Can we measure working memory via the Internet? The reliability and factorial validity of an online n-back task

Journal title

Polish Psychological Bulletin




No 1


Divisions of PAS

Nauki Humanistyczne i Społeczne


Committee for Psychological Science PAS




DOI: 10.1515/ppb-2016-0006


Polish Psychological Bulletin; 2016; No 1


Linck (2014), Working memory and second language comprehension and production : A metaanalysis, Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 21, 861, ; Gosling (2015), Internet Research in Psychology, Annual Review of Psychology, 877, ; Medow (2014), Phenylephrine alteration of cerebral blood fl ow during orthostasis : effect on n - back performance in chronic fatigue syndrome, Journal of Applied Physiology, 117, 1157, ; Unsworth (2012), Working memory capacity and retrieval from long - term memory : the role of controlled search, Memory Cognition, 41, 242, ; Attridge (2015), The disruptive effects of pain on n - back task performance in a large general population sample, Pain, ; Raz (2012), Reliability and Validity of the Online Continuous Performance Test Among Young Adults, Assessment, 21, 108, ; Ragland (2002), Working memory for complex figures : an fMRI comparison of letter and fractal n - back tasks, Neuropsychology, 16, 370, ; Sánchez (2012), Improving retention rate and response quality in Web - based surveys, Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 507, ; Salthouse (2003), Executive functioning as a potential mediator of age - related cognitive decline in normal adults, Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 132, 566, ; Guastello (2015), Catastrophe models for cognitive workload and fatigue in N - back tasks and, Nonlinear Dynamics Psychology Life Sciences, 19, 173. ; Oberauer (2005), Working memory and intelligence their correlation and their relation : comment on Ackerman and author reply, Psychological Bulletin, 131, 61, ; Redick (2013), Complex span and n - back measures of working memory : a meta - analysis, Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 20, 1102, ; Oberauer (2003), The multiple faces of working memory : Storage processing supervision and coordination, Intelligence, 31, 167, ; Kane (2007), Working memory attention control and the N - back task : a question of construct validity Memory and, Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Cognition, 33, 615, ; Nosek (2002), Research Security Design and Control in Psychological Research on the Internet, Ethics Journal of Social Issues, 58, 161, ; Dougherty (2003), Probability judgment and subadditivity : the role of working memory capacity and constraining retrieval, Memory Cognition, 31, 968, ; Baddeley (2012), Working Memory : Theories Models and Controversies, Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 1, ; Jaeggi (2010), The concurrent validity of the N - back task as a working memory measure, Memory, 18, 394, ; Forns (2014), The n - back test and the attentional network task as measures of child neuropsychological development in epidemiological studies, Neuropsychology, 28, 519, ; Kraut (2004), Psychological Research Online : Report of Board of Scientific Affairs Advisory Group on the Conduct of Research on the Internet, American Psychologist, 59, 105, ; Szmalec (2011), Control of interference during working memory updating, Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception and Performance, 37, 137, ; Sörqvist (2010), The role of working memory capacity in auditory distraction : a review Noise, Health, 12, 217. ; Cohen (1997), Temporal dynamics of brain activation during a working memory task, Nature, 386. ; Salminen (2015), Age - specific differences of dual n - back training development and cognition Section B Aging neuropsychology and, Neuropsychology cognition, 13, 1, ; Van (2014), de Validity and reliability of an online visualspatial working memory task for self - reliant administration in school - aged children, Behavior Research Methods, 47, 708, ; Houben (2008), Measuring implicit alcohol associations via the Internet : validation of Web - based implicit association tests, Behavior Research Methods, 40, 1134, ; Conway (2005), Working memory span tasks : A methodological review and user s guide, Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 12, 769, ; Baddeley (1974), Working Memory of Learning and, Psychology Motivation, 8, 47, ; Fornell (1981), Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error, Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39, ; Miller (2009), Is the N - back task a valid neuropsychological measure for assessing working memory, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 24, 711, ; Schmiedek (2014), A task is a task is a task : putting complex span n - back and other working memory indicators in psychometric context in, Frontiers Psychology, 5, 1, ; Raykov (1997), Estimation of composite reliability for congeneric measures, Applied Psychological Measurement, 21, 173, ; Ackerman (2005), Working memory and intelligence : The same or different constructs, Psychological Bulletin, 131, 30, ; Alcorn (1996), correlates of inspection time, Personality and Individual Differences, 20, 300, ; Friedman (2006), Not All Executive Functions Are Related to Intelligence, Psychological Science, 17, 172, ; De Clercq (2003), A simple and sensitive method to measure timing accuracy Instruments and Computers, Behavior Research Methods, 35, 109, ; Daneman (1996), Working memory and language comprehension : A metaanalysis, Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 3, 422, ; Barchard (2008), Practical advice for conducting ethical online experiments and questionnaires for United States psychologists, Behavior Research Methods, 40, 1111, ; Eurostat (2015), Retrieved from : http : / / ec europa eu / eurostat / web / information - society / data / main - tables [ access date, Information society statistics, 16. ; Shelton (2009), A comparison of laboratory and clinical working memory tests and their prediction of fluid intelligence, Intelligence, 37, 283, ; Foster (2014), Shortened complex span tasks can reliably measure working memory capacity, Memory Cognition, 43, 226, ; Jaeggi (2010), The relationship between n - back performance and matrix reasoning - implications for training and transfer, Intelligence, 38, 625, ; Jacola (2014), Clinical utility of the N - back task in functional neuroimaging studies of working memory of and, Journal Clinical Experimental Neuropsychology, 36, 875, ; Domínguez (2015), Executive n - back tasks for the neuropsychological assessment of working memory, Behavioural Brain Research, 292, 167, ; Schmiedek (2009), Complex span versus updating tasks of working memory : the gap is not that deep Memory and, Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Cognition, 35, 1089, ; Hockey (2004), The concurrent validity and test - retest reliability of a visuospatial working memory task, Intelligence, 32, 591, ; Van Leeuwen (2007), den Endophenotypes for intelligence in children and adolescents, Intelligence, 35, 369, ; De Dreu (2012), Working memory benefits creative insight musical improvisation and original ideation through maintained task - focused attention, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 656, ; Friedman (2008), Genetic in Origin, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 137, 201, ; Wilhelm (2013), What is working memory capacity and how can we measure it in, Frontiers Psychology, 4, 1, ; Pérez (2014), The role of working memory in inferential sentence comprehension, Cognitive Processing, 15, 405, ; Colom (2007), Fluid intelligence memory span and temperament difficulties predict academic performance of young adolescent Personality and Individual, Differences, 42, 1503. ; Dougherty (2015), Reevaluating the effectiveness of n - back training on transfer through the Bayesian lens : Support for the null, Psychonomic Bulletin Review, ; Kirchner (1958), Age differences in short - term retention of rapidly changing information, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 352, ; König (2005), Working memory fluid intelligence and attention are predictors of multitasking performance but polychronicity and extraversion are not, Human Performance, 18, 243, ; Snodgrass (1988), Pragmatics of measuring recognition memory : applications to dementia and amnesia, Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 117, 34, ; Goozee (2015), O Effects of aripiprazole and haloperidol on neural activation during the n - back in healthy individuals : A functional MRI study, Schizophrenia Research,

Aims and scope

Polish Psychological Bulletin (founded in 1970) is an official journal of Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee for Psychological Science.The journal publish a variety of papers, including empirical reports of experiments, surveys and field studies, theoretical articles, controversies and analytic papers on important psychological topics. Relevance for an international readership is our prominent goal, Polish Psychological Bulletin does not publish clinical case studies, or technical articles. Submissions from all domains of psychology are encouraged, especially those that address new developments and pursue innovative approaches.

Periodically, the journal will announce a call for papers for special issues. The journal will also entertain unsolicited proposals for special issues that fit the stated scope of the Polish Psychiological Bulletin (please contact the journal’s Editor-in-Chief with a detailed description of your proposal).

All published research articles in this journal have undergone rigorous review, based on initial editor screening and anonymous evaluation of content and merit by independent expert reviewers.

For information on specific requirements, please see the Author Guidelines.

Abstracting & Indexing

Abstracting and Indexing Information

• DESY Publication Database

• Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ)

• Current Contents: Social & Behavioral Sciences

• Dimensions


• ERIH Plus

• Google Scholar

• Index Copernicus

• ProQuest

• PsychArchives

• Science Open

• SCOPUS (Elsevier)

• Sherpa/RoMEO

Publication Ethics Policy

Peer Review and Ethics

Polish Psychological Bulletin is committed to peer-review integrity and upholding the highest standards of review.
Once your paper has been assessed for suitability by the editor, it will then be double blind peer reviewed by independent, anonymous authorities in the field.
Our guidance on publishing ethics is in accrdance with the COPE standards (see: