Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering


Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2015 | vol. 64 | No 4 December |

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This paper considers the feasibility of different technologies for an electromagnetic launcher to assist civil aircraft take-off. This method is investigated to reduce the power required from the engines during initial acceleration. Assisted launch has the potential of reducing the required runway length, reducing noise near airports and improving overall aircraft efficiency through reducing engine thrust requirements. The research compares two possible linear motor topologies which may be efficaciously used for this application. The comparison is made on results from both analytical and finite element analysis (FEA).

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Authors and Affiliations

Luca Bertola
Tom Cox
Patrick Wheeler
Seamus Garvey
Herve Morvan
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The proposed paper discusses the design and characterization of a soft miniature Magneto-Rheological (MR) shock absorber. In particular, the final application considered for the insertion of the designed devices is a controllable variable stiffness sole for patients with foot neuropathy. Such application imposes particularly challenging constraints in terms of miniaturization (cross-sectional area ≤ 1.5 cm2, height ≤ 25 mm) and high sustainable loads (normal loads up to 60 N and shear stresses at the foot/device interface up to 80 kPa) while ensuring moderate to low level of power consumption. Initial design considerations are done to introduce and justify the chosen novel configuration of soft shock absorber embedding a MR valve as the core control element. Successively, the dimensioning of two different MR valves typologies is discussed. In particular, for each configuration two design scenarios are evaluated and consequently two sets of valves satisfying different specifications are manufactured. The obtained prototypes result in miniature modules (external diam. ≤ 15 mm, overall height ≤ 30 mm) with low power consumption (from a minimum of 63 mW to a max. of 110 mW) and able to sustain a load up to 65 N. Finally, experimental sessions are performed to test the behaviour of the realized shock absorbers and results are presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

Daniel Grivon
Yoan Civet
Zoltan Pataky
Yves Perriard
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This paper presents a numerical modeling method for AC losses in highly dynamic linear actuators with high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. The AC losses and generated force of two actuators, with different placement of the cryostats, are compared. In these actuators, the main loss component in the superconducting tapes are hysteresis losses, which result from both the non-sinusoidal phase currents and movement of the permanent magnets. The modeling method, based on the H-formulation of the magnetic fields, takes into account permanent magnetization and movement of permanent magnets. Calculated losses as function of the peak phase current of both superconducting actuators are compared to those of an equivalent non-cryogenic actuator.

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Authors and Affiliations

B.J.H. de Bruyn
J.W. Jansen
E.A. Lomonova
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It has been proposed that a novel maglev transport system uses both of the attractive force and thrust force of the Linear Induction Motor (LIM). In our proposal, these two forces will be controlled by two different frequency components. One of the frequency components is synchronous with the motor speed (fm). Another frequency component is drive frequency (fd). Our proposed system enables the independent and simultaneous control of the attractive and thrust force of LIM. Each value of the attractive and the thrust force generated by fm and fd must be identified in order to design that LIM control system. For these purpose, a disc-shaped LIM has been developed as an experimental equipment. The force profiles, especially around zero slip, have been analyzed under experimental conditions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Toshimitsu Morizane
Keisuke Tsuruya
Noriyuki Kimura
Hideki Omori
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The free piston linear generator is a new range extender concept for the application in a full electric vehicle. The free piston engine driven linear generators can achieve high efficiency at part and full load which is suitable for the range extender application. This paper presents requirements for designing a linear generator deduced from a basic analysis of a free piston linear generator.

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Authors and Affiliations

Un-Jae Seo
Björn Riemer
Rüdiger Appunn
Kay Hameyer
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In this paper a cross-shaped isolator consisting of cuboidal magnets and a cylindrical isolator are compared by resonance frequency to volume ratio and shape. Both isolators are capable of obtaining a low resonance frequency, i.e. 0.15 Hz and 0.01 Hz for the cross and cylinder, respectively. The volume of both isolators is comparable, only the shape is different, resulting in a tall structure with a small footprint for the cross and a flat with a large diameter cylindrical structure. A sensitivity analysis shows that due to the large amount of magnets, the cross-shaped isolator is less sensitive to manufacturing tolerances.

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Authors and Affiliations

D.T.E.H. Van Casteren
J.J.H. Paulides
E.A. Lomonova
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This paper focuses on the design and control of an active suspension system, where a tubular linear motor is integrated into a spring damper system of a vehicle. The spring takes up the weight of the vehicle. Therefore the electric linear motor can be designed very compact as it has to provide forces to adjust the damping characteristic only. Design and construction of the active suspension system, a control strategy and validation measurements at a test bench are presented.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andreas Thul
Daniel Eggers
Björn Riemer
Kay Hameyer
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The drive train of a small scale magnetically levitated train reveals the principles of a mechatronic system and offers challenges related to design, construction and control. Therefore, it is used at the Institute of electrical Machines (IEM) of the RWTH Aachen University as a demonstrator for engineering solutions. Instead of being a part of a static predefined student laboratory, the small scale magnetically levitated train is part of dynamic individual student projects. This approach provides the advantage that the students are directly involved in the engineering process and gain motivation out of their personal ideas becoming reality.
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Authors and Affiliations

Gregor Glehn
Rüdiger Appunn
Kay Hameyer
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This paper describes multiple electric field control methods for foil coils in high-voltage coreless linear actuators and their sensitivity to misalignment. The investigated field control methods consist of resistive, refractive, capacitive and geometrical solutions for mitigating electric stress at edges and corners of foil coils. These field control methods are evaluated using 2-D boundary element and finite element methods. A comparison is presented between the field control methods and their ability to mitigate electric stress in coreless linear actuators. Furthermore, the sensitivity to misalignment of the field control methods is investigated.
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Authors and Affiliations

T.A. van Beek
J.W. Jansen
E.A. Lomonova
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In intra-enterprise logistics and automation of manufacturing processes general a rising productivity by high flexibility is required. Existing transportation systems exclusively use two-dimensional track sections, because they can be served with standard drives. Because of these simple structures the transport speed is limited and thereby also the throughput. In this paper now a modular transportation system is presented which could reach higher speeds with a direct drive and the use of centrifugal force compensating curves. Simultaneously the system also can change the altitude. All this succeeds with the integration of three-dimensional track sections. Therefore a two piped guiding system with a long stator linear motor was designed. To combine the linear motor with the three dimensional track special stator elements were developed which allow a bending of the stator to follow the route course. The current work deals with the implementation of a mechanical passive switch, which is operated by the electromagnetic forces of the linear motor. So no additional mechanical actors or a separate electromagnetic system are necessary.
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Authors and Affiliations

Christoph Löffler
Wolf-Rüdiger Canders
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This paper evaluates the performance of fractional-slot per pole winding configurations for tubular permanent magnet (PM) machines that can effectively eliminate the most undesirable space harmonics in a simple and cost-effective manner. The benefits of the proposed machine topology winding configurations are illustrated through comparison with 9-slot, 10-pole tubular PM machine developed for a free piston energy converter under the same specification and volumetric constraints. It has been shown that the proposed machine topology results in more than 7 times reduction in the eddy current loss in the mover magnets and supporting tube, and hence avoids potential problem of excessive mover temperature and risk of demagnetization.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jiabin Wang
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The car access time is a key parameter, especially in a huge stereo-garage, where this one should be decreased as much as possible. This paper proposes a novel stereo-garage. Adopting the linear induction motors (LIMs), the system has a simple structure and rapid response capability. In the stereo-garage, several LIMs are installed below the crossbeam on a lifting platform, and several LIMs are fixed on the top of a moving frame. During the operation of LIMs, the moving frame moves forward and backward to reach the required parking place, whereas the crossbeam moves horizontally in order to take or store the vehicle rapidly. All these LIMs are the same and should be designed at a low frequency. The influences of key structure parameters and dynamic performances are investigated, based on FEM. The predicted results are validated by a prototype. Finally, the designed LIMs are successfully applied in two 8-layer stereo-garages.
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Authors and Affiliations

Qinfen Lu
Yunyue Ye
Jianxin Shen

Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.

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Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

Journal manuscript

[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript

[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual

[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).


[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).


[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).


[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).


[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).


[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms

[8] Author A., Title of article, in Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].


[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259


[9], accessed April 2010.


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AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors will be asked to a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article.

The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro.

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