Applied sciences

Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation

Content

Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation | 2022 | vol. 71 | No 2

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Abstract

The Laplace operator is a differential operator which is used to detect edges of objects in digital images. This paper presents the properties of the most commonly used third-order 3x3 pixels Laplace contour filters including the difference schemes used to derive them. The authors focused on the mathematical properties of the Laplace filters. The basic reasons of the differences of the properties were studied and indicated using their transfer functions and modified differential equations. The relations between the transfer function for the differential Laplace operator and its difference operators were described and presented graphically. The impact of the corner elements of the masks on the results was discussed. This is a theoretical work. The basic research conducted here refers to a few practical examples which are illustrations of the derived conclusions.We are aware that unambiguous and even categorical final statements as well as indication of areas of the results application always require numerous experiments and frequent dissemination of the results. Therefore, we present only a concise procedure of determination of the mathematical properties of the Laplace contour filters matrices. In the next paper we shall present the spectral characteristic of the fifth order filters of the Laplace type.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ireneusz Winnicki
1
ORCID: ORCID
Janusz Jasinski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Slawomir Pietrek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Krzysztof Kroszczynski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Destructive aftershocks such as the M w 7.2 Van earthquake on October 23, 2011, and the Hoy (Iran) earthquake with M w 5.9 on February 23, 2020, occurred in the province of Van and its surroundings. In earthquake studies, the issue of examining the distribution and homogeneity of earthquake incidences with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based via spatial autocorrelation techniques is frequently investigated. Van province and its surroundings are among the areas with high earthquake risk due to its location on the East Anatolian Compressive Tectonic Block. The aim of this study is to analyze the spatial patterns of earthquakes with magnitude M w 4 and above that occurred in the province of Van and its surroundings during the instrumental period and to determine to cluster. Spatial cluster analyses play an important role in examining the distribution of seismicity. The data used in the study have been taken from the database system of the Earthquake Department of the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Interior Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency. Moran’s I and Getis-Ord Gi methods from spatial autocorrelation techniques were preferred on the earthquake data set to be used in this research. It has aimed to determine the dangerous areas by testing the earthquake distributions in clustered regions via spatial autocorrelation techniques.
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Authors and Affiliations

Güzide Miray Perihanoglu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ömer Bilginer
2
ORCID: ORCID
Elif Akyel
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Van, Turkey
  2. Izmir Katip Çelebi University, Izmir, Turkey
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Abstract

This study discusses how to model the noise in a Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-Mascon derived Equivalent Water Thicknesses (EWT) time-series. GRACE has provided unique information for monitoring variations in EWT of continents in regional or basin scale since 2002. To analyze a GRACE EWT time-series, a standard harmonic regression model is used, but usually assuming white noise-only stochastic model. However, like almost all kinds of geodetic time-series, it has been shown that the GRACE EWT time-series contains temporal correlations causing colored noise in the data. As well known in geodetic modelling studies, neglecting these correlations leads to underestimating the uncertainties, and so misinterpreting the significancy of the parameter estimates such as trend rate, amplitudes of signals etc. In this study, autoregressive noise modeling, which has some advantageous compared to the approaches and methods frequently applied in geodetic studies, is considered for GRACE EWT time series. For this aim, three important basins, namely theYangtze, Murray–Darling and Amazon basins have been examined. Among some applied autoregressive models, the ARMA(1,1) model is obtained as the best-fitting noise model for analyzing the EWT changes in each basin. The obtained results are discussed in terms of forecasting, significancy and consistency with GRACE-FO mission.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ozge Gunes
1
ORCID: ORCID
Cuneyt Aydin
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
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Abstract

The Laplace operator is a differential operator which is used to detect edges of objects in digital images. This paper presents the properties of the most commonly used fifth-order pixels Laplace filters including the difference schemes used to derive them (finite difference method – FDM and finite element method – FEM). The results of the research concerning third-order pixels matrices of the convolution Laplace filters used for digital processing of images were presented in our previous paper: The mathematical characteristic of the Laplace contour filters used in digital image processing. The third order filters is presented byWinnicki et al. (2022). As previously, the authors focused on the mathematical properties of the Laplace filters: their transfer functions and modified differential equations (MDE). The relations between the transfer function for the differential Laplace operator and its difference operators are described and presented here in graphical form. The impact of the corner elements of the masks on the results is also discussed. A transfer function, is a function characterizing properties of the difference schemes applied to approximate differential operators. Since they are relations derived in both types of spaces (continuous and discrete), comparing them facilitates the assessment of the applied approximation method.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ireneusz Winnicki
1
ORCID: ORCID
Slawomir Pietrek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Janusz Jasinski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Krzysztof Kroszczynski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

3D maps are becoming more and more popular due not only to their accessibility and clarity of reception, but above all, they provide comprehensive spatial information. Three-dimensional cartographic studies meet the accuracy requirements set for traditional 2D stu-dies, and additionally, they naturally connect the place where the phenomenon occurs with its spatial location. Due to the scale of the objects and difficulties in obtaining comprehensive data using only one source, a frequent procedure is to integrate measurement, cartographic, photo-grammetric information and databases in order to generate a comprehensive study in the form of a 3D map. This paper presents the method of acquiring and processing, as well as, integrating data from TLS and UAVs. Clouds of points representing places and objects are the starting point for the implementation of 3D models of buildings and technical objects, as well as for the con-struction of the Digital Terrain Model. However, in order to supplement the spatial information about the object, the geodetic database of the record of the utilities network was integrated with the model. The procedure performed with the use of common georeferencing, based on the global coordinate system, allowed for the generation of a comprehensive basemap in a three-dimensional form.
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Authors and Affiliations

Przemyslaw Klapa
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bartosz Mitka
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mariusz Zygmunt
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

With the developing technology and increasing construction, the importance of structural observations, which are of great significance in disaster management, has increased. Geodetic methods have been preferred in recent years due to their high accuracy and ease of use in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Surveys. In this study, harmonic oscillation tests have been carried out on a shake table to determine the usability of the Single Base and the Network Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) method in SHM studies. It is aimed to determine the harmonic movements of different amplitudes and frequencies created by the shake table with 20 Hz multi-GNSS equipment. The amplitude and frequency values of the movements created using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Time Series Analysis have been calculated. The precision of the analysis results has been determined by comparing the LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) data, which is the position sensor of the shake table, with the GNSS data. The advantages of the two RTK methods over each other have been determined using the calculated amplitude and frequency differences. As a result of all experiments, it has been determined that network and single base RTK GNSS methods effectively monitor structural behaviours and natural frequencies.
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Authors and Affiliations

Güldane Oku Topal
1
ORCID: ORCID
Burak Akpinar
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Yildiz Technical Universty, Istanbul, Turkey
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Abstract

Satellite-based positioning, which started being developed in the mid-1960s for military purposes, is now used in almost every area. For the studies single and/or double frequency receivers are used. The cost of a receiver and antenna couple that have capable of high coordinate accuracies ranges from $3000 to $15000. With the production of Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) receivers, the cost of satellite-based location determination decreases to approximately one in 10 for the civilian user compared to the operations performed with geodetic receivers and antennas. However, although these receivers collect data in multi-Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and frequencies, the accuracy of the coordinate values estimated is not as high as geodetic receivers and antennas. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out an accuracy study to obtain information about which studies can be used in. In this study, measurements were made at the UZEL point located on the roof of the Yıldız Technical University Geomatics Engineering Department by using the ZED-F9P-02B OEM multi GNSS receiver and ANN-MB L1/L2 multi-band GNSS patch antenna. The performance of the test results has been examined by comparing the results from CSRS(Canadian Spatial Reference System)-PPP with the coordinates of the UZEL point. As a result of the comparison, the difference between the coordinate determined with collected 3.5 hr data and the coordinates of the UZEL point has been determined as – 1.4 cm, 2.8 cm, and 9.3 cm in the East, North, and Height directions, respectively
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Authors and Affiliations

Mustafa Fahri Karabulut
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nedim Onur Aykut
1
ORCID: ORCID
Burak Akpınar
1
ORCID: ORCID
Güldane Oku Topal
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zübeyir Bilal Çakmak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bilge Doran
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ahmet Anıl Dindar
2
ORCID: ORCID
Cemal Özer Yiğit
2
ORCID: ORCID
Mert Bezcioğlu
2
ORCID: ORCID
Anıl Zafer
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
  2. Gebze Technical University, Gebze, Turkey
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Abstract

The research investigates the possibility of applying Sentinel-2, PlanetScope satellite imageries, and LiDAR data for automation of land cover mapping and 3D vegetation characteristics in post-agricultural areas, mainly in the aspect of detection and monitoring of the secondary forest succession. The study was performed for the tested area in the Biskupice district (South of Poland), as an example of an uncontrolled forest succession process occurring on post-agricultural lands. The areas of interest were parcels where agricultural use has been abandoned and forest succession has progressed. This paper indicates the possibility of automating the process of monitoring wooded and shrubby areas developing in post-agricultural areas with the help of modern geodata and geoinformation methods. It was verified whether the processing of Sentinel-2, PlanetScope imageries allows for reliable land cover classification as an identification forest succession area. The airborne laser scanning (ALS) data were used for deriving detailed information about the forest succession process. Using the ALS point clouds vegetation parameters i.e., height and canopy cover were determined and presented as raster maps, histograms, or profiles. In the presented study Sentinel-2, PlanetScope imageries, and ALS data processing showed a significant differentiation of the spatial structure of vegetation. These differences are visible in the surface size (2D) and the vertical vegetation structure (3D).
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Authors and Affiliations

Marta Szostak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

The paper discusses the mode of land acquisition for public road development resulting from the process of land severance performed at the request of the owner in terms of: the legitimacy of land acquisition by the State Treasury or local government units, by virtue of law, upon the land severance approval, the compensation for taking over the land severed for roads, the possibility of restitution of partially acquired plots of land in case a road has not been constructed, and therefore the redundancy of land earmarked for public purposes. The author compares land acquisition procedures set out in historical and currently applicable regulations as well as obligation to pay compensation. The aim of the research is to answer the question of whether the regulations according to which the land allocated for roads is acquired by operation of law by public entities should be modified, and if so, to what extent. On the example of a selected city, research was carried out to determine whether the acquired land is used at a later stage for road construction and what is the scale of compensation claims paid by the municipality. The conducted research made it possible to propose solutions to modify the mode of land severance resulting in land being severed for road development, considering both rational property management and the rights of former owners for restitution in the event public entities failed to use this real property for public purposes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Trembecka
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland

Instructions for authors

The Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation accepts a wide range of papers including original research papers, original short communication papers, review articles and symposium pieces. Details of submission are provided below. Please, note, that at the submission stage, the author(s) ensure(s) that the submitted work will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright owners. All co-authors also agree on the publication ethics statement.

For all parties involved in the act of publishing (the author, the journal editor(s), the peer reviewer and the publisher) it is necessary to agree upon standards of expected ethical behavior. The ethics statements for Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation are based on the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors (https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines ).

TYPES OF MANUSCRIPTS

Original Research papers:

Research papers can have 8000 words in length, although longer articles will be accepted on an occasional basis if the topic demands this length of treatment.

Original Short communication papers:

Short communication papers can have 2500 words as a maximum and contain at most 1 table and 3 figures. Such a note is technical and well-focused, for example illustrating a new technique, describing a well worked-out case study or a specific new algorithm.

Original research and short communications papers should contain the following sections: Abstract (max. of 250 words), Introduction, Data used and methods applied, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments, References.

Review article:

The journal also considers short reviews (not exceeding 12 pages in print) intended to debate recent advances in rapidly developing fields that are within its scope. Such articles may have ample references. Reviews should contain the following sections: Abstract (max. of 250 words), Introduction, Topics (with headings and subheadings), Conclusions and Outlook, Acknowledgments, References

Symposium pieces:

Symposium pieces describe a research symposium or seminar and present the topic covered in the form of a news brief, opinion piece, or mini-review. A news brief summarizes a few talks on the same general topic or issues at a given symposium. This can include a summary of the discussion that followed the symposium or the significance of the talks at a large symposia to a particular field. It is important to indicate the main point of the symposium.

An opinion piece discusses the personal perspectives after a given symposium, including an analysis of the symposium and how this affected the author.

A mini-review can be based on a theme from a given symposium. This may require the author(s) to review articles written by a speaker at that symposium.

These articles should be no more than 3,000 words. All symposium pieces should include the following sections: Abstract (max. of 250 words), Introduction, Topics (with headings and subheadings) [specifically required for a mini-review], Conclusions and Outlook, References

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS

The author(s) guarantee(s) that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright owners, that the rights of the third parties will not be violated, and that the publisher will not held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.

Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.

ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF AUTHORS

Submission of the manuscript implies: that the work has not been published before (except in form of an abstract or as a part of a published lecture, review or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.

In case the manuscript has more than one author its submission should include the list specifying contribution of each author to the manuscript with indicating who is the author of the concept, assumptions, research methodology, data processing. Major responsibility is on the corresponding author.

The Editor will counteract in Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation against Ghostwriting, i.e. when someone substantially contributed to the preparation of the manuscript but has neither been included to the list of authors nor his role is mentioned in the acknowledgements as well as Ghost authorship, i.e. when the author/co-author did not contribute to the manuscript or his contribution is negligible. Any detected case of Ghostwriting and Ghost authorship will be exposed and the appropriate subjects, i.e. employers, scientific organizations, associations of editors etc., will be informed.

MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION

The manuscripts are submitted online via https://www.editorialsystem.com/geocart/ and should be submitted in Word. Please, do not exceed the number of words intended to a specific submission. Please, count the number of words before submitting, with abstract, acknowledgements and references excluded.

Names of authors and their affiliation should be removed from the manuscripts for the review process in order to have a fair evaluation of their manuscript. All authors of the manuscript are responsible for its content; they must have agreed to its publication and have given the corresponding author the authority to act on their behalf in all matters pertaining to publication. The Corresponding Author is responsible for informing the coauthors of the manuscript status throughout the submission, review, and production process. The editorial system requires: the name(s) of the author(s), the name(s) and address(es) of the affiliation(s) of the author(s), the e-mail address of the corresponding author, the 16-digit ORCID number of the author(s). The corresponding author is required to provide his/her ORCID number. ORCID numbers of co-authors are not necessary, but advised.

Manuscript preparation

Manuscripts should be typed in single-line spacing throughout on the A4 sheet with 2.5 cm margins. Use plain 11-point Times Roman font for text, italics for textual emphasis, bold for mathematical vectors.

1. Abstract: The paper must be preceded by a sufficiently informative abstract presenting the most important results and conclusions. It should not be longer than 250 words and should not contain any unexplained abbreviations and unspecified references.

2. Keywords: Three to five keywords should be supplied. These are used for indexing purposes.

3. Introduction: It should explicitly state the purpose of the investigation and give a short review of the pertinent literature.

4. Main text: It should include all methods and input data (working details must be given concisely; well-known operations should not be described in details); results presented in tabular or graph form, with appropriate statistical evaluation, discussion of results - statement of conclusions drawn from the work and conclusions.

5. Acknowledgements: Please, include all institutions, names or numbers of grants that require acknowledgement. The names of funding organizations or institutions providing data should be given in full. This information is mandatory for all submitted papers.

6. Author Contributions: All authors contributing to the paper need to have their role assigned.

7. Data availability: Indicate where to download the data you used and how they can be accessed. Are your final results available anywhere?

8. References: The list of references should be prepared in alphabetical order and should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications could only be mentioned in the text. References in the text, should be cited by author(s) last name and year: e.g. (Beutler, 2003a), (Featherstone and Kirby, 2000), (Schwarz et al., 1990), (Sjöberg et al., 2000; Strykowski, 2001b; 2002). The details on the reference list preparation is provided below.

9. Formulae and symbols: They must be written legibly and will be typeset in italics. One-layer indexing is preferable. Numbering of formulae, if necessary should be given in brackets fitted to the right margin. use the equation editor or MathType for equations

10. Illustrations and tables: All figures (photographs, graphs or diagrams) and tables should be cited in the text and numbered consecutively throughout. Lowercase roman letters should identify figure parts. Figure legends must be brief and must contain self-sufficient explanations of the illustrations. Each table should have a title and a legend explaining any abbreviation used in that table. Tables and illustrations have to be placed in the text and send as separate files.

11. Units: SI units must be used.

12. Short title: Please, include a running head consisting of at most 60 characters. This concise banner represents the title of the article and must be submitted by the author(s).

Proofreading

Proofreading is the responsibility of the author. Corrections should be clear; standard correction marks should be used. Corrections that lead to a change in the page layout should be avoided. The author is entitled to formal corrections only. Substantial changes in content, e.g. new results, corrected values, title and authorship are not allowed without the approval of the editor. In such case please contact the Editor-in-chief before returning the proofs.

Reference list

a. Journal Article (one author)

Nikora, V. (2006). Hydrodynamics of aquatic ecosystems: spatial-averaging perspective. Acta Geophysica, 55(1), 3-10. DOI: 10.2478/s11600-006-0043-6.

b. Journal Article (two or more authors)

Cudak, M. and Karcz J. (2006). Momentum transfer in an agitated vessel with off-centred impellers. Chem. Pap. 60(5), 375-380. DOI: 10.2478/s11696-006-0068-y.

c. Journal article from an online database

Czajgucki Z., Zimecki M. & Andruszkiewicz R. (2006, December). The immunoregulatory effects of edeine analogues in mice [Abstract]. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 12(3), 149-161. Retrieved December 6.

d. Book (one author)

Baxter, R. (1982). Exactly Solvable Models in Statistical Mechanics. New York: Academic Press.

e. Book (two or more authors)

Kleiner, F.S., Mamiya C.J. and Tansey R.G. (2001). Gardner’s art through the ages (11th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Harcourt College Publishers.

f. Book chapter or article in an edited book

Roll, W.P. (1976). ESP and memory. In J.M.O. Wheatley and H.L. Edge (Eds.), . (pp. 154-184). Springfield, IL: American Psychiatric Press.

g. Proceedings from a conference

Field, G. (2001). Rethinking reference rethought. In Revelling in Reference: Reference and Information Services Section Symposium, 12-14 October 2001 (pp. 59-64). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Library and Information Association.

h. Online document

Johnson, A. (2000). Abstract Computing Machines. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved March 30, 2006, from SpringerLink http://springerlink.com/content/w25154. DOI: 10.1007/b138965.

i. Report

Osgood, D. W., and Wilson, J. K. (1990). Covariation of adolescent health problems. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. (NTIS No. PB 91-154 377/AS).

j. Government publication

Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy. (1997). The national drug strategy: Mapping the future. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Charges

Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation is published in Open Access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. This means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers.

Publication Ethics Policy


ETHIC POLICY

Editor Responsibilities

The editor of Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation is guided by COPE’s Guidelines ( https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) for Retracting Articles when considering retracting, issuing expressions of concern about, and issuing corrections pertaining to articles that have been published in the journal. The editor evaluates manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s). The editor do not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate. The editor seeks so ensure a fair and appropriate peer review process. Editors recuse themselves (i.e. ask a co-editor, associate editor or other member of the editorial board instead to review and consider) from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or (possibly) institutions connected to the papers. Editors require all contributors to disclose relevant competing interests and publish corrections if competing interests are revealed after publication. If needed, other appropriate action should be taken, such as the publication of a retraction or expression of concern.

Reviewer Responsibilities


Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and, through the editorial communication with the author, may also assist the author in improving the manuscript. Any invited referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should immediately notify the editor so that alternative reviewers can be contacted.

Any manuscripts received for review is treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inacceptable. Referees should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.

Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge.

Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review is kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission.

Author Responsibilities

Authors reporting results of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.

The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Parallel submission of the same manuscript to more than one journal constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.

Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should also cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be named in an Acknowledgement section.

The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors (according to the above definition) and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the author list of the manuscript, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the authors must clearly identify these in the manuscript.

All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or their interpretation in the manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal’s editor or publisher and cooperate with them to either retract the paper or to publish an appropriate erratum.

Publisher’s Confirmation

In cases of alleged or proven scientific misconduct, fraudulent publication or plagiarism the publisher, in close collaboration with the editors, will take all appropriate measures to clarify the situation and to amend the article in question. This includes the prompt publication

Peer-review Procedure

MANUSCRIPT REVIEW PROCEDURE

The editor of a peer-reviewed journal is responsible for deciding which articles submitted to the journal should be published, and, moreover, is accountable for everything published in the journal. In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers when making publication decisions. The editor maintain the integrity of the academic record, preclude business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, and always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed. The editor evaluate manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s). The editor do not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

The editor is guided by COPE’s Guidelines ( https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) for Retracting Articles when considering retracting, issuing expressions of concern about, and issuing corrections pertaining to articles that have been published in Advances in Geodesy and Geoinformation.

Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and, through the editorial communication with the author, may also assist the author in improving the manuscript.

Any manuscripts received for review is treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor.

Manuscript evaluations are assigned one of four outcomes: Accept without changes, accept after changes suggested by reviewer, rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review, reject, withdraw.

Manuscripts requiring minor revision (accept after changes suggested by reviewer) not require a second review. All manuscripts receiving a "Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review " evaluation must be subjected to a second review. Rejected manuscripts are given no further consideration. Normally, manuscripts that receive a "Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review " decision have only one additional chance for revision and the revised version should be uploaded to the Editorial System within six weeks. If the author(s) failed to make satisfactory changes, the manuscript is rejected. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit house style. The article should be withdraw due to technical reason (e.g. names of authors are placed in the text, lack of references, or inappropriate structure of the text) or plagiarism.

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