Applied sciences

Polityka Energetyczna - Energy Policy Journal


Polityka Energetyczna - Energy Policy Journal | 2020 | vol. 23 | No 4

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The article is devoted to topical issues of energy saving management of a business organization.

The concept and essence of saving are considered. Based on the systematization of the totality of

manifestations of saving energy, the following types are distinguished: economic, ecological, ecological-

economic, reputation and social. External and internal factors of saving energy in a business

organization are identified, which reflect the conditions of its operation in the context of saving

energy. It is determined that energy efficiency barriers, which are proposed to be divided into technical-

economic, organizational-behavioral and cognitive, characterize the energy saving process in

terms of restraining factors in improving the efficiency of fuel and energy resources, reflect specific

obstacles within the energy saving process in a particular business organizations and are of an

intra-organizational nature. It is determined that to improve energy saving processes in a business

organization the use cycles of continuous development, in particular, the Deming cycle is advisable.

For the purposes of energy management, the use an appropriate business model that determines

the order of formation of the economic advantage of the entity through energy savings and reflects

a set of solutions that characterize the process of creating value for stakeholders are advisable.

Based on the formalization of the business model of energy efficiency of the business organization,

the use of an saving energy program aimed at removing barriers to energy efficiency and the impact

on internal energy saving factors, as they are the levers that a business organization can influence to

improve energy efficiency, is proposed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Olena Shatilova
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Renewable energy development is crucial for resolving global warming issues and achieving

sustainable development goals. The objective of this paper is to reveal renewable energy trends

using statistical data to identify the most developed technologies in the field, their distribution by

territory, checking the interrelation between investments in R&D and patent activity.

The changes in total investments made in renewables are studied for 2004–2019 and the increasing

trend has been observed with some fluctuations in certain years, major current investments in solar

and wind energy are detected. The dynamics of international patenting activity in solar and wind

technologies, geothermal and fuel cells, the total number of PCT applications over the past 10 years

by geographic region are considered. The results show some differences across various renewable

technologies. Solar is the most patented, wind and fuel cells are less patented but solar and wind

have shown an uptrend for the last five years, while fuel cell technologies showed a decline after

2008. Geothermal is the least patented.

The comparison between investment and patent application trends in renewables undercovers some

important issues – the leading role of Japan in patenting under the PCT procedure, while China is

a major investor in renewable energy; the US and Europe with big investments in renewables are

also leading in patent registration.

Correlation between investment in R&D and patenting activity in the field of global renewable

energy should be emphasized (correlation coefficient R = 0,849 for 2002–2019). Since private

and public investment is strongly stimulated by domestic renewable energy policies, IP indicators

can help identify policy instruments and their effectiveness within the further research


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Authors and Affiliations

Tetiana Sobolieva
Nataliia Harashchenko
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The article aims to study the determinants of the energy policy implementation process from

risks and danger perspectives by building the risk management system model. The research methodology

is based on the application of the risk map to the energy policy. Our results confirmed

that the risk map could be applied in the energy industry to identify the risks and to implement the

energy policy risk management system model which will prevent critical uncertainties and risk

structure, identified from the risk map as well as bring the energy industry to the future state by

implementing scenarios and strategies, developed by the World Energy Council. The research limitations

are that the main limits are concerned with the lack of the evaluation results of the energy

policy risks aimed for the system management of the changes which these risks may introduce. No

empirical study has been conducted. The application of the risk map is related in a major part to

the enterprise level with financial and technical purposes of changes. In the research we made an

attempt to develop the managerial recommendations for the regulators on how to make a transitions

of risks to opportunities of introducing and managing changes in the framework of the energy

policy risk management system model. The originality/ value of the paper consists firstly, in the innovativeness

of applying the tool of matrix forecasting to the energy sector; secondly, in providing

a supporting tool to policy-makers and managers decisions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Iryna Nyenno
Natalia Selivanova
Natalya Korolenko
Vyacheslav Truba
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This paper summarizes the arguments and counterarguments within the scientific discussion

on developing the free-carbon economy in Ukraine. The main purpose of the paper is elaborating

the energy efficiency profile of Ukraine to assure the development of the free-carbon economy. To

achieve this purpose, the authors carried out an investigation in the following logical sequence.

Firstly, the bibliometric analysis of 4674 of the most cited articles indexed by the Scopus database

was conducted. The obtained findings indicated that the green economy transformation depended

on the main factors such as economic performance, corruption, macroeconomic stability, social

welfare, shadow economy etc. As a result, the forecast of the final energy consumption to 2030

was performed. The methodological tool of this research is based on the Autoregressive Integrated

Moving Average (ARIMA) model. This study involved data of the Visegrad countries (Poland, the

Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic and Hungary) and Ukraine from 2000 to 2018. The base of

data is Eurostat, the EU statistical service. Based on the obtained results of analyzing the green

economic transformation in the Visegrad countries and Ukraine, the authors intimated the existence

of the significant energy-efficient gap in Ukraine compared to the analyzed countries. In reliance on

the experience of the Visegrad countries and the forecast results, the authors provided the main recommendations

for providing the green transforming in Ukraine. The authors highlighted that the obtained

results of this paper were considered to be the base for future investigations considering the influence

of endogenous and exogenous factors on developing the free-carbon economy in Ukraine.

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Authors and Affiliations

Yana Us
Tetyana Pimonenko
Oleksii Lyulyov
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The article reveals the problems of the formation and implementation of Ukraine’s energy policy

from the beginning of its independence to the present day. The specificities of the fuel and energy

sector of the country’s economy, the main stages of formation, macroeconomic conditions and the

problems of its transformation were analyzed. The slow and contradictory processes of reforming

Ukraine’s fuel and energy complex throughout the period of its independence and the fact that the

inconsistency with the main directions of the economic policy did not ensure its effective transformation

have been proven. The results of the OECD assessment of progress towards the main

objectives implementation of the Ukraine’s Energy Strategy have been presented. It was noted that

the results of the research suggest that the progress in achieving the goals of Ukraine’s Energy Strategy

is ambiguous, therefore the strategy needs to be refined accordingly. There are two main factors

moving away from the formal and declarative nature of Ukraine’s energy policy to its realistic model.

Firstly – an international factor associated with Ukraine’s extending involvement in international cooperation

within the energy sector, Ukraine’s international commitments to reform the energy sector

towards increasing energy efficiency, green energy, etc. Another – the crisis factor – as a result of the

energy policy of the Russian Federation. It was noted that the role of these factors in the future will

remain determining. The need to improve Ukraine’s energy policy, taking the current trends in the

development of the world energy system, new challenges and threats to politico-military and energy

confrontation with the Russian Federation into account, has been proven.

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Authors and Affiliations

Viktoriia Dergachova
Maryna Kravchenko
Kateryna Kuznietsova
Taras Kotsko
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The research is devoted to the organization of the energy policy objectives implementation

through programs. A country’s energy policy can be monitored in many ways. The article proposes

to consider the implementation of energy policy objectives with the budget programs maintenance

on the example of Ukraine. Budget programs make it possible to trace the dynamics of changes in

the aim and directions of the authorities’ energy policy, implemented for budgetary funds. With the

budget programs since 2002 in Ukraine, it was possible to trace the increase in spending on the coal

industry, highlight the funding forced of negative consequences in the energy sector and separate

the steps to develop an energy strategy. Changes in the totality of energy policy budget programs

are shown, their contents are considered. The decrease in the budget programs number associated

both with the enlargement of their aim and with the withdrawal expenses for reconstruction and

social protection of those affected by the previous energy activities from the budget funding. To

assess budget programs planning and implementation uniformity the author’s integrated indicator is

proposed. It takes the funding level and the quality indicator implementation on assignment directions

into account. The calculation of the indicator showed that the expenditures for the general

management of the energy policy and for scientific development are planned in the programs more

evenly than the expenses for the energy strategy implementation.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tetiana Zhyber
Tetiana Solopenko
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Energy is a basic industry for any economy and ensures the country’s security, including economic

security. The purpose of the article is to analyze the reform of the energy sector in Ukraine

for successful integration into the energy sector of the European Union. The state of the energy

industry from 2003 to 2018 is analyzed. The following main reasons for the decrease in electricity

generation in Ukraine are identified – a decrease in production volumes, the annexation of Crimea

and the anti-terrorist operation in the east of Ukraine, a decrease in the volume of energy output

from Thermal Power Plants due to aging capacities, difficulties with raw materials, low efficiency,

which, however, has a good effect on the environment due to a decrease carbon dioxide emissions.

The directions of reforming the electric power industry of Ukraine are considered in the context of

“industry-market-company”. Four electricity market models are analyzed and the new model of the

competitor’s market for electricity in Ukraine with contract market, spot market, the balancing market

is substantiated. The structure of the segments of the new electricity market and the participants

are proposed. More than half of the electricity market is provided by nuclear power, which ranks

the 5th in the world in terms of installed capacity. The analysis of the performance indicators of the

nuclear company for 2007–2019 showed significant reserves for the company’s growth, which are

being successfully implemented through strategic development projects and phased corporatization

of the company as a tool of unbundling. The main challenges of implementation a new market

model are analyzed and solutions are proposed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Hanna Doroshuk
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The Ukrainian energy sector’s crucial problems, in particular, the outmoded equipment, the power

infrastructure shortcoming and a significant backlog in the energy supply quality from the European

one, based on the SAIDI (System Average Interruption Duration Index) indicator comparison,

has been disclosed in this article. A considerable break in the energy supply quality in both

rural and urban settlements has been also revealed. The current state of the alternative energy development

has been described, the energy generation structure, as well as the rates of development

of the renewable energy sources’ usage have been analyzed. Some challenges in the imbalance of

the renewable energy sources’ usage and their analyzed consequences have been identified, among

others, the generation volume abruptness by both SPP and WPP, requiring maneuvering with the

traditional sources’ employer. The negative effect of the “green” tariff as the main priming stimulus

for the renewable energy facilities’ construction has been proven. Generally and particularly, the

financial influence level on the state has been analyzed, being manifested in the debts’ accumulation

to energy producers. The residual capability of solving the problems of alternative energy

development has been considered, in particular, the “green” auctions announced by the state, the

formation of the optimal predicted level of energy generation by SPP and WPP in order to prevent

sharp disparities in both electricity demand and supply. The biogas plants’ facilities as a ponderable

choice to both solar and wind generation have been analyzed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Viktoriia Dergachova
Zhanna Zhygalkevych
Yevhen Derhachov
Yana Koleshnia
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The article examines the trends in the development of renewable energy in Ukraine in accordance

with the long-term strategy of the energy sector of the state in the context of the transformation

of employment in the energy sector of the country. It is emphasized that investments in renewable

energy technologies create more jobs compared to traditional electricity generation technologies.

It is defined that in Ukraine there is a significant untapped potential for energy efficiency, which

requires accelerating the pace of modernization and development of renewable energy sources and

raises the issue of labor supply to the industry. It was emphasized that there are a number of opportunities

for the development of the energy sector of Ukraine related to the development of renewable

energy sources. It is underlined that the formation of territorial-industrial clusters in Ukraine

for the production of equipment for solar and wind energy with a closed production cycle forms

long-term prerequisites for socio-economic stability in the country and stimulates employment. It is

substantiated that an important reserve for increasing employment in Ukraine is to ensure the energy

efficiency of buildings. At the same time, it was noted that in the field of renewable energy and

energy efficiency in Ukraine there is a significant shortage of qualified technicians and specialists

in the field of innovative technologies, which confirms the importance of studying the problem of

labor support in the industry. It is determined that today the solution of the issue of labor supply

of the industry takes place mainly at the level of enterprises that invest in the development of their

own staff.

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Authors and Affiliations

Svitlana Kalinina
Olena Lyndiuk
Volodymyr Buchyk
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In this article, the author will try to conditionally transform the energy capacities of NNEGC

Energoatom by converting a liability into an asset using the example of bitcoin. With a surplus of

nuclear power generation, one of the modern tools for using excess electricity is directing it to cryptocurrency

mining. The author of the article will try to calculate the possibilities of Ukrainian NPPs

in the cryptoindustry market by analyzing the competitiveness, market trends and the approximate

profitability of this kind of activity. The essence of the article lies in the intervention of the state

energy giant in completely new activities, partial monopolization of the market and interference

in the activities of decentralized cryptocurrencies, as well as the very novelty of combining two

different fields of activity and the global nature of the consequences. Mining can be used to convert

the underdeveloped electricity or all of Energoatom’s capacities totally, but at the same time it can

also affect the cryptoasset market in the field of decentralization, as the primary cost factor to affect

the price of assets and allow for obtaining super-profits at a state enterprise. The author of the article

tries to understand the profitability of such actions and, in general, to understand the globality

of the idea. The results of the entry of the national energy giant into the cryptoasset market will

change the global processes in the ecosystem of the cryptoindustry and change the situation both

on the electricity market in the region and, in general, will affect the processes of globalization and

unification of the financial sectors of the economy.

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Authors and Affiliations

Vladyslav Gennadyevich Stanislavskyi

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