Life Sciences and Agriculture

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica

Content

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica | 2017 | vol. 59 | No 2 |

Abstract

Abstract Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is a key enzyme catalyzing sucrose metabolism in plants. In this study, we isolated the SPS cDNA from Saccharum spontaneum and designated as SsSPS (GenBank accession no. MF398541). The full-length of SsSPS cDNA was 4153-bp with an opening reading frame (ORF) of 3132 nucleotides, which encoded a 1043-amino acid protein. The nucleotide sequences alignment showed that it had 98%, 97% and 87% homology with S. officinarum, Setaria italica and Lolium perenne, respectively. Moreover, the SsSPS was detected to express in leaf and stem tissues of S. spontaneum and exhibited a predominant expression in the stem tissue. However, there was no significant difference in the expression level of SsSPS between young leaves and mature ones. Additionally, we generated transgenic S. spontaneum using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Our data will provide a valuable foundation for further study of the potential role of SPS in plants.
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Abstract

Abstract The fern Platycerium bifurcatum is a valuable component of the flora of tropical forests, where degradation of local ecosystems and changes in lighting conditions occur due to the increasing anthropogenic pressure. In ferns, phytochrome mechanism responsible for the response to changes in the value of R/FR differs from the mechanism observed in spermatophytes. This study analyzed the course of ontogenesis of nest leaves in P. bifurcatum at two values of the R/FR ratio, corresponding to shadow conditions (low R/FR) and intense insolation (high R/FR). The work used only non-destructive research analysis, such as measurements of reflectance of radiation from the leaves, their blue-green and red fluorescence, and the chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics. This allowed tracing the development and aging processes in the same leaves. Nest leaves are characterized by short, intense growth and rapid senescence. The study identified four stages of development of the studied leaves related to morphological and anatomical structure and changing photochemical efficiency of PSII. Under the high R/FR ratio, the rate of ontogenesis of the leaf lamina was much slower than under the low R/FR value. As shown, the rapid aging of the leaves was correlated with faster decline of the chlorophyll content. It was shown that leaf senescence was accompanied by accumulation of polyphenols, anthocyanins and carotenoids on the basis of reflectance and fluorescence measurements in the blue-green range.
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Abstract

Abstract We aimed to produce tissue cultures and plant regeneration from endangered Crocus species: C. scepusiensis, C. tommasinianus, C. vittatus (“Verni” series of the genus) and C. banaticus. For initiation of cultures we used a plant growth regulator (PGR) combination used for in vitro culture of saffron and its relatives: 10 mg L-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 1 mg L-1 6-benzyladenine (BA). Shoot tips of young seedlings (C. scepusiensis) and corms (for the rest of species) were used as explants. C. scepusiensis explants developed into organogenic calli. On media with decreased NAA and with or without increased BA concentration, calli produced stigma-like structures and/or shoots and whole plants. In the other species, callus initiation medium induced callus formation with abundant somatic embryos. In C. tommasinianus, embryos developed shoots when auxin content of medium was decreased. In C. banaticus, a decrease of auxin with or without an increase in cytokinin content led to shoot or whole plant regeneration, as in C. scepusiensis. In the case of C. vittatus and C. banaticus, initiation and/or maintenance of cultures on indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and increased sucrose concentration stimulated whole plant regeneration and in vitro cormlet development. C. scepusiensis and the rest of cultures (organogenic vs. embryogenic) differed at the biochemical level: C. scepusiensis cultures had higher (yet still low) enzymatic antioxidant (catalase, peroxidase) activities. With respect to catalase isoenzyme patterns, C. banaticus was different from the rest of cultures, demonstrating its distinct taxonomical position. Besides germplasm preservation use of the present cultures, they have a potential biotechnological value.
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Abstract

Abstract In tomato fruits, chlorophyll, lycopene and ß-carotene are mostly responsible for the color. During ripening of tomato fruits, the color of the pericarp changes from green to red as chlorophyll is degraded and carotenoids accumulate. These changes are associated with an increase in respiration and ethylene production. Carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants can be disturbed by herbicide fluridone (1-methyl-3-phenyl-5-[3-trifluoromethyl(phenyl)]- 4(1H)-pyridinone), which inhibits the activity of phytoene desaturase, an enzyme responsible for conversion of phytoene to phytofluene. Fluridone is also used as an inhibitor of biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) and strigolactones, and it reduces chlorophyll production in plants. In our research we studied the effect of fluridone on some physiological parameters, such as color, firmness, ethylene production, lycopene and chlorophyll content during ripening of the tomato fruit. Tomato plants cv. Altadena (Syngenta) were cultivated in a greenhouse in controlled temperature and both immature and mature fruits were used for the experiments, performed between August and November 2016. Fluridone at concentrations of 0.1% and 1.0% in lanolin paste was applied as a 2-3 mm stripe from the top to the base of tomato fruits, and as a control a stripe of lanolin was applied in the same way on the opposite side of the fruits. Fluridone at a concentration of 1.0% greatly inhibited lycopene accumulation in the pericarp of tomato fruits from the treated side. The measurements of fruit firmness have shown no significant differences between firmness of the part of the tomato fruits treated with fluridone, and the non-treated ones. Tomato fruits treated with fluridone produced amounts of ethylene similar to those found in control tissues on the opposite side of the same fruit. Fluridone delayed chlorophyll degradation in tomato fruits. The metabolic significance of these findings is discussed with the role of carotenogenesis inhibition in tomato fruit ripening.
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Abstract

Abstract The breeding system in Orchidaceae generates many questions about the selfing potential of its representatives. We investigated the ability of spontaneous autogamy of four orchid species: Cephalanthera rubra and Neottia ovata of the Neottieae tribe and Gymnadenia conopsea and Platanthera bifolia of the Orchideae tribe. These species represent diverse specializations of the gynostemium architecture. The self-compatibility and properties of autogamous seeds were determined in a bagging experiment and seed development analysis. After induced autogamy, a high level of fruiting (80-100%) was noted in all of the four study species. C. rubra, N. ovata, and G. conopsea are completely self-compatible, and P. bifolia is suggested to be partially self-compatible. If autogamy occurred, inbreeding depression and resource limitation on seed development appeared only in the two Orchideae species. Independent of flower specialization, both Neottieae species and P. bifolia were completely allogamous, whereas G. conopsea could be facultatively autogamous.
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Abstract

Abstract Pollen grains of 15 species of the genus Sansevieria were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. The pollen grains were single, but dyads were also found. The basic shape of the pollen grains (with chemical treatment) was subprolate, prolate and prolate-spheroidal and the pollen grains were large (> 50 mm). The pollen grains observed in SEM were prolate-spheroidal, subprolate, prolate and perprolate. The aperture occupied nearly the entire distal hemisphere. The surface of non-apertural areas was microreticulate, psilate-perforate, fossulate and verrucate. The surface of the apertural area was psilate-perforate-verrucate, microreticulate-verrucategemmate and psilate-perforate. The tectum was homogeneous, with perforations. Our results suggest that some species cannot be separated based on pollen grain morphology, but only may be categorized into their groups. The present study investigated pollen grain morphology in eleven species for the first time in terms of pollen micromorphology and provided some important new data.
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Abstract

Abstract Karyology of eleven species of Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma from Poland has been studied. Somatic chromosome numbers are given for the following species: T. bellicum, T. brachyglossum, T. cristatum, T. disseminatum, T. dissimile, T. lacistophyllum, T. parnassicum, T. plumbeum, T. proximum, T. scanicum, and T. tenuilobum. Although the hypertriploid chromosome number was previously reported in Poland for T. lacistophyllum, T. parnassicum, T. scanicum, and T. tenuilobum, we proved the triploid chromosome number 2n = 24 in all the species investigated, which is consistent with the data reported from other regions of Europe. The chromosome numbers of T. bellicum, T. cristatum, T. disseminatum, T. dissimile, T. plumbeum, and T. proximum growing in Poland are published for the first time.
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Abstract

Abstract Chromosome numbers for 13 species of Hieracium L. s.str. from Bulgaria, Macedonia, Poland and Romania are given and their metaphase plates are illustrated. Chromosome numbers are published for the first time for H. djimilense s.lat. 2n=3x=27, H. fiekii R. Uechtr. 2n=3x=27, H. glabrescens (F. W. Schultz) Murr 2n=3x=27, H. juranomorphum Zahn 2n=3x=27, H. sparsiflorum subsp. sparsiceps Zahn 2n=3x=27 and H. sparsum subsp. naegelianiforme Behr & Zahn 2n=3x=27.
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Editorial office

Editor
ANDRZEJ JOACHIMIAK
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6035; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04
e-mail: a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl


Managing Editor
MONIKA TULEJA
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University,
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
Tel.: 48 12 664 6038; Fax: 48 12 664 51 04
e-mail: abc@iphils.uj.edu.pl



Editorial Board

HARVEY E BALLARD, Jr. Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Porter Hall, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA; ballardh@ohio.edu
Molecular approaches in plant systematics, ecology and evolution

JÓZEF BEDNARA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, ul. Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland; ancyt@biotop.umcs.lublin.pl
Plant embryology

BORUT BOHANEC. Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; borut.bohanec@bf.uni-lj.si
Plant biotechnology

MAURO CRESTI. Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sezione Botanica, Universita di Siena, Via P. A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena, Italy; cresti@unisi.it
Sexual plant reproduction; pollen biology; pollen tube; pollen-stigma-style-ovule interaction; cytoskeleton

MARIA CHARZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Warsaw University, ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland; marlig@biol.uw.edu.pl
Cytoembryology of flowering plants; anther and pollen development (structural and molecular aspects)

MARTA DOLEŻAL. Academy of Physical Education, Chair of Hygiene and Health Protection, Al. Jana Pawła II 78, 81-571 Cracow, Poland; Fax: +48-12-648 17 07
General and medical mycology; health promotion; medical microbiology

FRANCISZEK DUBERT. Department of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland; dubert@ifr-pan.krakow.pl
Physiology of plant growth and development

OL’GA ERDELSKÁ. Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská 14, 84223 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Plant embryology; developmental biology

JOHANN GREILHUBER. University of Vienna, Institute of Botany, Rennweg 14, 1030 Vienna, Austria; johann.greilhuber@univie.ac.at
Plant karyology

ANNA KOLTUNOW. CSIRO Plant Industry, PO Box 350, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia; anna.koltunow@csiro.au
Plant reproduction; developmental biology - particularly seed and fruit (cellular and molecular aspects)

JOLANTA MAŁUSZYŃSKA. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Silesian University, ul. Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland; jolanta.maluszynska@us.edu.pl
Plant cytology; cytogenetics

KAROL MARHOLD. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Praha 2, Czech Republic; karol.marhold@savba.sk
Genome evolution; phylogeny; phylogeography

ELISABETH MATTHYS-ROCHON. ENS Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France; ematthysr69@gmail.com
Plant gametes; pollination; cellular and molecular aspects of fertilization; in vitro development

MARIA PAJĄK. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland; m.pajak@iphils.uj.edu.pl
Plant embryology; apomixis

JAN J. RYBCZYŃSKI. Botanical Garden - Center for Biological Diversity Conservation of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Prawdziwka 2, 02-973 Warsaw, Poland; jryb@obpan.pl
Plant tissue and organ culture; biotechnology; cryopreservation

BARBARA SKUCIŃSKA. Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, The Agricultural University of Cracow, ul. Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Cracow, Poland
Plant tissue and organ culture

DAVID TWELL. Department of Biology, University of Leicester Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom; twe@leicester.ac.uk
Plant Reproductive biology; pollen development, germline and gamete development; gene regulation including post-transcriptional and small RNA pathways

HANNA WEISS-SCHNEEWEISS. Plant Evolutionary Cytogenetics Group Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria; hanna.schneeweiss@univie.ac.at
Evolutionary plant cytogenetics

ALEV TOSUN. Department of Pharmacognosy, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan-Ankara, Turkey; pharmacogalev@gmail.com
Natural products; phytochemistry; essential oils; biological activity of plant extracts and isolated compounds

MICHIEL T. M. WILLEMSE. Laboratory of Plant Cell Biology, Wageningen Agricultural University, Arboretumlaan 4, 6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands
Sexual plant reproduction; biology of lower plants


Section Editors

Section name: Plant embryology; plant cell ultrastructure
JERZY BOHDANOWICZ. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
e-mail: jurboh@biotech.univ.gda.pl

Section name: Plant genetics and cytogenetics
ROBERT HASTEROK. Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
e-mail: robert.hasterok@us.edu.pl

Section name: Plant cell tissue and organ culture; developmental biology
ROBERT KONIECZNY. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland
e-mail: robert.konieczny@uj.edu.pl

Section name: Phytochemistry; secondary metabolism; pharmacology; bioactivity of plant natural products; biotechnology
ADAM MATKOWSKI. Chair and Department of Pharmaceutical Biology and Botany, Silesian Piasts University of Medicine in Wrocław, al. Jana Kochanowskiego 10, 51-601 Wrocław, Poland
e-mail: pharmaceutical.biology@wp.eu

Section name: Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography
MICHAŁ RONIKIER. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, 31-512, Cracow, Poland
e-mail: m.ronikier@botany.pl

Section name: Molecular biology; cytometry; biotechnology
ELWIRA ŚLIWIŃSKA. Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Cytometry, UTP University of Science and Technology, al. Kaliskiego 7, 85-789 Bydgoszcz, Poland
e-mail: elwira@utp.edu.pl

Section name: Plant physiology - photosynthesis and respiration; biotic and abiotic stresses; inter- and intracellular signalling; plant movements; phytohormones in plant growth and development
IRENEUSZ ŚLESAK. Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Cracow, Poland
e-mail: i.slesak@ifr-pan.krakow.pl

Contact

 

Andrzej Joachimiak (Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone: +48 12 664 60 36; mobile: +48 662 033 594
e-mail:
a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl

 

Monika Tuleja (Managing Editor)
ul. Gronostajowa 9 30-387 Kraków, Poland
Phone/fax: 48 12 422 8107
Phone:      + 48 12 664 60 38; mobile: +48 508 751 891
e-mail: abc@iphils.uj.edu.pl

 

Instructions for authors

ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica is an English-language journal founded in 1958, devoted to plant anatomy and morphology, cytology, genetics, embryology, tissue culture, physiology, biochemistry, biosystematics, molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography, as well as phytochemistry. It is published twice a year.

1. ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica publishes original papers embodying the results of experimental or theoretical research, invited reviews, and brief communications. Manuscripts will be considered only on the understanding that they have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere, that all authors agree on the content of the manuscript, and that laws on nature protection were not violated during the study. Authors have to indicate their specific contributions to the published work in Authors’ Contributions and the sources of financial support of their research in Acknowledgements. They should clearly describe the following in their cover letter: (1) the aims and hypothesis of the paper; (2) the novelty of the paper − new achievements or innovations contained in the paper; and (3) the general significance of their paper.
Articles should be written in English (American spelling). Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by a professional translator or a native speaker prior to submission. Manuscripts should be written concisely. Purely descriptive studies, karyological notes on plants outside of central Europe, papers on economic botany as well as manuscripts of restricted interest generally are not considered for publication. In vitro studies which only describe protocols for plant regeneration without providing relevant biological information will not be considered for publication. A manuscript in the field of plant cell culture, physiology, biochemistry and phytochemistry must contain new insights that lead to a better understanding of some aspect of fundamental plant biology. They should be of interest to a wide audience and/or the methods employed should contribute to the advancement of established techniques and approaches.
Authors are charged a fee for publication of their articles. The bill for publication will be sent with the galley proof. The fee, which is calculated after all articles are accepted, will not exceed 20 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 70 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors. For the standard fee, color illustrations will appear only in the online version of the Journal. At authors’ request and for an extra fee, color illustrations may also appear in the printed version. While sending the manuscript, in the letter to the Editor, the authors should declare their contribution towards the extra costs and enumerate the illustrations which are to be printed in color.
2. Manuscripts should be submitted via the editorial manager:
https://www.editorialsystem.com/abcsb
Editor: Prof. Dr. ANDRZEJ JOACHIMIAK
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology
Jagiellonian University
ul. Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
e-mail: a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl
Manuscripts will be examined by at least two anonymous and independent refereeswho have declared that they have no conflict of interest with the author(s). Invitedreferees evaluate the manuscript according to the following criteria: (1) formalaspects, (2) originality, (3) importance in its field, (4) theoretical background, (5)adequacy of methodology, (6) results and interpretation, and (7) overall quality.
3. To shorten the review process, authors are asked to indicate 3 or 4 names of specialists working in the same scientific discipline outside of their institution (including the name of their institution and e-mail addresses) who could serve as reviewers of the manuscript. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, with lines numbered. On all points of style regarding text and tables, follow a current copy of the journal. Words to be italicized (scientific names of genus and species only) should be typed in italics.
4. Original papers should not exceed 8 printed pages (approx. 24 manuscript pages including tables and figures).
5. Original papers should be headed by the title of the paper, author’s name, institution, address, e-mail address of corresponding author(s) and short title (no more than 50 characters), and should be preceded by 5-10 Key words and a short Abstract. Original research papers should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Authors’ Contributions, Acknowledgements and References.
6. Invited reviews are mostly of limited scope on timely subjects written for a general, well-informed audience. Invited reviews are solicited by the Editor. Ideas for unsolicited reviews should be discussed with the Editor. They are subject to the usual review procedure.
7. Brief communications are short papers (1–4 printed pages) reporting new findings that do not need a standard full-length treatment with the usual main headings. Brief communications are subject to normal review.
8. References in the text should be cited in the following form: Newton (1990) or Newton and Berrie (1982) or (Ward, 1950; Hiroshi and Ohta, 1970). For three or more authors, use the form Zinkowski et al. (1991) or (Zinkowski et al., 1991).
Examples of style for references:
a) citations of journal papers:

PALMER TP. 1962. Population structure, breeding system, interspecific hybridization and alloploidy. Heredity 17: 278-283.
CHEN BY, HENEEN WK, SIMONSEN V. 1989. Comparative and genetic studies of isozymes in resynthesized and cultivated Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., and B. alboglabra Baitey. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 77: 673-679.
b) citations of books, congress proceedings, theses:
BERGRREN DJ. 1981. Atlas of Seeds, part 3. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
BING D, DOWNEY RK, RAKOW GFW. 1991. Potential of gene transfer among oilseed Brassica and their weedy relatives. Proceedings of the GCTRC Eighth International Rapeseed Congress, 9-11 July 1991, 1022-1027. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
ROMEO JT. 1973. A chemotaxonomic study of the genus Erythrina (Leguminosae). Ph.D. disseration, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
c) citations of articles and chapters from books:
PHILLIPS RL. 1981. Pollen and pollen tubes. In: Clark G [ed.], Staining Procedures, 61-366. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
Authors’ names in References should be written in small caps.
9. Tables must be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and submitted separately from the text at the end of the paper. The title should be brief and written in the upper part of the table. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by lower-case letters.
10. Illustrations must be restricted to the minimum needed to clarify the text. Previously published illustrations are not accepted. All figures (photographs, graphs, diagrams) must be mentioned in the text. All figures are to be numbered consecutively throughout and submitted separately. Figure captions should be given on a separate page. Photographs should be submitted the same size as they are to appear in the journal. If reduction is absolutely necessary, the scale desired should be indicated. The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge illustrations. Photographs should match either the column width (83 mm) or the printing area (170 x 225 mm). Whenever possible, several photos should be grouped in a plate. The photos should be sharp, and each one should be marked with a lower-case letter on the plate. For photographs without an integral scale the magnification of photographs must be stated in the legend. Color illustrations will be accepted; however, the author will be expected to contribute towards the extra costs. The charge will not exceed 150 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 500 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors.
11. Manuscripts resubmitted after revision: Submit your text written in a standard program (Microsoft Word). Bitmap graphics files should be written in TIFF, or BMP, and vector graphics in AI or CDR (curves). Illustrations written in MS Word or PowerPoint will not be accepted. Submit the text, tables and each figure (plate) as separate files. Every paper will be checked for style and grammar.
The Editor reserves the right to introduce corrections suggested by the journal’s line editor.
12. Proof will be sent directly to the authors in electronic form as a pdf file. Authors’ corrections have to be inserted in the printout of the PDF proof. The corrected proofs must be returned to the Editor within six days via Editorial Manager or by e-mail. Proofs not returned promptly by authors will be corrected by the Editor.
13. Copyright. Exclusive copyright in all papers accepted for publication must be assigned to the Polish Academy of Sciences, but the Academy will not restrict the authors’ freedom to use material contained in the paper in other works by the authors (with reference where they were first published).
14. Offprints. A pdf of each paper is supplied to the authors free of charge.

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