Applied sciences

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences Technical Sciences

Content

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences Technical Sciences | 2024 | 72 | 2

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Abstract

In the presented paper, two different meshing strategies are compared to show the accuracy advantage of properly constructed mesh. For this purpose, it was necessary to automatize simulation process, in order to perform a number of calculations without the necessity of user interaction. Later, a method of results extrapolation as well as a way of judging mesh quality are introduced for more throughout comparison of presented discretization strategies. The latter method, called grid convergence index, is also used to calculate probability range of accurate result. To conclude, outcomes of this study are in agreement with general opinon on pracitces for an accurate CFD result. Structured O-type mesh with refinement at wall boundaries (often referred to as “inflation layers”) performs better than simple free mesh.
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Authors and Affiliations

Adam Tater
1
ORCID: ORCID
Pavel Mačák
1
Patrik Kovář
1

  1. Center of Aviation and Space Research, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Jugoslávských partyzán˚u1580/3, 16000, Prague 6, Czech Republic
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Abstract

The objective of the research was to develop the Attitude Control System algorithm to be implemented in the Earth Observation Satellite System composed of leader-follower formation. The main task of the developed Attitude Control System is to execute attitude change manoeuvres required to point the axis of the image acquisition sensor to the fixed target on the Earth’s surface, while the satellite is within the segment of an orbit, where image acquisition is possible. Otherwise, the satellite maintains a nadir orientation. The control strategy is realized by defining the high-level operational modes and control laws to manage the attitude control actuators: magnetorquers used for desaturation of the reaction wheels and reaction wheels used for agile attitude variation. A six-degree-of-freedom satellite model was used to verify whether the developed Attitude Control System based on PID controllers for actuators performs attitude control in line with the requirements of an Earth Observation System. The simulations done for a variety of combinations of orbital parameters and surface target positions proved that the designed Attitude Control System fulfils the mission requirements with sufficient accuracy This high-level architecture supplemented by a more detailed control system model allowed proving efficient functionalities performance.
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Authors and Affiliations

Janusz Narkiewicz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Szabolcs Grünvald
1
Mateusz Sochacki
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 24, 00-665, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

We introduce the Sobolev-type multi-term μ-fractional evolution with generalized fractional orders with respect to another function. We make some applications of the generalized Laplace transform. In the sequel, we propose a novel type of Mittag-Leffler function generated by noncommutative linear bounded operators with respect to the given function and give a few of its properties. We look for the mild solution formula of the Sobolev-type evolution equation by building on the aforementioned Mittag-Leffler-type function with the aid of two different approaches. We share new special cases of the obtained findings.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mustafa Aydin
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nazim Mahmudov
2 3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Medical Services and Techniques, Muradiye Vocational School, Van Yuzuncu Yil University, Tu¸sba 65080 Van, Turkey
  2. Department of Mathematics, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta 99628 T.R. North Cyprus, Turkey
  3. Research Center of Econophysics, Azerbaijan State University of Economics (UNEC), Istiqlaliyyat Str. 6, Baku 1001, Azerbaijan
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Abstract

A global path-planning algorithm for robots is proposed based on the critical-node diffusion binary tree (CDBT), which solves the problems of large memory consumption, long computing time, and many path inflection points of the traditional methods. First of all, the concept of Quad-connected, Tri-connected, Bi-connected nodes, and critical nodes are defined, and the mathematical models of diverse types of nodes are established. Second, the CDBT algorithm is proposed, in which different planning directions are determined due to the critical node as the diffusion object. Furthermore, the optimization indices of several types of nodes are evaluated in real-time. Third, a path optimization algorithm based on reverse searching is designed, in which the redundant nodes are eliminated, and the constraints of the robot are considered to provide the final optimized path. Finally, on one hand, the proposed algorithm is compared with the A* and RRT methods in the ROS system, in which four types of indicators in the eight maps are analysed. On the other hand, an experiment with an actual robot is conducted based on the proposed algorithm. The simulation and experiment verify that the new method can reduce the number of nodes in the path and the planning time and is suitable for the motion constraints of an actual robot.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zhiyong Yang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Lipeng Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zejun Cao
1
Zhi Zhang
1
Zhuang Xu
1

  1. College of Intelligent Systems Science and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, 150001, China
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Abstract

In response to the problems of high-temperature gas intrusion and ablation in the expansion slit between ceramic tiles under complex flow conditions in the floating-wall combustion chamber, as well as the issue of hooks exceeding their service temperature, numerical simulations and analysis were conducted for this paper. The study revealed the mechanisms of gas intrusion and sealing and proposed two evaluation metrics for evaluating the cooling effect: the maximum temperature of the hook and the proportion of high-temperature area on the sidewall of the tile. Furthermore, the CRITIC weighting method was used to analyze the weight of these metrics. Based on this, the spacing, radius, and length effects on sealing and cooling effectiveness were studied, and multi-parameter calculations and optimization were performed. The results showed that the degree of gas intrusion in the transverse slit was significantly higher than that in the longitudinal slit. In addition, the sealing method of the jet impingement could effectively cool the downstream of both the transverse and longitudinal slit. The spacing of the jet impingement holes had the greatest impact on the cooling effect, followed by the radius and length. Finally, when the spacing of the holes is 10 mm, the length is 18.125 mm, and the radius is 1.6 mm, the cooling effect is optimal, with the proportion of high-temperature area on the side wall of the tile being 20.86% and the highest temperature of the hook reaching 836.02 K.
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Authors and Affiliations

Hong Shi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Rui Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mingmin Chen
2
Jiao Wang
1
Jie Yuan
3
Qianwei Zhang
1
Kaijie Yang
3

  1. College of Energy & Power Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, China
  2. College of Power and Energy Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, China
  3. College of Aerospace Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
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Abstract

The current practice of reconstruction of oxidized turbine parts (due to hot corrosion) using arc welding methods facilitates restoration of the nominal shapes and dimensions, as well as other attributes and features. Intense development of 3D additive methods and techniques contributes to the repair/modification of different parts including gas turbine (GT) hardware. The article proves the viability of the concept of using a robotized additive arc welding metal active gas (MAG) process to repair and modify gas turbine diaphragms using different filler materials from the substrate. The industrialized robotic additive process (hybrid repair) shows that very good results were achieved if the diaphragm is cast of nickel-iron and the filler material for welding the passes is austenitic stainless steel (for instance 308 LSi). This is one of the novelties introduced to the repair process that was granted a patent (US11148235B2) and is already implemented in General Electric Service Centers.
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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Steckowicz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Pyrzanowski
2
ORCID: ORCID
Efe Bulut
3

  1. GE Power Sp. z o.o. – Oddział Engineering Innovation Center w Warszawie, Al. Krakowska 110/114, 02-256 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Aeronautics and Applied Mechanics, ul. Nowowiejska 24, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland
  3. GE Marmara Technology Center Müh. Hiz. Ltd. Sti. Tubitak-Mam Teknoloji Serbest Bolgesi, 41400, Gebze/Kocaeli, Turkey
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Abstract

The advancement of contemporary internal combustion engine technologies necessitates not only design enhancements but also the exploration of alternative fuels or fuel catalysts. These endeavors are integral to curbing the emission of hazardous substances in exhaust gases. Most contemporary catalyst additives are of complex chemical origins, introduced into the fuel during the fuel preparation stage. Nonetheless, none of these additives yield a significant reduction in fuel consumption. The research endeavors to develop the fuel system of a primary marine diesel engine to facilitate the incorporation of pure hydrogen additives into diesel fuel. Notably, this study introduces a pioneering approach, employing compressed gaseous hydrogen up to 5 MPa as an additive to the principal diesel fuel. This method obviates the need for extensive modifications to the ship engine fuel equipment and is adaptable to modern marine power plants. With the introduction of modest quantities of hydrogen into the primary fuel, observable shifts in the behavior of the fuel equipment become apparent, aligning with the calculations outlined in the methodology. The innovative outcomes of the experimental study affirm that the mass consumption of hydrogen is contingent upon the hydrogen supply pressure, the settings of the fuel equipment, and the structural attributes of the fuel delivery system. The modulation of engine load exerts a particularly pronounced influence on the mass admixture of hydrogen. The proportion of mass addition of hydrogen in relation to the pressure of supply (ranging from 4–12 MPa) adheres to a geometric progression (within the range of 0.04–0.1%). The application of this technology allows for a reduction in the specific fuel consumption of the engine by 2–5%, contingent upon the type of fuel system in use, and concurrently permits an augmentation in engine power by up to 5%. The resultant economic benefits are estimated at 1.5–4.2% of the total fuel expenses. This technology is applicable across marine, automotive, tractor, and stationary diesel engines. Its implementation necessitates no intricate modifications to the engine design, and its utilization demands no specialized skills. It is worth noting that, in addition to hydrogen, other combustible gases can be employed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Denys Shalapko
1
Mykola Radchenko
1
Anatoliy Pavlenko
2
ORCID: ORCID
Roman Radchenko
1
Andrii Radchenko
1
Maxim Pyrysunko
1

  1. Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding, Heroes of Ukraine Avenue 9, 54025 Mykolayiv, Ukraine
  2. Kielce University of Technology, Department of Building Physics and Renewable Energy, Aleja Tysia˛clecia Pan´stwa Polskiego 7,25-314, Kielce, Poland
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Abstract

The paper deals with bifurcation and/or non-bifurcation post-buckling curves of composite plates under biaxial compression. For different lay-up sequences, a coupling, i.e. extension-bending (EB) is considered. The current investigations present distinct equilibrium paths describing when they have bifurcation-type and/or non-bifurcation-type responses. The novel parameter (i.e. EB coupling imperfection) is calculated to show the amount of non-bifurcation in the equilibrium path as a quantitative parameter. For the case of non-square plates, a novel mixed-mode analysis is conducted. The effects of different characters in laminated composites such as layer arrangement, loading ratio, aspect ratio, and boundary conditions are investigated. A novel result concluded in the numerical examples where there are some possibilities to have different mode shapes in linear and non-linear buckling analysis. FEM results of ANSYS software verify the results of analytical equations.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mehdi Bohlooly Fotovat
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Kubiak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Strength of Materials, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-537 Lodz, Poland
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Abstract

The aim of the study described herein was to design, construct and test a demonstrator of a system to control the direction of the resultant thrust vector of a rocket motor to be used in short range anti-tank missiles with a mass of up to 15 kg. The novelty of the system is that the direction of the resultant thrust vector is manipulated by means of moveable jet vanes integrated with a moveable nozzle diffuser through telescopic connectors. The technology demonstrator was built using different materials and different manufacturing processes. The first versions were 3D printed from plastic materials. Minor modifications to the design were made at an early stage. The final version had the main components made of aluminum using CNC machining. The system, with and without jet vanes, was tested on a specially developed test rig equipped with a multi-axis sensor to measure forces and torques. The nozzle performance parameters measured and analyzed in this study were the components of the thrust vector, the moments and the effective vectoring angle. The findings show that the experimental data are in good agreement with the results of earlier simulations and that the demonstrator is fully operational.
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Authors and Affiliations

Łukasz Krzysztof Nocoń
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marta Grzyb
1
Piotr Szmidt
1
Łukasz Marian Nowakowski
2

  1. Kielce University of Technology, Department of Mechatronics and Armament Engineering, Faculty of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering,al. Tysia˛clecia Pan´stwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
  2. Kielce University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Metrology, Faculty of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering,al. Tysia˛clecia Pan´stwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
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Abstract

The machining accuracy of CNC machine tools is significantly affected by the thermal deformation of the feed system. The ball screw feed system is extensively used as a transmission component in precise CNC machine tools, responsible for converting rotational motion into linear motion or converting torque into repetitive axial force. This study presents a multi-physical coupling analysis model for the ball screw feed system, considering internal thermal generation, intending to reduce the influence of screw-induced thermal deformation on machining accuracy. This model utilizes the Fourier thermal conduction law and the principle of energy conservation. By performing calculations, the thermal source and thermal transfer coefficient of the ball screw feed system are determined. Moreover, the thermal characteristics of the ball screw feed system are effectively analyzed through the utilization of finite element analysis. To validate the proposed analysis model for the ball screw feed system, a dedicated test platform is designed and constructed specifically to investigate the thermal characteristics of the ball screw feed system in CNC machine tools. By selecting specific CNC machine tools as the subjects of investigation, a comprehensive study is conducted on the thermal characteristics of the ball screw feed system. The analysis entails evaluating parameters like temperature field distribution, thermal deformation, thermal stress, and thermal equilibrium state of the ball screw feed system. By comparing the simulation results from the analysis model with the experimental test results, the study yields the following findings: The maximum absolute error between the simulated and experimental temperatures at each measuring point of the feed system components is 2.4◦C, with a maximum relative error of 8.7%. The maximum absolute error between the simulated and experimental temperatures at the measuring point on the lead screw is 2.0◦C, with a maximum relative error of 6.8%. The thermal characteristics obtained from the steady-state thermal analysis model of the feed system exhibit a prominent level of agreement with the experimental results. The research outcomes presented in this paper provide valuable insights for the development of ball screw feed systems and offer guidance for the thermal design of machine tools.
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Authors and Affiliations

Junjian Zheng
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xiaolei Deng
2
Junshou Yang
2
Wanjun Zhang
2
Xiaoliang Lin
2
Shaofei Jiang
1
Xinhua Yao
3
Hongchen Shen
3

  1. College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023, China
  2. Key Laboratory of Air-driven Equipment Technology of Zhejiang Province, Quzhou University, Quzhou 324000, China
  3. School of Mechanical Engineering, Key Laboratory of 3D Printing Process and Equipment of Zhejiang Province, State Key Laboratory of FluidPower and Mechatronic Systems, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
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Abstract

With the improvement of the planning level of underground space, the location of the planned under-crossing tunnel can be known in advance when constructing the upper-span tunnel. Therefore, pre-protection measures can be taken in advance during the construction of the upper-span tunnel. A new pre-protection method of a pipe-jacking channel was proposed to reduce the adverse effects of under-crossing shield tunnels. Numerical simulations of different pre-protection schemes were carried out using the finite element method to analyze its deformation control effect. The simulation results show that the deformation control effect of the gantry reinforcement scheme is the most significant. It is shown that the displacement of the pipe-jacking channel is more significantly suppressed with pre-protection measures than without preventive protection measures. The vertical displacement curve of the pipe-jacking channel exhibits a “W” shape after the construction of the double-lane shield underpass. By comparing the three different working conditions, it is found that the maximum vertical displacement and surface settlement of the pipe-jacking channel greatly reduced the gantry reinforcement pre-protection. Compared with Case 3, the effect of the pre-protection measures adopted in Case 2 was less obvious, which indicated that the form of the pre-protection had an important influence on controlling the deformation of the pipe-jacking channel.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yunliang Cui
1 2
Xukun Yang
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Xinquan Wang
1 2
Hongguo Diao
1 2
Xiao Li
1 2
Yuanyuan Gao
1 2

  1. School of Engineering, Hangzhou City University, Hangzhou 310015, PR China
  2. Key Laboratory of Safe Construction and Intelligent Maintenance for Urban Shield Tunnels of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310015, PR China
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Abstract

The article presents a methodology for determining the value of the expansion coefficient of a reconsolidated caving zone in the context of forecasting the rise in underground mine water levels and consequent surface subsidence caused by the process of flooding the closed coal mines. The paper also provides a brief characterisation of analytical predictive models regarding surface subsidence during the process of flooding coal mines. In order to describe the vertical deformation of the reconsolidated porous rock mass in the caving zone, a linear-elastic medium of Biot was utilised. The conducted theoretical calculations demonstrate a high agreement with the results obtained through the identification of the expansion coefficient parameter based on the analysis of in-situ subsidence measurements in Dutch and German mining areas. The proposed methodology was applied to a real case study involving the forecasting of the impact of the flooding process on the underground workings of the German Ibbenbüren mine. The article constitutes a significant contribution to the field of forecasting the rise in underground mine water levels and surface subsidence during the process of flooding closed coal mines. The presented methodology and obtained results can be valuable for researchers, engineers, and decision-makers involved in the planning and management of mining areas.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rafał Misa
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mateusz Dudek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anton Sroka
1
ORCID: ORCID
Krzysztof Tajduś
2
ORCID: ORCID
Dawid Mrocheń
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Strata Mechanics Research Institute, Polish Academy of Science, Krakow, Poland
  2. AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

One of the biggest challenges facing a designer of paper structures is its low resistance to moisture and water. Paper is a hydrophilic material that absorbs moisture from the outside. This causes the hydrogen bonds between the cellulose molecules to loosen and as a result a rapid decrease in strength parameters. In order to be able to use paper as a construction material, there is a need to select and evaluate the effectiveness of the appropriate impregnant, as well as to know its impact on the mechanical properties of the impregnated paper. The paper analyzes the effect of the use of various impregnations, including wood oil, yacht lacquer, and fire-retardant agent impregnation, on the tensile strength of several types of cellulose-derived materials, e.g. corrugated board, solid board, paper cores, and honeycomb board. The effectiveness of the impregnation was also assessed using the method of measuring the contact angle of the reference and impregnated surfaces.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Niewiadomski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anna Karolak
1
Marta Oleksiak
1
Agnieszka Chowaniec-Michalak
1

  1. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wybrze˙ze Wyspia´nskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

The article presents the assessment of the levels of radiated electromagnetic interference by commercial UAVs in the context of their popular use for various military tasks. The test was conducted in the frequency range from 30 MHz to 6 GHz, in an electromagnetically anechoic chamber, in accordance with the procedures provided for this type of checks. Apart from the control frequencies (which of course exceed the standards), it can be said that most of the tested UAVs using brushless motors do not exceed the emission levels specified by the military standard MIL-STD-461G. This opens the way to the use of COTS UAV as a carrier of electronic systems for the tasks of recognizing sources of radio signals in the investigated band.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rafał Przesmycki
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jarosław Michalak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Military University of Technology, ul. Gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The purpose of the study was to evaluate selected mechanical properties and structural characteristics of samples manufactured using composite filament fabrication (CFF) technology from Onyx material, whichwas filled with continuous glass fiber. Selected mechanical properties were correlated with the density of the resulting composite to determine the specific strength of the fabricated parts. The test specimens were manufactured on a Mark Two Enterprise machine (Markforged, USA) using composite filament fabrication (CFF) technology. The material used was polyamide 6.6 with a 20% short carbon fiber content with the trade name Onyx. Continuous glass fiber was used to reinforce the fabrication. The density of the manufactured samples was determined using a hydrostatic method. Methanol was used as the liquid. By determining the density of the samples, it was possible to estimate through appropriate calculations what specific strength and specific modulus the obtained composites would have. Determination of tensile and flexural strengths was carried out in accordance with ISO 527-1:2012 and ISO 178:2003. Determination of the impact tensile strength of the samples was carried out in accordance with ISO 8256, the beams were tested using the A method. Due to the high impact tensile strength, two 1 mm notches with an angle of 45°were made on the specimens. The image of the sample structure obtained by the CFF method was recorded using a CT scanner. A thermogravimetric test (TG) of the Onyx matrix material was carried out. The samples were tested approximately 72 hours after fabrication. Filling the samples with continuous glass fiber above 50% leads to a slight increase in impact resistance. The density of the composite increased by only 16% relative to the reference samples, resulting in a 389% increase in the maximum average flexural strength. Despite significant discontinuities in the structure of the produced composite, it was possible to record an increase in tensile strength and Young’s modulus by 606% and 370%, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dawid Marciniak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dariusz Sykutera
1
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Czyżewski
1

  1. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Manufacturing Techniques, Bydgoszcz University of Science and Technology, Poland
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Abstract

With the advent of social media, the volume of photographs uploaded on the internet has increased exponentially. The task of efficiently recognizing and retrieving human facial images is inevitable and essential at this time. In this work, a feature selection approach for recognizing and retrieving human face images using hybrid cheetah optimization algorithm is proposed. The deep feature extraction from the images is done using deep convolutional neural networks. Hybrid cheetah optimization algorithm, an improvised version of cheetah optimization algorithm fused with genetic algorithm is used, to choose optimum features from the extracted deep features. The chosen features are used for finding the best-matching images from the image database. The image matching is performed by approximate nearest neighbor search for the query image over the image database and similar images are retrieved. By constructing a k-NN graph for the images, the efficiency of image retrieval is enhanced. The proposed system performance is evaluated against benchmark datasets such as LFW, MultiePie, ColorFERET, DigiFace-1M and CelebA. The evaluation results show that the proposed methodology is superior to various existing methodologies.
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Authors and Affiliations

C Balasubramanian
1
ORCID: ORCID
J Raja Sekar
1

  1. Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi 626005, India
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Abstract

Inter-turn short circuit (ITSC) is a frequent fault of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM). If ITSC faults are not promptly monitored, it may result in secondary faults or even cause extensive damage to the entire motor. To enhance the reliability of IPMSMs, this paper introduces a fault diagnosis method specifically designed for identifying ITSC faults in IPMSMs. The sparse coefficients of phase current and torque are solved by clustering shrinkage stage orthogonal matching tracking (CcStOMP) in the greedy tracking algorithm.The CcStOMP algorithm can extract multiple target atoms at one time, which greatly improves the iterative efficiency. The multiple features are utilized as input parameters for constructing the random forest classifier. The constructed random forest model is used to diagnose ITSC faults with the results showing that the random forest model has a diagnostic accuracy of 98.61% using all features, and the diagnostic accuracy of selecting three of the most important features is still as high as 97.91%. The random forest classification model has excellent robustness that maintains high classification accuracy despite the reduction of feature vectors, which is a great advantage compared to other classification algorithms. The combination of greedy tracing and the random forest is not only a fast diagnostic model but also a model with good generalisation and anti-interference capability. This non-invasive method is applicable to monitoring and detecting failures in industrial PMSMs.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jianping Wang
1
Jian Ma
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dean Meng
1
Xuan Zhao
1
Kai Zhang
1
Qiquan Liu
1
Kejie Xu
1

  1. School of Automobile, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710064, China

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