Applied sciences

Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation


Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation | 2019 | vol. 68 | No 2 |

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Urbanization has a far-reaching impact on the environment, economy, political and social processes. Therefore, understanding the spatial distribution and evolution of human settlements is a key element in planning strategies that ensure the sustainable development of urban and rural settlements. Accordingly, it is very important to map human settlements and to monitor the development of cities and villages. Therefore, the problem of settlements has found its reflection in the creation of global databases of urban areas. Global settlement data have extraordinary value. These data allow us to carry out the quantitative and qualitative analyses as well as to compare the settlement network at a regional, national and global scale. However, the possibility of conducting both spatial and attribute analyses of these data would be even more valuable. The article describes how to prepare raster data so that they can be implemented into a vector database. It answers the questions whether it is possible to combine these data with databases available in Poland and what benefits it brings. It presents the methods of data generalization and the optimization of time and disk space. As a result of the study, two vector databases with GUF data were developed. The first database resolution is similar to the original (~12 m resolution) database, the second database contains less detailed (~20 m resolution) data, generalized using mathematical morphology. Both databases have been enriched with descriptive data obtained from the National Geodetic and Cartographic Resource.

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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata Brzezińska-Klusek
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The value of the integrated indicator of the united territorial communities land use is determined. An assessment of the integral indicator was carried out and directions for the development of methodological recommendations to improve the efficiency of land use of the united territorial communities were identified. A feature of the use of GIS for analysis and visualization of integrated indicators of land use of the united territorial communities is the development of a geoinformation analysis scheme. The developed scheme of geoinformation systems using for modelling, evaluation, and analysis of integrated indicators of the united territorial communities land use gives the opportunity to form information and analytical support of monitoring based on geospatial information and to create the basis for increasing the united territorial communities land use. The sequence obtained in the article ensures the monitoring of changes in the spatial characteristics of the lands of the united territorial communities in the region. The results of determining the integral indicators of land use of the united territorial communities obtained in the article make it possible to carry out geoinformation analysis and build a GIS map of the land use. The developed GIS map allows the formation of information and analytical monitoring support based on the values of integrated indicators of land use. Also, the data of the presented map allow to predict the directions of land use of the united territorial communities, to compare them by territorial features and features depending on changes of system spatial, urban, investment and ecological factors.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrii Evdokimov
Kostiantyn Dolia
Artur Rudomakha
Elena Palamar
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Transnational communication lines differ from other objects of the economy both in form and size, and in the task of their geodetic support, which requires the development of special methods for its solution. One of the ways of geodetic support with high accuracy is the choice of optimal (with minimal distortion) geodetic projection for the territories of transnational communication lines. Composite projection is one of the most appropriate methods to choose the optimal projection. This article presents the argumentation and results of experimental calculations for the implementation of optimal geodetic projection for transnational communication lines in Azerbaijan.

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Authors and Affiliations

Magsad Huseyn Gojamanov
Alishir Ismayil Ismayilov
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Each European Union Member State keeps a register of data on properties located in its territory. The number, type and scope of these properties are determined by each Member State’s needs. The INSPIRE Directive enables the scope of data to be harmonised, and the data to be made available for the purpose of assisting legislators in taking decisions and actions likely to have either direct or indirect impact on the environment. The aim of the study was to indicate the basic differences between the data contained in Polish and Latvian cadastres. Unlike other similar studies analysing the content of data in the cadastre, this article pays special attention to the number of available sets of data about the parcel and its surroundings, the ease of access to these data and the possibility for acquiring them by an interested party without incurring additional fees. This is particularly important in activities related to spatial management and the development of an information society. The results show that in both countries, the decision makers have approached the INSPIRE Directive differently. Direct analyses conducted for the cities of Wrocław (Poland) and Riga (Latvia) demonstrated that the information system in Wrocław contains a considerably greater scope of information available free of charge, is easier to use and offers more services. The Latvian Republic’s spatial information system provides a less-developed scope of information about real estate (without fees) that is dispersed on several websites, which slows down and hinders its use.

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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Kocur-Bera
Velta Parsova
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The content of this paper is dedicated to the analysis of the flat planarity of forklift stacker’s track and cross sections of lanes between racks in a warehouse. These results will serve as a basis for a possible reconstruction of the track and racks and shall contribute to the overall reduction of costs related to an unexpected bad technical condition. The contribution aims to assess the geometric parameters of warehouse racks at the selected company operation in terms of their suitability for further use. The choice of the selected topic represents a relevant issue, which can be possibly encountered in daily practice related to the storage and transport processes of products. The measurements and processing of longitudinal profiles and cross-sections were made in the local coordinate and local vertical system. Points on the lower, middle and upper level of racks were measured for good and correct interpretation of results. Testing the measured positional change of poles is on the end of this paper. The immediate readiness of interest groups of subjects for adopting necessary actions to ensure the stability and safe operation of the whole network of lanes of the warehouse spaces is the expected contribution of the presented results.

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Authors and Affiliations

Slavomír Labant
Marcela Bindzárová Gergel’ová
Štefan Rákay
Erik Weiss
Jozef Zuzik
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In modern conditions of urban development, there is a need to improve the technology for determining the investment attractiveness of urban lands by developing a method and models for assessing its impact, which will be based on the construction of a two-level system of indicators, which will determine the integral investment criterion and develop guidelines for improving the investment attractiveness of urban lands. As a result of the research, the value of the integral indicator of urban land investment attractiveness was determined, which allowed to apply it in the system of normative monetary valuation of urban land and to develop methodological recommendations for improving the efficiency of its investment attractiveness assessment. A method for assessing the investment attractiveness of urban land, as the main element of technology, based on the determination of indicators for assessing the integral criterion for the development of guidelines for improving the urban land investment attractiveness is developed. By the value of the integral criterion, the integral indicators of the potential investment attractiveness of urban lands are determined, considering the changes in the normative monetary value of the lands of settlements and the level of investment attractiveness of the regional centers of Ukraine is determined.

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Authors and Affiliations

Kostiantyn Mamonov
Serhii Nesterenko
Yuliia Radzinskaya
Alena Palamar
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In this study, several variants create and choose of a local quasi-geoid model in Poland have been considered. All propositions have a source in European Gravimetric Geoid models – EGG2008 and EGG2015, which are purely gravimetric models of reference surface. In the course of this work, each model has been analyzed in various ways: without any corrections, by parallel shifting of residuals, by the 7-parameter conformal transformation and by fitting residuals by 4- and 5-parameter trigonometric polynomials. Eventual corrections were based on points of national GNSS/levelling networks (EUVN, EUVN_DA, POLREF, EUREF and ASG-EUPOS eccentric points). As a final result of this study, a comparison of the accuracy of selected models has been carried out by RMSE statistics and maps showing spatial distribution of residuals and histograms. Validation has shown that the maximum achievable accuracy of the EGG models is approximately 2 cm for the ETRF2000 reference system and approximately 8 cm for ETRF89. In turn, fitting with the use of different mathematical methods results in an improvement of the standard deviation of residues to the level of 1.3–1.4 cm. The conclusions include an evaluation of considerations for and against the use of models based only on EGG realizations and, on the other hand, fitted to the points of Polish vertical network. Its usefulness is strictly connected with needs of the definition of up to date quasi-geoid model for the new realization of heights system in Poland, based on EVRF2007 frame.

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Dorota Marjańska
Tomasz Olszak
Dominik Piętka
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The need for effective and rational use of land, protection, and preservation of its qualitative state (as the agricultural land soil) is due to some negative details, namely, more than a third of the land is eroded, half of which are black soil in particular, which have an average level of nutrient supply, a lot of contaminated abandoned or overdented land. The acuteness of this problem, which has developed with regard to the protection and preservation of the land qualitative state, has become particularly relevant. The solution to this problem requires truly effective methods of influence. One of such methods is the surveillance of ecological and economic monitoring of land. The article analyzes the ecological and economic factors and factors influencing the monitoring and surveillance of land in Ukraine. Perspectives and objectives for improvements in land monitoring are highlighted. The paper discloses a theoretical synthesis and new approaches to solving the problem of environmental management, which can participate in the development of innovative economic and environmental factors of rational land use, which will contribute to enhancing the transition of Ukraine to the model of sustainable land use. The purpose of this work is a scientific analysis of the various organizational factors of monitoring and surveillance of agricultural land in relation to the current legislation in Ukraine.

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Authors and Affiliations

Lesya Perovich
Oleksandra Hulko
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Applications in geodesy and engineering surveying require the determination of the heights of the vertical control points in the national and local networks using different techniques. These techniques can be classified as geometric, trigonometric, barometric and Global Positioning System (GPS) levelling. The aim of this study is to analyse height differences obtained from these three techniques using precise digital level and digital level, total station (trigonometric levelling) and GPS which collects phase and code observations (GPS levelling). The accuracies of these methods are analysed. The results obtained show that the precise digital levelling is more stable and reliable than the other two methods. The results of the three levelling methods agree with each other within a few millimetres. The different levelling methods are compared. Geometric levelling is usually accepted as being more accurate than the other methods. The discrepancy between geometric levelling and short range trigonometric levelling is at the level of 8 millimetres. The accuracy of the short range trigonometric levelling is due the reciprocal and simultaneous observations of the zenith angles and slope distances over relative short distances of 250 m. The difference between the ellipsoidal height differences obtained from the GPS levelling used without geoid and the orthometric height differences obtained from precise geometric levelling is 4 millimetres. The geoid model which is obtained from a fifth order polynomial fit of the project area is good enough in this study. The discrepancy between the precise geometric and GPS levelling (with geoid corrections) is 4 millimetres over 5 km.

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Authors and Affiliations

Atınç Pırtı
Ramazan Gürsel Hoşbaş
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Position time series from permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations are commonly used for estimating secular velocities of discrete points on the Earth’s surface. An understanding of background noise in the GNSS position time series is essential to obtain realistic estimates of velocity uncertainties. The current study focuses on the investigation of background noise in position time series obtained from thirteen permanent GNSS stations located in Nepal Himalaya using the spectral analysis method. The power spectrum of the GNSS position time series has been estimated using the Lomb–Scargle method. The iterative nonlinear Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) algorithm has been applied to estimate the spectral index of the power spectrum. The power spectrum can be described by white noise in the high frequency zone and power law noise in the lower frequency zone. The mean and the standard deviation of the estimated spectral indices are ��1:460:14;��1:390:16 and ��1:530:07 for north, east and vertical components, respectively. On average, the power law noise extends up to a period of ca. 21 days. For a shorter period, i.e. less than ca. 21 days, the spectra are white. The spectral index corresponding to random walk noise (ca. –2) is obtained for a site located above the base of a seismogenic zone which can be due to the combined effect of tectonic and nontectonic factors rather than a spurious monumental motion. Overall, the usefulness of investigating the background noise in the GNSS position time series is discussed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jagat Dwipendra Ray
M. Sithartha Muthu Vijayan
Walyeldeen Godah
Ashok Kumar
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In recent years, the rate of urban growth has increased rapidly especially in Egypt, due to the increase in population growth. The Egyptian government has set up new cities and established large factories, roads and bridges in new places to solve this trouble. This paper investigates the change monitoring of land surface temperature, urban and agricultural area in Egypt especially Kafr EL-Sheikh city as case study using high resolution satellite images. Nowadays, satellite images are playing an important role in detecting the change of urban growth. In this paper, cadastral map for Kafr El-Sheikh city with scale 1:5000, images from Landsat 7 with accuracy 30 meters; images from Google Earth with accuracy 0.5 meter; and images from SAS Planet with accuracy 0.5 m are used where all images are available during the study period (for year’s 2003, 2006, 2009, 2012, 2015 and 2017). The analysis has been performed in a platform of Geographical Information System (GIS) configured with Remote Sensing system using ArcGIS 10.3 and ERDAS Imagine image processing software. From the processing and analysis of the specified images during the studied time period, it is found that the building area was increased by 28.8% from year 2003 up to 2017 from Google Earth images and increased by percentage 34.4% from year 2003 up to year 2017 from supervised Landsat 7 images but for unsupervised Landsat 7 images, the building area was increased by percentage 35.9%. In this study, land surface temperature (LST) was measured also from satellite images for different years through 2003 until 2017. It is deduced that the increase in the building area (urban growth) in the specified city led to increase the land surface temperature (LST) which will affect some agricultural crops. Depending on the results of images analysis, Forecasting models using different algorithms for the urban and agricultural area was built. Finally, it is deduced that integration of spacebased remote sensing technology with GIS tools provide better platform to perform such activities.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zaki M. Zeidan
Ashraf A.A. Beshr
Sanaa S. Soliman

Instructions for authors

The Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation accepts a wide range of papers including original research papers, original short communication papers, review articles and symposium pieces. Details of submission are provided below. Please, note, that at the submission stage, the author(s) ensure(s) that the submitted work will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright owners. All co-authors also agree on the publication ethics statement.

For all parties involved in the act of publishing (the author, the journal editor(s), the peer reviewer and the publisher) it is necessary to agree upon standards of expected ethical behavior. The ethics statements for Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation are based on the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors ( ).


Original Research papers:

Research papers can have 8000 words in length, although longer articles will be accepted on an occasional basis if the topic demands this length of treatment.

Original Short communication papers:

Short communication papers can have 2500 words as a maximum and contain at most 1 table and 3 figures. Such a note is technical and well-focused, for example illustrating a new technique, describing a well worked-out case study or a specific new algorithm.

Original research and short communications papers should contain the following sections: Abstract (max. of 250 words), Introduction, Data used and methods applied, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments, References.

Review article:

The journal also considers short reviews (not exceeding 12 pages in print) intended to debate recent advances in rapidly developing fields that are within its scope. Such articles may have ample references. Reviews should contain the following sections: Abstract (max. of 250 words), Introduction, Topics (with headings and subheadings), Conclusions and Outlook, Acknowledgments, References

Symposium pieces:

Symposium pieces describe a research symposium or seminar and present the topic covered in the form of a news brief, opinion piece, or mini-review. A news brief summarizes a few talks on the same general topic or issues at a given symposium. This can include a summary of the discussion that followed the symposium or the significance of the talks at a large symposia to a particular field. It is important to indicate the main point of the symposium.

An opinion piece discusses the personal perspectives after a given symposium, including an analysis of the symposium and how this affected the author.

A mini-review can be based on a theme from a given symposium. This may require the author(s) to review articles written by a speaker at that symposium.

These articles should be no more than 3,000 words. All symposium pieces should include the following sections: Abstract (max. of 250 words), Introduction, Topics (with headings and subheadings) [specifically required for a mini-review], Conclusions and Outlook, References


The author(s) guarantee(s) that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright owners, that the rights of the third parties will not be violated, and that the publisher will not held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.

Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.


Submission of the manuscript implies: that the work has not been published before (except in form of an abstract or as a part of a published lecture, review or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.

In case the manuscript has more than one author its submission should include the list specifying contribution of each author to the manuscript with indicating who is the author of the concept, assumptions, research methodology, data processing. Major responsibility is on the corresponding author.

The Editor will counteract in Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation against Ghostwriting, i.e. when someone substantially contributed to the preparation of the manuscript but has neither been included to the list of authors nor his role is mentioned in the acknowledgements as well as Ghost authorship, i.e. when the author/co-author did not contribute to the manuscript or his contribution is negligible. Any detected case of Ghostwriting and Ghost authorship will be exposed and the appropriate subjects, i.e. employers, scientific organizations, associations of editors etc., will be informed.


The manuscripts are submitted online via and should be submitted in Word. Please, do not exceed the number of words intended to a specific submission. Please, count the number of words before submitting, with abstract, acknowledgements and references excluded.

Names of authors and their affiliation should be removed from the manuscripts for the review process in order to have a fair evaluation of their manuscript. All authors of the manuscript are responsible for its content; they must have agreed to its publication and have given the corresponding author the authority to act on their behalf in all matters pertaining to publication. The Corresponding Author is responsible for informing the coauthors of the manuscript status throughout the submission, review, and production process. The editorial system requires: the name(s) of the author(s), the name(s) and address(es) of the affiliation(s) of the author(s), the e-mail address of the corresponding author, the 16-digit ORCID number of the author(s). The corresponding author is required to provide his/her ORCID number. ORCID numbers of co-authors are not necessary, but advised.

Manuscript preparation

Manuscripts should be typed in single-line spacing throughout on the A4 sheet with 2.5 cm margins. Use plain 11-point Times Roman font for text, italics for textual emphasis, bold for mathematical vectors.

1. Abstract: The paper must be preceded by a sufficiently informative abstract presenting the most important results and conclusions. It should not be longer than 250 words and should not contain any unexplained abbreviations and unspecified references.

2. Keywords: Three to five keywords should be supplied. These are used for indexing purposes.

3. Introduction: It should explicitly state the purpose of the investigation and give a short review of the pertinent literature.

4. Main text: It should include all methods and input data (working details must be given concisely; well-known operations should not be described in details); results presented in tabular or graph form, with appropriate statistical evaluation, discussion of results - statement of conclusions drawn from the work and conclusions.

5. Acknowledgements: Please, include all institutions, names or numbers of grants that require acknowledgement. The names of funding organizations or institutions providing data should be given in full. This information is mandatory for all submitted papers.

6. Author Contributions: All authors contributing to the paper need to have their role assigned.

7. Data availability: Indicate where to download the data you used and how they can be accessed. Are your final results available anywhere?

8. References: The list of references should be prepared in alphabetical order and should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications could only be mentioned in the text. References in the text, should be cited by author(s) last name and year: e.g. (Beutler, 2003a), (Featherstone and Kirby, 2000), (Schwarz et al., 1990), (Sjöberg et al., 2000; Strykowski, 2001b; 2002). The details on the reference list preparation is provided below.

9. Formulae and symbols: They must be written legibly and will be typeset in italics. One-layer indexing is preferable. Numbering of formulae, if necessary should be given in brackets fitted to the right margin. use the equation editor or MathType for equations

10. Illustrations and tables: All figures (photographs, graphs or diagrams) and tables should be cited in the text and numbered consecutively throughout. Lowercase roman letters should identify figure parts. Figure legends must be brief and must contain self-sufficient explanations of the illustrations. Each table should have a title and a legend explaining any abbreviation used in that table. Tables and illustrations have to be placed in the text and send as separate files.

11. Units: SI units must be used.

12. Short title: Please, include a running head consisting of at most 60 characters. This concise banner represents the title of the article and must be submitted by the author(s).


Proofreading is the responsibility of the author. Corrections should be clear; standard correction marks should be used. Corrections that lead to a change in the page layout should be avoided. The author is entitled to formal corrections only. Substantial changes in content, e.g. new results, corrected values, title and authorship are not allowed without the approval of the editor. In such case please contact the Editor-in-chief before returning the proofs.

Reference list

a. Journal Article (one author)

Nikora, V. (2006). Hydrodynamics of aquatic ecosystems: spatial-averaging perspective. Acta Geophysica, 55(1), 3-10. DOI: 10.2478/s11600-006-0043-6.

b. Journal Article (two or more authors)

Cudak, M. and Karcz J. (2006). Momentum transfer in an agitated vessel with off-centred impellers. Chem. Pap. 60(5), 375-380. DOI: 10.2478/s11696-006-0068-y.

c. Journal article from an online database

Czajgucki Z., Zimecki M. & Andruszkiewicz R. (2006, December). The immunoregulatory effects of edeine analogues in mice [Abstract]. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 12(3), 149-161. Retrieved December 6.

d. Book (one author)

Baxter, R. (1982). Exactly Solvable Models in Statistical Mechanics. New York: Academic Press.

e. Book (two or more authors)

Kleiner, F.S., Mamiya C.J. and Tansey R.G. (2001). Gardner’s art through the ages (11th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Harcourt College Publishers.

f. Book chapter or article in an edited book

Roll, W.P. (1976). ESP and memory. In J.M.O. Wheatley and H.L. Edge (Eds.), . (pp. 154-184). Springfield, IL: American Psychiatric Press.

g. Proceedings from a conference

Field, G. (2001). Rethinking reference rethought. In Revelling in Reference: Reference and Information Services Section Symposium, 12-14 October 2001 (pp. 59-64). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Library and Information Association.

h. Online document

Johnson, A. (2000). Abstract Computing Machines. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved March 30, 2006, from SpringerLink DOI: 10.1007/b138965.

i. Report

Osgood, D. W., and Wilson, J. K. (1990). Covariation of adolescent health problems. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. (NTIS No. PB 91-154 377/AS).

j. Government publication

Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy. (1997). The national drug strategy: Mapping the future. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.


The editor of a peer-reviewed journal is responsible for deciding which articles submitted to the journal should be published, and, moreover, is accountable for everything published in the journal. In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers when making publication decisions. The editor maintain the integrity of the academic record, preclude business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, and always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed. The editor evaluate manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s). The editor do not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

The editor is guided by COPE’s Guidelines ( for Retracting Articles when considering retracting, issuing expressions of concern about, and issuing corrections pertaining to articles that have been published in Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation.

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Publication Ethics Policy


Editor Responsibilities

The editor of Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation is guided by COPE’s Guidelines ( for Retracting Articles when considering retracting, issuing expressions of concern about, and issuing corrections pertaining to articles that have been published in the journal. The editor evaluates manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s). The editor do not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate. The editor seeks so ensure a fair and appropriate peer review process. Editors recuse themselves (i.e. ask a co-editor, associate editor or other member of the editorial board instead to review and consider) from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or (possibly) institutions connected to the papers. Editors require all contributors to disclose relevant competing interests and publish corrections if competing interests are revealed after publication. If needed, other appropriate action should be taken, such as the publication of a retraction or expression of concern.

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Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and, through the editorial communication with the author, may also assist the author in improving the manuscript. Any invited referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should immediately notify the editor so that alternative reviewers can be contacted.

Any manuscripts received for review is treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inacceptable. Referees should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.

Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge.

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Authors reporting results of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.

The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Parallel submission of the same manuscript to more than one journal constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.

Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should also cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be named in an Acknowledgement section.

The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors (according to the above definition) and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the author list of the manuscript, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

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