Applied sciences

Archives of Thermodynamics

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Archives of Thermodynamics | 2021 | vol. 42 | No 3 |

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Abstract

In the paper the methodology of furnace exit gas temperature calculations by using well known normative standard method CKTI is presented. There are shown changes in methodology approach for three editions of it and in additional developments. Furnace exit gas temperature for two stoker grate boilers is calculated. By using described methods, it was possible to determine their effectiveness by comparing with measurements. Knowledge of the furnace exit gas temperature allows to define the division into irradiated and convection surfaces, which has an impact on the design features of the boiler as well as its dimensions and weight.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Łukasz Rutkowski
1
Ireneusz Szczygieł
2

  1. Boilers Manufacturer SEFAKO S.A., Przemysłowa 9, 28-340 Sedziszów, Poland
  2. Silesian University of Technology Institute of Thermal Technology, Konarskiego 22, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

One of the most energy-intensive activities for a vehicle is space air conditioning, for either cooling or heating. Considerable energy savings can be achieved if this can be decoupled from the use of fuel or electricity. This study analyzes the opportunities and effectiveness of deploying the concept of passive cooling through the atmospheric window (i.e. the 8– 14 nm wavelength range where the atmosphere is transparent for thermal radiation) for vehicle temperature control. Recent work at our institute has resulted in a skylight (roof window) design for passive cooling of building space. This should be applicable to vehicles as well, using the same materials and design concept. An overall cooling effect is obtained if outgoing (long wavelength greater than 4 nm) thermal radiation is stronger than the incoming (short wavelength less than 4 nm) thermal radiation. Of particular interest is to quantify the passive cooling of a vehicle parked under direct/indirect sunlight equipped with a small skylight, designed based on earlier designs for buildings. The work involved simulations using commercial computational fluid dynamics software implementing (where possible) wavelengthdependency of thermal radiation properties of materials involved. The findings show that by the use of passive cooling, a temperature difference of up to 7–8 K is obtained with an internal gas flow rate of 0.7 cm/s inside the skylight. A passive cooling effect of almost 27 W/m2 is attainable for summer season in Finland. Comparison of results from Ansys Fluent and COMSOL models shows differences up to about 10 W/m2 in the estimations.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Umara Khan
1
Ron Zevenhoven
1

  1. Abo Akademi University, Process and Systems Engineering Laboratory, Henrikinkatu 2, 20500 Turku, Finland
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Abstract

The paper presents formulas which can be used to determine steam condensation pressure in a power plant condenser in off-design conditions. The mathematical model provided in the paper makes it possible to calculate the performance of the condenser in terms of condensing steam pressure, cooling water temperature at the condenser outlet, and condenser effectiveness under variable load conditions as a function of three input properties: the temperature and the mass flow rate of cooling water at the condenser inlet and the mass flow rate of steam. The mathematical model takes into account values of properties occurring in reference conditions but it contains no constant coefficients which would have to be established based on data from technical specifications of a condenser or measurement data. Since there are no such constant coefficients, the model of the steam condenser proposed in the paper is universally applicable. The proposed equations were checked against warranty measurements made in the condenser and measurement data gathered during the operation of a 200 MW steam power unit. Based on the analysis, a conclusion may be drawn that the proposed means of determining pressure in a condenser in off-design conditions reflects the condenser performance with sufficient accuracy. This model can be used in optimization and diagnostic analyses of the performance of a power generation unit.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Rafał Laskowski
1
Adam Smyk
1
Adam Ruciński
1
Jacek Szymczyk
1

  1. Institute of Heat Engineering, Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 21/25, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The paper deals with the wet steam flow in a steam turbine operating in a nuclear power plant. Using a pneumatic and an optical probe, the static pressure, steam velocity, steam wetness and the fine water droplets diameter spectra were measured before and beyond the last turbine low-pressure stage. The results of the experiment serve to understand better the wet steam flow and map its liquid phase in this area. The wet steam data is also used to modify the condensation model used in computational fluid dynamics simulations. The condensation model, i.e. the nucleation rate and the growth rate of the droplets, is adjusted so that results of the numerical simulations are in a good agreement with the experimental results. A 3D computational fluid dynamics simulations was performed for the lowpressure part of the turbine considering non-equilibrium steam condensation. In the post-processing of the of the numerical calculation result, the thermodynamic wetness loss was evaluated and analysed. Loss analysis was performed for the turbine outputs of 600, 800, and 1100 MW, respectively.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Gukchol Jun
1 2
Michal Kolovratník
2
Michal Hoznedl
1

  1. Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 4, 160 00, Prague, Czech Republic
  2. Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o., Tylova 1/57, 301 28, Pilsen, Czech Republic
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Abstract

This work aims to determine and compare heat generation and propagation of densely packed gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) induced by a resonant laser beam (532 nm) according to the Mie theory. The heat flux propagation is transferred into the materials, which here are: silica glass; soda-lime-silica glass; borosilicate glass; polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA); polycarbonate (PC); and polydimetylosiloxane (PDMS). This analysis aims to select the optimum material serving as a base for using photo-thermoablation. On the other hand, research focused only on Newtonian heat transfer in gold, not on non-Fourier ones, like the Cattaneo approach. As a simulation tool, a computational fluid dynamics code with the second-order upwind algorithm is selected. Results reveal a near-Gaussian and Gaussian temperature distribution profile during the heating and cooling processes, respectively. Dependence between the maximum temperature after irradiation and the glass thermal conductivity is observed confirming the Fourier law. Due to the maximum heating area, the borosilicate or soda-lime glass, which serves as a base, shall represent an excellent candidate for future experiments.
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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Radomski
1
Paweł Ziółkowski
1
Luciano de Sio
2
Dariusz Mikielewicz
1

  1. Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Shipbuilding, Energy Institute, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
  2. Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Medico-Surgical Sciencesand Biotechnologies, Center for Biophotonics, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5,00185 Roma, RM, Italy
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Abstract

In the present study, energy and exergy analysis has been evaluated for roughened solar air heater (SAH) using arc shaped wire ribs. To achieve this aim, two different types of flow arrangement have been considered. These arrangements are: apex upstream flow and apex downstream flo. In addition to this, a smooth duct SAH has been used for comparative study. The experiments were performed using the mass flow rate of 0.007– 0.022 kg/s on outdoor condition at Jamshedpur city of India. The absorber plate roughness geometry has been designed with relative roughness height 0.0395, rib size 2.5 mm, relative roughness pitch 10 and arc angle 60 . The energetic and exergetic performances have been examined on the basis of the first and second law of thermodynamics. According to the results, there is observed to be the maximum thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency as 73.2% and 2.64%, respectively, for apex upstream flow SAH at 0.022 kg/s, while, at same mass flow rate the maximum thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency is obtained as 69.4% and 1.89%, respectively, for apex downstream flow SAH. In addition to this, results reported that the maximum outlet temperature and temperature difference observed at lower mass flow rate. Also examined the outlet air temperature of SAH with various mass flow rates is very important for both analysis.
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Authors and Affiliations

Harish Kumar Ghritlahre
1

  1. Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, 491107, India
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Abstract

This paper concerns analytical considerations on a complex phenomenon which is diffusive-inertial droplet separation from the twophase vapour-liquid flow which occurs in many devices in the power industry (e.g. heat pumps, steam turbines, organic Rankine cycles, etc.). The new mathematical model is mostly devoted to the analysis of the mechanisms of diffusion and inertia influencing the distance at which a droplet separates from the two-phase flow and falls on a channel wall. The analytical model was validated based on experimental data. The results obtained through the analytical computations stay in a satisfactory agreement with available literature data.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jarosław Mikielewicz
1
Oktawia Dolna
1
Roman Kwidziński
1

  1. Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-231 Gdansk, Poland
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Abstract

For conventional diesel engines, two of the most widely used global correlations are due to Woschni and Hohenberg. Besides, the modern diesel engines used a new heat transfer coefficient correlation was proposed by Finol and Robinson. In Vietnam, improving engine power density is a trend of improving non-turbocharged base engines by using a supercharging system with exhaust gas energy recovery. Increasing engine power by the turbocharger is limited for two reasons: mechanical stress and thermal stress of the components surrounding the combustion chamber. In general, the heat transfer coefficient has a major effect on heat transfer rate, especially during the combustion process. So, the purpose of this study is to compare the cylinder distribution results from the simulation using the equations of Woschni and Hohenberg and compare to the experiment results when converting an old heavy-duty engine into a turbocharged engine. Results show that the cylinder distribution using Hohenberg’s correlation has a good agreement with the experiment results, especially in the case of a turbocharged engine.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kien Nguyen Trung
1 2

  1. Phenikaa University, Faculty of Vehicle and Energy Engineering, Yen Nghia Ward, Ha-Dong District, Hanoi 12116, Vietnam
  2. Phenikaa Research and Technology Institute, A&A Green Phoenix Group JSC, 167 Hoang Ngan, Trung Hoa, Cau Giay, Hanoi 11313, Vietnam
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Abstract

This work presents two-dimensional numerical investigations of fast pyrolysis of red oak in a free fall reactor. The Euler–Lagrange approach of multiphase flow theory was proposed in order to describe the behaviour of solid particles in the gaseous domain. The main goal of this study was to examine the impact of the flow rate of inert gas on the pyrolysis process. Calculation domain of the reactor was made according to data found in the literature review. Volume flow rates were 3, 9, 18, and 25 l/min, respectively. Nitrogen was selected as an inert gas. Biomass pyrolysis was conducted at 550 deg C with a constant mass flow rate of biomass particles equal to 1 kg/h. A parallel multistage reaction mechanism was applied for the thermal conversion of red oak particles. The composition of biomass was represented by three main pseudo-components: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The received products of pyrolysis were designated into three groups: solid residue (char and unreacted particles), primary tars and noncondensable gases. In this work the impact of the volume flow rate on the heating time of solid particle, temperature distribution, yields and char mass fraction has been analysed. The numerical solutions were verified according to the literature results when the flow of nitrogen was set at 18 l/min. The calculated results showed that biomass particles could be heated for longer when the flow rate of nitrogen was reduced, allowing for a greater concentration of volatile matter.
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Authors and Affiliations

Artur Bieniek
1
Wojciech Jerzak
1
Aneta Magdziarz
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059, Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

In small steam turbines, sometimes the efficiency is not as important as the cost of manufacturing the turbine. The Curtis wheel is a solution allowing to develop a low output turbine of compact size and with a low number of stages. This paper presents three fully dimensional computational fluid dynamics cases of a Curtis stage with full and partial admission. A 1 MW steam turbine with a Curtis stage have been designed. The fully admitted stage reaches a power of over 3 MW. In order to limit its output power to about 1 MW, the partial admission was applied. Five variants of the Curtis stage partial admission were analyzed. Theoretical relations were used to predict the partial admission losses which were compared with a three-dimensional simulations. An analysis of the flow and forces acting on rotor blades was also performed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Arkadiusz Koprowski
1
Romuald Rządkowski
1 2

  1. Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdansk, Poland
  2. Air Force Institute of Technology, Ksiecia Bolesława 6, 01-494 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

In the present study performance of an airflow window in removing contaminants as well as providing thermal comfort for the occupants was investigated. Both natural/mixed ventilation methods were studied and the full heating load as well as contaminant sources in the office rooms considered. Then, the local and average temperature, relative humidity, velocity as well as CO2 and dust concentration were extracted from simulation results and compared to criteria in international ventilation standards. It was found that except in the big room having 8 m×6 m flooring, natural ventilation from the airflow window can satisfy the thermal and relative humidity conditions in the international ventilation standard except for the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. However, the thermal comfort in the room which was measured by extended predicted mean vote could not be achieved when the window operates in the natural ventilation mode, even with a 0.4 m height opening in the small (3 m×4 m) room. Finally, results indicated that the airflow ventilation system installed in small and medium offices operation can provide indoor condition in the ventilation standard either in natural/mixed operation mode consuming less energy than the traditional heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Besides, the airflow system not only was not able to provide thermal comfort condition in the big office but also its application was not economically feasible.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ildar Fathi Ajirlou
1
Cüneyt Kurtay
1

  1. Gazi University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Architecture, Yükselis 5, 06570 Maltepe-Ankara, Turkey
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Abstract

The paper reviews selected methods of agricultural biogas production and characterizes their technical and technological aspects. The conditions of the anaerobic fermentation process in the reactor with adhesive skeleton bed were analyzed. The required technological criteria for the production of biogas from a substrate in the form of pig slurry were indicated. As part of experimental studies, evaluation of the biogas replacement resistance coefficient and the permeability coefficient as a function of the Reynolds number were made. The method of numerical simulation with the use of a tool containing computational fluid dynamics codes was applied. Using the turbulent flow model – the RANS model with the enhanced wall treatment option, a numerical simulation was carried out, allowing for a detailed analysis of hydrodynamic phenomena in the adhesive skeleton bed. The paper presents the experimental and numerical results that allow to understand the fluid flow characteristics for the intensification of agricultural biogas production.
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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Wałowski
1

  1. Institute of Technology and Life Sciences, Falenty, Department of Renewable Energy, Poznań Branch, ul. Biskupińska 67, 60-463 Poznań, Poland
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Abstract

Research regarding blade design and analysis of flow has been attracting interest for over a century. Meanwhile new concepts and design approaches were created and improved. Advancements in information technologies allowed to introduce computational fluid dynamics and computational flow mechanics. Currently a combination of mentioned methods is used for the design of turbine blades. These methods enabled us to improve flow efficiency and strength of turbine blades. This paper relates to a new type turbine which is in the phase of theoretical analysis, because the working fluid is a mixture of steam and gas generated in a wet combustion chamber. The main aim of this paper is to design and analyze the flow characteristics of the last stage of gas-steam turbine. When creating the spatial model, the atlas of profiles of reaction turbine steps was used. Results of computational fluid dynamics simulations of twisting of the last stage are presented. Blades geometry and the computational mesh are also presented. Velocity vectors, for selected dividing sections that the velocity along the pitch diameter varies greatly. The blade has the shape of its cross-section similar to action type blades near the root and to reaction type blades near the tip. Velocity fields and pressure fields show the flow characteristics of the last stage of gas-steam turbine. The net efficiency of the cycle is equal to 52.61%.
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Authors and Affiliations

Stanisław Jerzy Głuch
1
Paweł Ziółkowski
1
Łukasz Witanowski
2
Janusz Badur
2

  1. Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Ship Building, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
  2. Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-231 Gdansk, Poland
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Abstract

The problem considered is that of an isotropic, micropolar thermoelastic medium with voids subjected to the Thomson effect. The solution to the problem is presented in the context of the refined multiphase- lags theory of thermoelasticity. The normal mode analysis was used to obtain the analytical expressions of the considered variables. The nondimensional displacement, temperature, microrotation, the change in the volume fraction field and stress of the material are obtained and illustrated graphically. The variations of these quantities have been depicted graphically in the refined-phase-lag theory, Green and Naghdi theory of type II, Lord and Shulman theory and a coupled theory. The effects of the Thomson parameter and phase lag parameters on a homogeneous, isotropic, micropolar thermoelastic material with voids are revealed and discussed. Some particular cases of interest are deduced from the present investigation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Amnah M. Alharbi
1
Elsayed M. Abd-Elaziz
2
Mohamed I.A. Othman
3

  1. Taif University, Department of Mathematics, College of Science, P.O. Box 11099, Taif, 21944, Saudi Arabia
  2. Ministry of Higher Education, Zagazig Higher Institute of Engineering & Technology, Zagazig, Egypt
  3. Zagazig University, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 44519, Zagazig, Egypt

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