Nauki Techniczne

Polityka Energetyczna - Energy Policy Journal

Zawartość

Polityka Energetyczna - Energy Policy Journal | 2020 | vol. 23 | No 1 |

Abstrakt

Offshore wind power is a relatively new sector of the economy with a tremendous potential for development. Its main advantage is foreseeable production and a high capacity factor, estimated at 50% (with prospects to increase to 60%), which makes it the most efficient energy source of all renewable energy technologies. In the Baltic Sea Region, Poland has the largest potential for the development of offshore wind energy. This has been reflected in plans by investors interested in offshore investments within the Polish marine areas. European energy and climate strategies, which define principles and objectives for the transformation of the European energy sector in line with the principle of sustainable development, underline the importance of offshore wind in the effort to achieve climate neutrality of the EU economy and contribute to energy security in Europe. Decision-makers in Poland endeavor to create conditions favorable to the development of the offshore wind sector. The article presents European and Polish conditions for the development of the offshore wind energy. To assess threats and opportunities for the development of the technology in Poland, the article examines whether the offshore wind potential has been included in strategic policy papers related to the development of the Polish energy sector, as well as how the state intends to support the development of the technology. A particular emphasis has been put on the latest draft of the Energy Policy of Poland until 2040 due to the crucial role of the document, since it sets directions for the development of the Polish energy sector for the next 20 years.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wojciech Drożdż
Oliwia Joanna Mróz-Malik

Abstrakt

Energy security is one of the most frequently analysed phenomena in the energy markets. Great variety of scientifc efforts should have indicated clear definition of the phenomenon. However, those studies highlighted more than 80 different definitions of what energy security really is. Due to the fact, that energy security is analyzed by different scientific disciplines, studies have provided a comperehensive reflection on the phenomenon.

The main objective of this paper is of the theoretical nature and focuses on showing energy security externalities. Author delivers an integrative review focusing on existing literature referring to the analyzed phenomena. Energy security is though studied only from the perspective of economics therefore interdisciplinary studies are out of the study scope. The reason for such scientific procedure stem from a belief that each discipline approach is different in terms of concepts, research methods and though results that are obtained. Therefore without undermining high value of interdisciplinary approaches to energy security, author decided to concentrate solely on economic perspective, which in energy security studies seems to be underestimated. Such approach in author’s belief helps achieve theoretical clarity of the below given analysis.

Presented paper is of the theoretical nature and focuses on showing energy security externalities. Critical literature review shows the literature mainstream in which energy security externalities are

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Honorata Nyga-Łukaszewska

Abstrakt

An unsustainable energy mix and energy overconsumption contribute to negative processes such as environmental pressure or energy dependency. The aim of the article is to assess the European Union countries situation in terms of sustainable energy consumption. Eurostat was were used in the analyses. The research was based on synthetic indicators for 2017 data. A non-standard method was used. In accordance with the assumptions of sustainable energy consumption, six indicators were proposed: primary energy consumption (2005=100), final energy consumption (2005=100), share of renewable energy in energy consumption, deficit/surplus in the 2020 renewable energy sources consumption target, energy import dependency (%), greenhouse gas emissions intensity of energy consumption (2000=100). The share of renewable energy in energy consumption and deficit/ surplus in the 2020 renewable energy sources consumption target are stimulants, other features are destimulants. The European Union countries were classified into four groups due to the situation in terms of sustainable energy consumption (first class – favorable situation, second class – quite favorable situation, third class – rather unfavorable situation, fourth class – unfavorable situation). According to the results in twelve countries the situation was identified as favorable or quite favorable, while in the other sixteen countries as rather unfavorable and unfavorable. However, all countries have entered the path of necessary changes. It is important to continue monitoring and analyzing the progress of European Union countries in the field of energy and climate policy.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Luiza Julita Ossowska
Dorota Agnieszka Janiszewska

Abstrakt

At present, electromobility is a very dynamically developing segment and at the same time has many unknowns that enterprises that want to develop this area in their structures have to face. This article aims is to show the difficulties of electromobility development from the perspective of Polish energy groups which are closely related to this area, especially considering the obligations imposed on energy companies by the legislator. The electrification of transport has become a reality and in order to use its potential to develop new services or implement innovations and new technologies, it is necessary to identify development barriers and prepare a response plan. The authors of the article decided to show the formal and legal implications for the development of electromobility in Poland in first order, and then examine the development strategies of Polish energy groups in terms of electromobility and indicate explored areas related to it. The next section focuses on identifying the main barriers to the implementation of business models, classifying them according to the following factors: economic, operational, technical, social and legal. This presentation of the problem allows for an in-depth recognition of the issue and realizing that in order to achieve the goals set by the Legislator, close cooperation of all stakeholders is necessary both at the national and local level, while engaging energy groups, financial companies, electric vehicle manufacturers, and above all local government units in these activities.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wojciech Drożdż
Paulina Szczerba
Dawid Kruszyński

Abstrakt

A domestic hot water (DHW) system has been modernized in a multi-family house, located in the southeastern part of Poland, inhabited by 105 people. The existing heating system (2 gas boilers) was extended by a solar system consisting of 32 evacuated tube collectors with a heat pipe (the absorber area: 38.72 m2). On the basis of the system performance data, the ecological effect of the modernization, expressed in avoided CO2 emission, was estimated. The use of the solar thermal system allows CO2 emissions to be reduced up to 4.4 Mg annually. When analyzing the environmental effects of the application of the solar system, the production cycle of the most material-consuming components, namely: DHW storage tank and solar collectors, was taken into account. To further reduce CO2 emission, a photovoltaic installation (PV), supplying electric power to the pump-control system of the solar thermal system has been proposed. In the Matlab computing environment, based on the solar installation measurement data and the data of the total radiation intensity measurement, the area of photovoltaic panels and battery capacity has been optimized. It has been shown that the photovoltaic panel of approx. 1.8 m2 and 12 V battery capacity of approx. 21 Ah gives the greatest ecological effects in the form of the lowest CO2 emission. If a photovoltaic system was added it could reduce emissions by up to an additional 160 kg per year. The above calculations take also emissions resulting from the production of PV panels and batteries into account.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Piotr Olczak
Małgorzata Olek
Dominik Kryzia

Abstrakt

The energy obtained from biomass in the global balance of energy carriers is the largest source among all RES. It should be borne in mind that the share of biomass as an energy carrier in the total balance is as much as 14%. The basic sources of renewable energy used in Poland are the wind power industry and biomass. Organic chemical compounds are the source of chemical energy for biomass. The biomass can be used in a solid form (wood, straw) or after being converted to liquid (alcohol, bio-oil) or gas (biogas) form.

Pellets, meaning, the type of fuel of natural origin created from biomass compressed under high pressure without the participation of any chemical adhesive substances are recognized as the most common and available grades of biomass. Wood pellets manufactured from sawdust, shaving, or woodchips are the most popular type of pellets on the market. Fuel created in the form of granules is very dense and can be manufactured with low humidity content, which translates into an exceptionally high burn efficiency.

The authors of this article burned agro pellets from Miscanthus giganteus without additives and with solid catalyst and conducted a series of tests that determine the impact of boiler settings (blast power, time of feeding, chimney draft) on the process of burning fuel in real conditions. A solid catalyst was used to improve combustion conditions in one of the fuels. The catalyst burns carbon monoxide and reduces nitrogen oxides. The results in the form of observation of selected parameters are summarized in the table.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tomasz Mirowski
Marta Jach-Nocoń
Iwona Jelonek
Adam Nocoń

Abstrakt

The circular economy model is based on several priority areas, including biomass and bio-based products. Focusing on them and their use should certainly take their cascading into account use, including how energy from waste from the wood industry is managed. Biomass is one of the most frequently used renewable energy sources in Poland, and in the European Union it satisfies 6% of primary energy. The CE (Circular Economy) model assumes that the reuse, processing and regeneration of a product requires less resources and energy, and is more economical than conventional material recycling, as low quality raw materials. The current model of waste management must take energy recovery into account, without which it is impossible to close the balance sheet of management of many groups of waste. This is also important from the economic point of view. Chemical energy, which is contained in a large part of waste, can be used for energy purposes, including the production of electricity and heat. Reducing the use of raw materials is the most effective environmental approach to solving the waste problem. However, this requires reducing the extraction and consumption of materials, challenging existing production and consumption patterns. In the circular economy model there is a huge difference in approach to recycling leading to new products that create transport and production, new jobs and possible GDP (Gross Domestic Product) growth. The aim of the study is to analyze the use of waste from the wood industry and to present possible solutions for its cascade use, taking the currently implemented circular economy model (CE) into account.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Natalia Generowicz
Zygmunt Kowalski

Abstrakt

Mercury emissions have become one of the problems in the energy sector in recent years. The currently used mercury removal techniques include: primary, secondary and preliminary methods. However, due to the large variation in the mercury content in hard and brown coal and the different characteristics of power plants, these methods are often not effective enough to meet the new requirements set by BREF/BAT which requires a search for new, high-efficiency solutions. The proposal for a new technology has been developed in the project “Hybrid Adsorption Systems to Reduce Mercury Emissions Using Highly Effective Polymer Components” (HYBREM). The project was implemented by the consortium of SBB Energy SA and ZEPAK Pątnów II Power Plant. An innovative, high-efficiency hybrid technology for purifying exhaust gases from mercury was developed. GORE polymer modules were used as a technology base where, in combination with the injection of solid sorbents, a hybrid technology was developed. To assess the economic efficiency of the similar case as in the HYBREM project model based on OPEX and CAPEX, each method was selected separately. The article focused on the substitution of solid sorbents used in the HYBREM project by zeolite based materials. Modified zeolite X, applied in the project, was derived from fly ash. Preliminary analysis shows that the system of proposed technologies is very cost-competitive compared only to GORE technology. The basic factors are the possibility of recovering zeolites from ash, combined with low investment outlays.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Renata Koneczna
Robert Żmuda
Łukasz Lelek
Magdalena Wdowin

Abstrakt

The reduction of mercury emissions in currently existing coal-based power plant solutions by each method i.e. preliminary, primary and secondary (consisting of introducing coal into the combustion chamber and then removing mercury from the combustion gases arising from the combustion process) does not solve the problem of achieving the required limits by power plants. Therefore, the need has arisen to look for new, effective solutions.

The results presented in the work concern the analysis of environmental benefits for the use of zeolites obtained from by-products of coal combustion such as fly ash (from hard coal and lignite) in technologies for removing gaseous forms of mercury. The tested zeolites were silver-modified X-type structures. The reference material in the considerations was active carbon impregnated with bromine – a commercially available sorbent on the market.

The article considers environmental benefits resulting from the use of tested zeolites taking the product life cycle, sorbent efficiency and the possibility of its regeneration compared to activated carbon (AC/Br) into account. The LCA analysis was performed taking the estimated material and energy balances of the manufacturing processes into account. When comparing the production process of type X zeolite materials on the processing line and activated carbons in the amount necessary to capture 375 g Hg from exhaust gases, the LCA analysis showed that zeolites contribute to a lower potential impact on the environment. The advantage is that 5 times less zeolite sorbent than activated carbons is needed to capture the same amount of mercury. In addition, zeolite materials can be regenerated, which extends their life time

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Łukasz Lelek
Magdalena Wdowin
Rafał Panek

Abstrakt

In this study, the environmental impacts of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) treatment and its conversion in anaerobic digestion to glycerol tertiary butyl ether (GTBE) were assessed. The production process is a part of the innovative project of a municipal waste treatment plant. The BioRen project is funded by the EU’s research and innovation program H2020. A consortium has been set up to implement the project and to undertake specific activities to achieve the expected results. The project develops the production of GTBE which is a promising fuel additive for both diesel and gasoline. It improves engine performance and reduces harmful exhaust emissions. At the same time, the project focuses on using non-recyclable residual organic waste to produce this ether additive.

The aim of this paper is the evaluation through Life Cycle Assessment of the environmental impact GTBE production in comparison with a production of other fuels. To quantify the environmental impacts of GTBE production, the ILCD 2011 Midpoint+ v.1.10 method was considered. The study models the production of GTBE, including the sorting and separation of municipal solid waste (MSW), pre-treatment of organic content, anaerobic fermentation, distillation, catalytic dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene, etherification of GTBE with isobutene and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC).

The results indicate that unit processes: sorting and hydrothermal carbonization mostly affect the environment. Moreover, GTBE production resulted in higher environmental impact than the production of conventional fuels.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Magdalena Muradin

Redakcja

Kolegium redakcyjne
  • Redaktor naczelny: Eugeniusz Mokrzycki
  • Z-ca redaktora naczelnego: Lidia Gawlik
  • Redaktor tematyczny: Wykorzystanie surowców energetycznych
  • Sekretarz redakcji: Katarzyna Stala-Szlugaj
  • Redaktor tematyczny: Paliwa i energia
  • Z-ca sekretarza redakcji: Jacek Kamiński
  • Redaktor tematyczny: Energetyka
  • Redaktor statystyczny: Jacek Mucha
Rada redakcyjna
  • Prof. Rolf Bracke – International Geothermal Centre Hochschule, Bochum, Niemcy
  • Prof. Tadeusz Chmielniak – Politechnika Śląska, Gliwice, Polska
  • Prof. Mariusz Filipowicz – Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza, Kraków, Polska
  • Prof. Anatoliy Goncharuk – International Humanitarian University, Odessa, Ukraina
  • Prof. Ernst Huenges – GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Poczdam, Niemcy
  • Prof. Louis Jestin – University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, RPA
  • Dr Gudni Johannesson – Orkustofnun-Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik, Islandia
  • Prof. Jacek Marecki – Politechnika Gdańska, Gdańsk, Polska
  • Dr Nuria G. Rabanal – Universidad de Leon, Leon, Hiszpania
  • Prof. Jakub Siemek – Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza, Kraków, Polska
  • Dr Jan Soliński – Polski Komitet Światowej Rady Energetycznej, Warszawa, Polska
  • Prof. Namejs Zeltins – Institute of Physical Energetics, Ryga, Łotwa
Komitet wydawniczy
  • Emilia Rydzewska – redaktor językowy (polski)
  • Michelle Atallah – redaktor językowy (angielski)
  • Beata Stankiewicz – redaktor techniczny

Kontakt

Instytut Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia Polskiej Akademii Nauk
ul. J. Wybickiego 7, 31-261 Kraków
tel.: +48 12 6323300, faks: +48 12 6323524
e-mail: polene@min-pan.krakow.pl
https://min-pan.krakow.pl

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