Life Sciences and Agriculture

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica

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Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica | 2021 | Vol. 63 | No 2 |

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Abstract

Morpho-anatomical characteristics of Vaccinium myrtillus, V. uliginosum and V. vitis-idaea leaves from several sites of the Central Balkans were examined. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time morpho-anatomical leaf traits of these species in the studied populations and to identify traits that follow a specific trend along the gradients of climate factors. Leaf traits that discriminate Vaccinium species were as follows: depth of the adaxial cuticule (AdC), thickness of the palisade tissue (PT), thickness of the spongy tissue (ST), height of the abaxial epidermal cells (AbE), height of the abaxial cuticule (AbC) and leaf thickness (LT). Populations of V. myrtillus were characterized by the smallest, and populations of V. vitis-idaea by the highest values for AdC, PT, ST, AbE and LT. Additionally, AbC was significantly larger for V. uliginosum in comparison to two other species. On the basis of morpho-anatomical traits, intraspecific variability of the studied species was explored by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster Analysis (CA) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). CA based on 10 morpho-anatomical traits showed that populations of V. myrtillus and V. uliginosum that grew at lower altitudes (characterized by higher mean annual temperature) are more similar to each other. Especially V. myrtillus was responsive to the elevational gradient and exhibited the highest plasticity in morpho-anatomical leaf traits. Populations of V. vitis-idaea had a different pattern of differentiation along the elevational gradient. CA showed that the populations at the lowest and at the highest altitudes were more similar according to the morpho-anatomical leaf traits, meaning that evergreen leaves were more resistant to environmental conditions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ivana Bjedov
1
Dragica Obratov-Petković
1
Vera Rakonjac
2
Dragana Skočajić
1
Srđan Bojović
3
Milena Marković
3
Zora Dajić-Stevanović
3

  1. University of Belgrade – Faculty of Forestry, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  2. University of Belgrade – Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade – Zemun, Serbia
  3. Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković“, Bulevar Despota Stefana142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Abstract

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a process that allows genetic material to flow between even distantly related organisms. It is primarily observed in bacteria and protists but also in different lineages of eucaryotes. The first HGT cases in plants were discovered at the beginning of the 21st century and have been intensively studied ever since. Researchers have placed particular emphasis on the plant kingdom, especially parasitic plants. This review presents the current state of knowledge about this phenomenon in plants, with a special focus on parasitic plants.
Among the described factors facilitating HGT, close physical contact between organisms is believed to be one of the most important. It is noted especially in the case of parasitism and similar relationships. For that reason, reported occurrences of this phenomenon in holoparasites, hemiparasites, and mycoheterotrophic plants are compared. The mechanisms responsible for HGT in plants still remain unclear, however, the studies described here suggest that both DNA and RNA may play a role as a carrier in that process. Also, the transfer between genomes of different organelles in the cell, intracellular gene transfer (IGT), and its relationships with HGT are described. The occurrence of the HGT and IGT phenomena concerning different genomes: nuclear, mitochondrial, and plastid is discussed in the review. Finally, some future areas of research in the field are proposed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Góralski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Magdalena Denysenko-Bennett
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anna Burda
1
ORCID: ORCID
Natalia Staszecka-Moskal
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dagmara Kwolek
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Botany, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

In the predominantly polyploid and apomictic genus Hieracium (Asteraceae) sexual diploids are extremely rare and their distribution is limited mainly to the refugial areas of southern Europe. Here we characterized for the first time the chromosome complex of the relict species Hieracium bracteolatum from a diploid population on the Greek Island of Evia. The cytogenetic analysis based on classical chromosome staining, C-banding/DAPI method and fluorescence in situ hybridization with rDNA probes (rDNA-FISH) showed no major differences in the karyotype structure between this relict species and other diploids within the genus, especially in terms of chromosome morphology and rDNA location. Our study is part of the still very scarce research on the karyotype organization in sexual Hieracium taxa.
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Authors and Affiliations

Aleksandra Grabowska-Joachimiak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Magdalena Żytkowicz
1
Dagmara Kwolek
2
ORCID: ORCID
Zbigniew Szeląg
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Plant Breeding, Physiology and Seed Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Kraków, Poland
  2. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Institute of Botany, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
  3. Pedagogical University of Cracow, Institute of Biology, Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków, Poland

Instructions for authors

ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica is an English-language journal founded in 1958, devoted to plant anatomy and morphology, cytology, genetics, embryology, tissue culture, physiology, biochemistry, biosystematics, molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography, as well as phytochemistry. It is published twice a year.

1. ACTA BIOLOGICA CRACOVIENSIA Series Botanica publishes original papers embodying the results of experimental or theoretical research, invited reviews, and brief communications. Manuscripts will be considered only on the understanding that they have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere, that all authors agree on the content of the manuscript, and that laws on nature protection were not violated during the study.
Authors have to indicate their specific contributions to the published work in Authors’ Contributions and the sources of financial support of their research in Acknowledgements. They should clearly describe the following in their cover letter: (1) the aims and hypothesis of the paper; (2) the novelty of the paper − new achievements or innovations contained in the paper; and (3) the general significance of their paper.
Articles should be written in English (American spelling). Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by a professional translator or a native speaker prior to submission. Manuscripts should be written concisely. Purely descriptive studies, karyological notes on plants outside of central Europe, papers on economic botany as well as manuscripts of restricted interest generally are not considered for publication. In vitro studies which only describe protocols for plant regeneration without providing relevant biological information will not be considered for publication. A manuscript in the field of plant cell culture, physiology, biochemistry and phytochemistry must contain new insights that lead to a better understanding of some aspect of fundamental plant biology. They should be of interest to a wide audience and/or the methods employed should contribute to the advancement of established techniques and approaches.
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Editor: Prof. Dr. ANDRZEJ JOACHIMIAK
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology
Jagiellonian University
ul. Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
e-mail:a.joachimiak@uj.edu.pl

Manuscripts will be examined by at least two anonymous and independent refereeswho have declared that they have no conflict of interest with the author(s). Invitedreferees evaluate the manuscript according to the following criteria: (1) formalaspects, (2) originality, (3) importance in its field, (4) theoretical background, (5)adequacy of methodology, (6) results and interpretation, and (7) overall quality.

3. To shorten the review process, authors are asked to indicate 3 or 4 names of specialists working in the same scientific discipline outside of their institution (including the name of their institution and e-mail addresses) who could serve as reviewers of the manuscript. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, with lines numbered. On all points of style regarding text and tables, follow a current copy of the journal. Words to be italicized (scientific names of genus and species only) should be typed in italics.

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6. Invited reviews are mostly of limited scope on timely subjects written for a general, well-informed audience. Invited reviews are solicited by the Editor. Ideas for unsolicited reviews should be discussed with the Editor. They are subject to the usual review procedure.

7. Brief communications are short papers (1–4 printed pages) reporting new findings that do not need a standard full-length treatment with the usual main headings. Brief communications are subject to normal review.

8. References in the text should be cited in the following form: Newton (1990) or Newton and Berrie (1982) or (Ward, 1950; Hiroshi and Ohta, 1970). For three or more authors, use the form Zinkowski et al. (1991) or (Zinkowski et al., 1991).
Examples of style for references:
a) citations of journal papers:

PALMER TP. 1962. Population structure, breeding system, interspecific hybridization and alloploidy. Heredity 17: 278-283.
CHEN BY, HENEEN WK, SIMONSEN V. 1989. Comparative and genetic studies of isozymes in resynthesized and cultivated Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., and B. alboglabra Baitey. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 77: 673-679.
b) citations of books, congress proceedings, theses:
BERGRREN DJ. 1981. Atlas of Seeds, part 3. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
BING D, DOWNEY RK, RAKOW GFW. 1991. Potential of gene transfer among oilseed Brassica and their weedy relatives. Proceedings of the GCTRC Eighth International Rapeseed Congress, 9-11 July 1991, 1022-1027. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
ROMEO JT. 1973. A chemotaxonomic study of the genus Erythrina (Leguminosae). Ph.D. disseration, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
c) citations of articles and chapters from books:
PHILLIPS RL. 1981. Pollen and pollen tubes. In: Clark G [ed.], Staining Procedures, 61-366. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
Authors’ names in References should be written in small caps.

9. Tables must be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and submitted separately from the text at the end of the paper. The title should be brief and written in the upper part of the table. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by lower-case letters.

10. Illustrations must be restricted to the minimum needed to clarify the text. Previously published illustrations are not accepted. All figures (photographs, graphs, diagrams) must be mentioned in the text. All figures are to be numbered consecutively throughout and submitted separately. Figure captions should be given on a separate page. Photographs should be submitted the same size as they are to appear in the journal. If reduction is absolutely necessary, the scale desired should be indicated. The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge illustrations. Photographs should match either the column width (83 mm) or the printing area (170 x 225 mm). Whenever possible, several photos should be grouped in a plate. The photos should be sharp, and each one should be marked with a lower-case letter on the plate. For photographs without an integral scale the magnification of photographs must be stated in the legend. Color illustrations will be accepted; however, the author will be expected to contribute towards the extra costs. The charge will not exceed 150 USD per printed page for foreign authors and 500 PLZ per printed page for Polish authors.

11. Manuscripts resubmitted after revision: Submit your text written in a standard program (Microsoft Word). Bitmap graphics files should be written in TIFF, or BMP, and vector graphics in AI or CDR (curves). Illustrations written in MS Word or PowerPoint will not be accepted. Submit the text, tables and each figure (plate) as separate files. Every paper will be checked for style and grammar.
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