Abstract
The reachability of standard and fractional-order continuous-time systems with constant inputs is addressed. Positive and non-positive continuous-time linear systems are considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such constant inputs that steers the system from zero initial conditions to the given final state in desired time are derived and proved. As an example of such systems the electrical circuits with DC voltage sources are presented.

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This paper compares the equilibrium outcomes under simultaneous and
sequential output setting in a mixed duopoly in a vertically
differentiated market. When the timing of the output game is determined
endogenously, it is shown that simultaneous play in the quality stage with
the public firm acting as the high-quality producer and simultaneous play
in the second period in the output stage turn out to be the unique subgame
perfect Nash equilibrium, which contrasts with the endogenous timing in a
purely private duopoly.

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Abstract
The minimum energy control problem for the descriptor discrete-time linear systems by the use of Weierstrass-Kronecker decomposition is formulated and solved. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the reachability of descriptor discrete-time linear systems are given. A procedure for computation of optimal input and a minimal value of the performance index is proposed and illustrated by a numerical example.

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Abstract
Various optimization problems for linear parabolic systems with multiple constant time delays are considered. In this paper, we consider an optimal distributed control problem for a linear parabolic system in which multiple constant time delays appear in the Neumann boundary condition. Sufficient conditions for the existence of a unique solution of the parabolic equation with the Neumann boundary condition involving multiple time delays are proved. The time horizon T is fixed. Making use of the Lions scheme [13], necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality for the Neumann problem with the quadratic cost function with pointwise observation of the state and constrained control are derived.

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Abstract
The H∞ norm approach to virtual actuators design, intended to Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy continuous-time systems, is presented in the paper. Using the second Ljapunov method, the design conditions are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities in adapted bounded real lemma structures. Related to the static output controller, and for systems under influence of single actuator faults, the design steps are revealed for a three-tank system plant.

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Abstract
This paper describes a method which determines the parameters of an object orientation in 3D space. The rotation angles calculation bases on the signals fusion obtained from the inertial measurement unit (IMU). The IMU measuring system provides information from a linear acceleration sensors (accelerometers), the Earth’s magnetic field sensors (magnetometers) and the angular velocity sensors (gyroscopes). Information about the object orientation is presented in the form of direction cosine matrix whose elements are observed in the state vector of the non-stationary Kalman filter. The vector components allow to determine the rotation angles (roll, pitch and yaw) associated with the object. The resulting waveforms, for different rotation angles, have no negative attributes associated with the construction and operation of the IMU measuring system. The described solution enables simple, fast and effective implementation of the proposed method in the IMU measuring systems.

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Abstract
Fault input channels represent a major challenge for observer design for fault estimation. Most works in this field assume that faults enter in such a way that the transfer functions between these faults and a number of measured outputs are strictly positive real (SPR), that is, the observer matching condition is satisfied. This paper presents a systematic approach to adaptive observer design for joint estimation of the state and faults when the SPR requirement is not verified. The proposed method deals with a class of Lipschitz nonlinear systems subjected to piecewise constant multiplicative faults. The novelty of the proposed approach is that it uses a rank condition similar to the observer matching condition to construct the adaptation law used to obtain fault estimates. The problem of finding the adaptive observer matrices is formulated as a Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) optimization problem. The proposed scheme is tested on the nonlinear model of a single link flexible joint robot system.

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Abstract
In the paper a new, state space, non integer order model for one dimensional heat transfer process is presented. The model is based on known semigroup model. The derivative with respect to time is described by the non integer order Caputo operator, the spatial derivative is described by integer order operator. The elementary properties of the state operator are proven. The solution of state equation is calculated with the use of Laplace transform. Results of experiments show, that the proposed model is more accurate than analogical integer order model in the sense of square cost function.

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