition of exponential decay of the first order as a model describing the dynamic properties of spin labels which diminish in the presence of fresh apple juice.
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Abstract Studies of plant breeding systems are particularly important when they involve facultative processes, which can be overlooked in natural conditions. This especially applies to species that are considered allogamous, due to their pollination syndrome and floral architecture. We examined the potential level and factors enabling or limiting spontaneous autogamy in three populations of the lepidopteran orchid Gymnadenia conopsea. Using a bagging experiment, we noted the stages of the anther thecae and the positions of the pollinaria at the five phenological stages of the flower, as well as the quantity of autogamously set fruits and the number of properly formed seeds. In the studied populations, autogamy represents an accidental character, with a maximum of 3.3% of fruits set spontaneously per analysed sample in a given population, and with seed numbers ranging from 29 to 354. This process is an environmentally dependent co-product of the mechanisms that enable a position appropriate for touching the stigma (bending of the caudicle) and increase male fitness (disintegration of the massulae), preceded by the gradual opening of the anther chambers. Autopollination of G. conopsea may occur in the flowers at various flowering stages (excluding the beginning of anthesis) at each position on the inflorescence.
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Abstract The influence of methyl jasmonate on anthocyanin accumulation in roots of Kalanchoe blossfediana plants was studied. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me), at a concentration of 5.0 to 40.0 mg.l−1, substantially increased anthocyanin accumulation in roots of intact plants, when it was applied as a solution under natural light conditions. The production of anthocyanin depended on the concentration of methyl jasmonate and the age of the plant. The stimulatory effect was higher in older plants of K. blossfeldiana than in younger ones. When leaves were removed methyl jasmonate slightly stimulated anthocyanin accumulation compared with intact plants. The obtained results indicate that leaves are necessary for the anthocyanin accumulation in the roots. In isolated roots methyl jasmonate did not affect the accumulation of anthocyanins in light conditions. Seven anthocyanins were documented in the roots of control plants and 8 anthocyanins in the roots of JA-Me treated ones. JA-Me increased the level of anthocyanins in roots of old K. blossfeldiana plants 6.8, 6.0 and 3.6-folds, after 4, 8 and 14-days of treatment, respectively.
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Abstract Pollen grains of Pinus mugo, P. sylvestris and P. ×rhaetica (= P. mugo × P. sylvestris) were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The pollen grains were bisaccate and monosulcate. The corpus-saccus attachment was distinct. The pollen corpus exine sculpture was verrucate-rugulate and deeply sculptured. The surface of the tectum was covered with small grana and it was perforate. The saccus sexine ornamentation was reticulate and irregularly perforate. The tectum surface characters in the proximal and distal view of the corpus and saccus were less variable and they did not provide good criteria to identify the species under study. However, some differences were observed in the size of elevation on the corpus between pollen grains of the same species and between the parental species. This study of the pollen grain morphology of the corpus and saccus provided some important new data.
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Editorial office

Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6035; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04

Managing Editor
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6038; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04

Editorial Board

HARVEY E BALLARD, Jr. Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Porter Hall, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA;
Molecular approaches in plant systematics, ecology and evolution

JÓZEF BEDNARA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, ul. Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland;
Plant embryology

BORUT BOHANEC. Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia;
Plant biotechnology

MAURO CRESTI. Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sezione Botanica, Universita di Siena, Via P. A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena, Italy;
Sexual plant reproduction; pollen biology; pollen tube; pollen-stigma-style-ovule interaction; cytoskeleton

MARIA CHARZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Warsaw University, ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland;
Cytoembryology of flowering plants; anther and pollen development (structural and molecular aspects)

MARTA DOLEŻAL. Academy of Physical Education, Chair of Hygiene and Health Protection, Al. Jana Pawła II 78, 81-571 Cracow, Poland; Fax: +48-12-648 17 07
General and medical mycology; health promotion; medical microbiology

FRANCISZEK DUBERT. Department of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland;
Physiology of plant growth and development

OL’GA ERDELSKÁ. Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská 14, 84223 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Plant embryology; developmental biology

JOHANN GREILHUBER. University of Vienna, Institute of Botany, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria;
Plant karyology

ANNA KOLTUNOW. CSIRO Plant Industry, PO Box 350, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia;
Plant reproduction; developmental biology - particularly seed and fruit (cellular and molecular aspects)

JOLANTA MAŁUSZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Silesian University, ul. Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland;
Plant cytology; cytogenetics

KAROL MARHOLD. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Praha 2, Czech Republic;
Genome evolution; phylogeny; phylogeography

ELISABETH MATTHYS-ROCHON. ENS Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France;
Plant gametes; pollination; cellular and molecular aspects of fertilization; in vitro development

MARIA PAJĄK. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland;
Plant embryology; apomixis

JAN J. RYBCZYŃSKI. Botanical Garden - Center for Biological Diversity Conservation of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Prawdziwka 2, 02-973 Warsaw, Poland;
Plant tissue and organ culture; biotechnology; cryopreservation

BARBARA SKUCIŃSKA. Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, The Agricultural University of Cracow, ul. Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Cracow, Poland
Plant tissue and organ culture

DAVID TWELL. Department of Biology, University of Leicester Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom;
Plant Reproductive biology; pollen development, germline and gamete development; gene regulation including post-transcriptional and small RNA pathways

HANNA WEISS-SCHNEEWEISS. Plant Evolutionary Cytogenetics Group Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria;
Evolutionary plant cytogenetics

ALEV TOSUN. Department of Pharmacognosy, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan-Ankara, Turkey;
Natural products; phytochemistry; essential oils; biological activity of plant extracts and isolated compounds

MICHIEL T. M. WILLEMSE. Laboratory of Plant Cell Biology, Wageningen Agricultural University, Arboretumlaan 4, 6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands
Sexual plant reproduction; biology of lower plants

Section Editors

Section name: Plant embryology; plant cell ultrastructure
JERZY BOHDANOWICZ. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland

Section name: Plant genetics and cytogenetics
ROBERT HASTEROK. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland

Section name: Plant cell tissue and organ culture; developmental biology
ROBERT KONIECZNY. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland

Section name: Phytochemistry; secondary metabolism; pharmacology; bioactivity of plant natural products; biotechnology
ADAM MATKOWSKI. Chair and Department of Pharmaceutical Biology and Botany, Silesian Piasts University of Medicine in Wrocław, al. Jana Kochanowskiego 10, 51-601 Wrocław, Poland

Section name: Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography
MICHAŁ RONIKIER. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, 31-512, Cracow, Poland

Section name: Molecular biology; cytometry; biotechnology
ELWIRA ŚLIWIŃSKA. Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Cytometry, UTP University of Science and Technology, al. Kaliskiego 7, 85-789 Bydgoszcz, Poland

Section name: Plant physiology - photosynthesis and respiration; biotic and abiotic stresses; inter- and intracellular signalling; plant movements; phytohormones in plant growth and development
IRENEUSZ ŚLESAK. Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland



Andrzej Joachimiak (Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone: +48 12 664 60 36; mobile: +48 662 033 594


Monika Tuleja (Managing Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone/fax: 48 12 422 8107
Phone:      + 48 12 664 60 38; mobile: +48 508 751 891


Instructions for authors

ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica is an English-language journal founded in 1958, devoted to plant anatomy and morphology, cytology, genetics, embryology, tissue culture, physiology, biochemistry, biosystematics, molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography, as well as phytochemistry. It is published twice a year.

1. ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica publishes original papers embodying the results of experimental or theoretical research, invited reviews, and brief communications. Manuscripts will be considered only on the understanding that they have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere, that all authors agree on the content of the manuscript, and that laws on nature protection were not violated during the study. Authors have to indicate their specific contributions to the published work in Authors’ Contributions and the sources of financial support of their research in Acknowledgements. They should clearly describe the following in their cover letter: (1) the aims and hypothesis of the paper; (2) the novelty of the paper − new achievements or innovations contained in the paper; and (3) the general significance of their paper.
Articles should be written in English (American spelling). Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by a professional translator or a native speaker prior to submission. Manuscripts should be written concisely. Purely descriptive studies, karyological notes on plants outside of central Europe, papers on economic botany as well as manuscripts of restricted interest generally are not considered for publication. In vitro studies which only describe protocols for plant regeneration without providing relevant biological information will not be considered for publication. A manuscript in the field of plant cell culture, physiology, biochemistry and phytochemistry must contain new insights that lead to a better understanding of some aspect of fundamental plant biology. They should be of interest to a wide audience and/or the methods employed should contribute to the advancement of established techniques and approaches.
Authors are charged a fee for publication of their articles. The bill for publication will be sent with the galley proof. The fee, which is calculated after all articles are accepted, will not exceed 20 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 70 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors. For the standard fee, color illustrations will appear only in the online version of the Journal. At authors’ request and for an extra fee, color illustrations may also appear in the printed version. While sending the manuscript, in the letter to the Editor, the authors should declare their contribution towards the extra costs and enumerate the illustrations which are to be printed in color.
2. Manuscripts should be submitted via the editorial manager:
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology
Jagiellonian University
ul. Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Manuscripts will be examined by at least two anonymous and independent refereeswho have declared that they have no conflict of interest with the author(s). Invitedreferees evaluate the manuscript according to the following criteria: (1) formalaspects, (2) originality, (3) importance in its field, (4) theoretical background, (5)adequacy of methodology, (6) results and interpretation, and (7) overall quality.
3. To shorten the review process, authors are asked to indicate 3 or 4 names of specialists working in the same scientific discipline outside of their institution (including the name of their institution and e-mail addresses) who could serve as reviewers of the manuscript. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, with lines numbered. On all points of style regarding text and tables, follow a current copy of the journal. Words to be italicized (scientific names of genus and species only) should be typed in italics.
4. Original papers should not exceed 8 printed pages (approx. 24 manuscript pages including tables and figures).
5. Original papers should be headed by the title of the paper, author’s name, institution, address, e-mail address of corresponding author(s) and short title (no more than 50 characters), and should be preceded by 5-10 Key words and a short Abstract. Original research papers should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Authors’ Contributions, Acknowledgements and References.
6. Invited reviews are mostly of limited scope on timely subjects written for a general, well-informed audience. Invited reviews are solicited by the Editor. Ideas for unsolicited reviews should be discussed with the Editor. They are subject to the usual review procedure.
7. Brief communications are short papers (1–4 printed pages) reporting new findings that do not need a standard full-length treatment with the usual main headings. Brief communications are subject to normal review.
8. References in the text should be cited in the following form: Newton (1990) or Newton and Berrie (1982) or (Ward, 1950; Hiroshi and Ohta, 1970). For three or more authors, use the form Zinkowski et al. (1991) or (Zinkowski et al., 1991).
Examples of style for references:
a) citations of journal papers:

PALMER TP. 1962. Population structure, breeding system, interspecific hybridization and alloploidy. Heredity 17: 278-283.
CHEN BY, HENEEN WK, SIMONSEN V. 1989. Comparative and genetic studies of isozymes in resynthesized and cultivated Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., and B. alboglabra Baitey. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 77: 673-679.
b) citations of books, congress proceedings, theses:
BERGRREN DJ. 1981. Atlas of Seeds, part 3. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
BING D, DOWNEY RK, RAKOW GFW. 1991. Potential of gene transfer among oilseed Brassica and their weedy relatives. Proceedings of the GCTRC Eighth International Rapeseed Congress, 9-11 July 1991, 1022-1027. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
ROMEO JT. 1973. A chemotaxonomic study of the genus Erythrina (Leguminosae). Ph.D. disseration, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
c) citations of articles and chapters from books:
PHILLIPS RL. 1981. Pollen and pollen tubes. In: Clark G [ed.], Staining Procedures, 61-366. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
Authors’ names in References should be written in small caps.
9. Tables must be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and submitted separately from the text at the end of the paper. The title should be brief and written in the upper part of the table. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by lower-case letters.
10. Illustrations must be restricted to the minimum needed to clarify the text. Previously published illustrations are not accepted. All figures (photographs, graphs, diagrams) must be mentioned in the text. All figures are to be numbered consecutively throughout and submitted separately. Figure captions should be given on a separate page. Photographs should be submitted the same size as they are to appear in the journal. If reduction is absolutely necessary, the scale desired should be indicated. The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge illustrations. Photographs should match either the column width (83 mm) or the printing area (170 x 225 mm). Whenever possible, several photos should be grouped in a plate. The photos should be sharp, and each one should be marked with a lower-case letter on the plate. For photographs without an integral scale the magnification of photographs must be stated in the legend. Color illustrations will be accepted; however, the author will be expected to contribute towards the extra costs. The charge will not exceed 150 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 500 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors.
11. Manuscripts resubmitted after revision: Submit your text written in a standard program (Microsoft Word). Bitmap graphics files should be written in TIFF, or BMP, and vector graphics in AI or CDR (curves). Illustrations written in MS Word or PowerPoint will not be accepted. Submit the text, tables and each figure (plate) as separate files. Every paper will be checked for style and grammar.
The Editor reserves the right to introduce corrections suggested by the journal’s line editor.
12. Proof will be sent directly to the authors in electronic form as a pdf file. Authors’ corrections have to be inserted in the printout of the PDF proof. The corrected proofs must be returned to the Editor within six days via Editorial Manager or by e-mail. Proofs not returned promptly by authors will be corrected by the Editor.
13. Copyright. Exclusive copyright in all papers accepted for publication must be assigned to the Polish Academy of Sciences, but the Academy will not restrict the authors’ freedom to use material contained in the paper in other works by the authors (with reference where they were first published).
14. Offprints. A pdf of each paper is supplied to the authors free of charge.

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