Nauki Biologiczne i Rolnicze

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Zawartość

Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2023 | vol. 63 | No 3

Abstrakt

Lisianthus ( Eustoma grandiflorum) has become a major flowering plant in Okinawa, the southernmost prefecture of Japan. Its cultivation area has increased steadily with each passing year for two decades. Simultaneously, many types of lisianthus diseases related to damping-off symptoms have also increased dramatically. To create a strategy for preventing the disease, disease symptoms and pathogenic organisms of primary problematic disease with seasonal variation in the emergence were investigated. The symptoms were diagnosed as Fusarium stem rot (Kukigusare-byo) and the pathogen of the disease was identified as Fusarium avenaceum based on multigene sequences analyses. Indeed, the PCR result of the isolated strain in this study was the same as that isolated from lisianthus plants with Fusarium stem rot in Hokkaido Prefecture. Furthermore, the pathogen is clustered separately from the other F. avenaceum strains isolated from lisianthus in the USA. Diseased lisianthus plants spread throughout greenhouses even though several fungicides were applied. Additionally, they appeared from November to January and increased to 0.3% of the total number. Fusarium stem rot was found in 43.8% of the total number of farms from 2020–2021 in Okinawa Main Island.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Takashi Hanagasaki
1
Atsushi Ajitomi
1
Emi Miwa
2
Tomohiko Kiyuna
2

  1. Okinawa Agricultural Research Center, Okinawa 901-0336, Japan
  2. TechnoSuruga Laboratory Co. Ltd, Shizuoka 424-0065, Japan

Abstrakt

Essential oils (EOs) are alternatives to synthetic insecticides used to control aphids that attack brassica species. However, the effects of species such as the Brazilian pepper tree (BPEO) Schinus terebinthifolius (Raddi), lemon eucalyptus tree (LEEO) Eucalyptus citriodora (Hook), and citronella grass (CGEO) Cymbopogon winterianus (Jowitt) on these organisms, as well as on beneficial insects, has been poorly studied. This work was aimed to evaluate the activity of BPEO, LEEO, and CGEO, at concentrations of 0.5% and 1%, on aphids Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) applied on leaf discs and/or cabbages, as well as the chemotaxic effects on its natural enemy Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The results showed that the essential oil of C. winterianus had a higher mortality rate for B. brassicae (100%) (0.5%, 48 h) and M. persicae (98.99%) (1%, 48 h). The average number of aphids (both species) found on cabbage leaf discs treated with 0.5% and 1% of the three essential oils (separately) was always lower than those found on leaf discs treated with water. Essential oils at 1% presented significantly higher mortality rates for B. brassicae and M. persicae than the control treatment. Females of D. rapae were attracted to plants of green cabbage with essential oil (0.5%) of S. terebinthifolius, but did not respond to E. citriodora and were significantly responsive to plants sprayed with water when contrasted with those in the presence of C. winterianus oil.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Suellen Godoy da Silva
1
Josué Sant’Ana
1
Simone Mundstock Jahnke
1
Carlos Diego Ribeiro dos Santos
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Abstrakt

In response to stresses, plants are capable of communicating their physiological status to other individuals in the community using several chemical cues. Nearby receivers then adjust their own homeostasis to increase resilience. The majority of studies to date have concentrated on the communication of abiotic stressors (e.g., salinity or drought) or herbivory. Less attention has been paid to the role of communication during microbial infections and almost nothing has focused on viruses. Here we investigated the effect that the prevalence of a turnip mosaic virus in a community of Arabidopsis thaliana has on the severity of symptoms developed in a group of receivers. First, we looked at the influence of two factors on the kinetics of symptom progression in the receivers, namely the prevalence of infection among emitters and the growth stage of the receiver plants at inoculation. We found that young receiver plants developed milder symptoms than older ones, and that high infection prevalence resulted in slower disease progression in receivers. Second, we tested the possibility that jasmonates could act as chemical signaling cues. To do this, we examined the kinetics of symptom progression in jasmonate-insensitive and wild-type plants. The results showed that the protective effect vanished in the mutant plants. Third, we investigated the possibility that root communication could also be relevant. We found that the kinetics of symptom progression across receivers was further slowed down in an age-dependent manner when plants were planted in the same pot. Together, these preliminary findings point to a potential function for disease prevalence in plant communities in regulating the severity of symptoms, this effect being mediated by some volatile organic compounds.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Francisca de la Iglesia
1
Santiago F. Elena
1 2

  1. Instituto de Biología Integrativa de Sistemas (I2SysBio), CSIC-Universitat de València, CL.Catedrático Agustín Escardino Belloch 9, Paterna, 46980 València, Spain
  2. Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, NM 87501, USA

Abstrakt

In order to use entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) as biological control agents, it is necessary to mass produce the EPF in an economical and cost-effective manner. Currently, the mass production of EPF is carried out mainly in two ways: solid-state fermentation in which the aerial conidia are produced, and liquid fermentation in which the blastospores and submerged conidia are produced. This research compares the survival of Beauveria bassiana A1-1spores from solid and liquid culture media, after 0, 3, 6 and 9 months of storage at room temperature (25 ± 5°C) and in the refrigerator (4°C). Furthermore, it compares the pathogenicity of spores immediately after production and after 9 months of storage on third nymphs of greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. The aerial conidia and blastospores were slightly more virulent than the submerged conidia on whitefly nymphs. In laboratory bioassays, blastospores indicated more pathogenicity on nymphs than submerged conidia, even though there was no significant difference in the pathogenicity of the spores produced in liquid culture media in greenhouse bioassays. Moreover, survival of the aerial conidia at a low temperature (4°C) was higher than that kept at room temperature (25 ± 5°C). This storage temperature comparison revealed a positive effect on the stability and survival of blastospores and submerged conidia as well. Meanwhile, the survival of spores drastically decreased after 3 months of storage at room temperature.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Saeedeh Javar
1
Shahram Farrokhi
2
Shahram Naeimi
2
Maryam Kalantari Jooshani
2

  1. Plant Protection Research Department, Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Gorgan, Iran
  2. Biological Control Research Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Gorgan, Iran

Abstrakt

As alternatives to chemical insecticides, entomopathogenic fungi or wild plants and their secondary metabolites are being used. These biocontrol agents are significant because of their biodegradability, specificity, eco-friendliness, and utility as agents to reduce insecticide resistance. In this study five ethyl acetate extracts of locally isolated fungal strains ( Talaromyces atroroseus, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Talaromyces stipitatus, Trichoderma lixii, Beauveria bassiana) as well as alkaloid extract of Haloxylon salicornicum were extracted and investigated as biocontrol agents against cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis. The results indicated that all extracts had toxic effects against P. solenopsis except the extract of T. stipitatus. The LC50 values and toxicity index indicated that the alkaloid extract of H. salicornicum was the most toxic one (26 ppm) after 72 hours of treatment followed by the extracts of F. chlamydosporum (77 ppm), then B. bassiana (84 ppm) and T. lixii (118 ppm). On the other hand, there were significant changes in tested insect enzyme activities (amylase, lipase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and acetyl choline esterase (AchE) as well as total proteins and lipids in the insects treated with the alkaloid extract of H. salicornicum, and ethyl acetate extracts of F. chlamydosporum and B. bassiana after 24 hours of treatment compared to the control. GC/MS analyses of fungal extracts indicated that there were some bioactive compounds like hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, and tetradecanoic acid. In addition, the anabasine compound was found as a major constituent of the alkaloid extract of H. salicornicum and identified by 1H NMR and GC/MS analysis. In conclusion, according to this study, it was recommended that the alkaloid extract of H. salicornicum and the ethyl acetate extracts of F. chlamydosporum, B. bassiana, and T. lixii be used as alternatives to chemical insecticides for controlling the cotton mealybug P. solenopsis.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Reda R.H. Abdullah
1
Ahmed Ramadan El-Rokh
2

  1. Cotton Pesticides Evaluation Research Department, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
  2. Piercing Sucking Pests Research Department, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

Abstrakt

Tan spot, caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr), is a worrisome destructive foliar disease of wheat-growing areas around the world. Streptomyces spp. have been investigated as biocontrol agents because they beneficially interact with host plants and produce important bioactive substances that can act in the suppression of diseases in plants. In the present study, antifungal activity and plant growth-promoting of Streptomyces spp. strains 6(4), R18(6), and their consortium, were evaluated through in vitro and greenhouse assays. The Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) technique was used to analyze the crude extract of each strain. The results of the in vitro tests showed that the 6(4) metabolites caused several abnormalities in the conidial germination of Ptr. This strain also produced indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophores. Strain R18(6) did not alter conidial germination of Ptr, and produced IAA and phosphate solubilizers. In the greenhouse, the treatment ‘seed inoculation plus foliar spray’ with streptomycetes propagules and metabolites contributed to biomass gain, with no statistical difference between the strains ( p < 0.05). Treatments with 6(4) ‘seed inoculation’, ‘seed inoculation plus foliar spray’, and consortium ‘seed inoculation’ showed the lowest percentage of injured area compared to other treatments ( p < 0.05). UHPLC-QTOF MS data showed that erucamide is present in the culture of 6(4), but not in the culture of R18(6). Therefore, this substance is one of those involved in Ptr hyphal abnormalities, and R18(6) use indirect mechanisms of action to control Ptr. We concluded that these Streptomyces spp. and their metabolites have a promising potential for biological control of Ptr to protect wheat plants from tan spot damage.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Priscila Monteiro Pereira
1
Flávio Martins Santana
2
Alexsandro Dallegrave
3
Sueli Teresinha Van Der Sand
1

  1. Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  2. Embrapa Clima Temperado, Estação Experimental Terras Baixas, Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  3. Departamento de Central Analítica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Abstrakt

This study illustrates the antifungal activity of green biosynthesis of a silver nanoparticle solution using one of Sinai’s natural plant extracts, namely Zygophyllum album which was used as a stabilizer and reducing agent to reduce Ag+ to metallic silver. In this study the plant extract was prepared by boiling in water for 10 min., 70% ethanol and wet autoclaving for 5 min. AgNPs were prepared using these three different extract methods. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and zeta potential techniques were employed to characterize the synthesis of nanoparticles. The size of particles ranged from 6.28 nm to 28.89 nm at x100 and the zeta potential had one peak at –16.6 mean (mV) at area 100% for green synthesized AgNPs from Z. album prepared from boiling in water for 10 min. The size of particles ranged from 6.64 nm to 54.82nm at 100x and the zeta potential had one peak at – 12.9 mean (mV) at 100% area for green synthesized AgNPs from the plant ethanol extract. The size of particles ranged from 9.39 nm to 31.93 nm at 100x and the zeta potential had one peak – 19.8 mean (mV) at 100% area for green synthesized AgNPs from the wet autoclaved plant extract of Z. album for 5 min. All treatments of plant extract and AgNPs solutions, prepared from these plant extracts of Zygophyllum album, were compared with the positive control and Tachigaren – 30% W/P was conducted on the radial growth of F. oxysporium and caused antifungal activity with a high inhibition percent. There was a highly significant difference between the various extraction techniques. Increasing the concentration of treatments was accompanied with a significant effect on Fusarium wilt. Thus, this study may provide a good alternative approach to control Fusarium wilt disease in the field and under storage conditions of vegetables. Our study suggests that silver nanoparticles of plant extracts can be used for controlling Fusarium wilt.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Monga Ibrahim Mossa
1
Eman E.S. El-Sharkawy
2
Ahmed A. ElSharawy
3

  1. Botany and Microbiology Department, Arish University, North Sinai, Egypt
  2. Plant Pathology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt
  3. Plant Production Department, Faculty of Environmental Agricultural Science, Arish University, North Sinai, Egypt

Abstrakt

Taro leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae affects plant health and is a major threat to taro culture in Cameroon. Chemical fertilizers used often harm the ecosystem. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are better alternatives that increase plant growth promotion and suppress phytopathogens. In the present study, a total of 67 fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. was characterized by 17.91, 5.97, and 4.47% populations of P. fluorescens, P. chlororaphis, and P. putida, respectively, among the most represented. More than 36% of bacteria showed antagonistic potential through the production of both diffusible and volatile compounds. Some of them (03) exhibited antagonistic activity in dual culture against P. colocasiae with a diameter greater than 13 mm. These rhizobacteria produced a significant amount of siderophore, IAA, SA, HCN, protease, lipases, and cellulases. For the pot experiment, treatment by Pseudomonas significantly increased the enzymatic activity involved in the resistance of taro, such as peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). The two antagonists also increased plant growth parameters of taro such as chlorophyll, plant height, shoot length, total leaf surface, fresh root biomass, and fresh leaf biomass. These findings showed that fluorescent Pseudomonas have an intriguing and undeniable potential in the fight against P. colocasiae, which could lead to the development of a biopesticide in the future.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Samuel Arsène Ntyam Mendo
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dorice Nguelo Dzumafo
2
Laure Brigitte Kouitcheu Mabeku
3
Severin Tchameni Nguemezi
2
Lambert Sameza Modeste
2
Rosalie Anne Ngono Ngane
2

  1. Department of Biological Sciences, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde, Cameroon
  2. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon
  3. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaounde, Cameroon

Abstrakt

Tubercle disease or a bacterial pocket disease of sugar beets are names used to describe one of the gall-malformed diseases of sugar beet roots. Xanthomonas beticola is the historical name of the pathogen supposedly causing bacterial pocket disease. There were no isolates deposited in any collection corresponding to the originally isolated bacteria, except two strains from the NCPPB (National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, UK). However, both isolates were identified as related to Bacillus pumilus, which raised doubts about their pathogenicity. In our laboratory, greenhouse, and preliminary field experiments, we demonstrated that such strains are not pathogenic to sugar beets. Furthermore, both strains promoted their growth, improved their yield quality, and partly protected them against Rhizoctonia solani in a field experiment.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Małgorzata B. Nabrdalik
1
Ewa B. Moliszewska
1

  1. Institute of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Opole University, Opole, Poland

Abstrakt

Banana blood disease (BBD), caused by Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis ( Rsc), is a major threat to banana production in Southeast Asia. This study aimed to assess the resistance of cultivated and wild banana accessions to Rsc and investigate the expression of pathogenesis- related (PR) protein genes, namely PR3 and PR10, in disease-resistant bananas. Bacterial isolates were isolated from infected bananas in Yala Province, Thailand, and their pathogenicity and phylotype were confirmed, along with Rsc-specific PCR. Rsc-resistance banana screening was conducted on 16 banana accessions, including cultivated and wild types, using representative Rsc isolates. ‘Khai Kasetsart 2’ exhibited resistance (R), followed by ‘Raksa’ with moderate resistance (MR). The expression of PR3 and PR10 genes was analyzed in the resistant ‘Khai Kasetsart 2’ and susceptible ‘Hin’ bananas, revealing distinct expression patterns. PR3 showed rapid upregulation on day 1 after inoculation (DAI), while PR10 exhibited sustained upregulation from 1 to 7 DAI in the resistant cultivar. These findings indicate the involvement of PR proteins in the defense response against Rsc and hold promise for future breeding and disease management strategies in bananas.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jariya Nitayaros
1
Thanwanit Thanyasiriwat
1
Aphidech Sangdee
2
Ladawan Rattanapolsan
1
Ratri Boonruangrod
3
Praphat Kawicha
1

  1. Plant Genome and Disease Research Unit, Department of Agriculture and Resources, Faculty of Natural Resources and Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, Chalermphrakiat Sakon Nakhon Province Campus, Sakon Nakhon, Thailand
  2. Department of Biology, Mahasarakham University, Faculty of Science, Maha Sarakham, Thailand
  3. Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

Instrukcja dla autorów

Instructions for Authors

Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

General information for preparing a manuscript

All text should be written in a concise and integrated way, by focusing on major points, findings, breakthrough or discoveries, and their broad significance. All running text should be in Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing with all margins 2.5 cm on all sides.

Original article

The original research articles should contain the following sections: Title – the title should be unambiguous, understandable to specialists in other fields, and must reflect the contents of the paper. No abbreviations may be used in the title. Name(s) of author(s) with affiliations footnoted added only to the system, not visible in the manuscript (Double Blind Reviews). The names of the authors should be given in the following order: first name, second name initial, surname. Affiliations should contain: name of institution, faculty, department, street, city with zip code, and country. Abstract – information given in the title does not need to be repeated in the abstract. The abstract should be no longer than 300 words. It must contain the aim of the study, methods, results and conclusions. If used, abbreviations should be limited and must be explained when first used. Keywords – a maximum of 6, should cover the most specific terms found in the paper. They should describe the subject and results and must differ from words used in the title. Introduction – a brief review of relevant research (with references to the most important and recent publications) should lead to the clear formulation of the working hypothesis and aim of the study. It is recommended to indicate what is novel and important in the study. Materials and Methods – in this section the description of experimental procedures should be sufficient to allow replication. Organisms must be identified by scientific name, including authors. The International System of Units (SI) and their abbreviations should be used. Methods of statistical processing, including the software used, should also be listed in this section. Results – should be presented clearly and concisely without deducting and theori sing. Graphs should be preferred over tables to express quantitative data. Discussion – should contain an interpretation of the results ( without unnecessary repetition) and explain the influence of experimental factors or methods. It should describe how the results and their interpretation relate to the scientific hypothesis and/or aim of the study. The discussion should take into account the current state of knowledge and up-to-date literature. It should highlight the significance and novelty of the paper. It may also point to the next steps that will lead to a better understanding of the matters in question. Acknowledgements – of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. References In the text, papers with more than two authors should be cited by the last name of the first author, followed by et al. (et al. in italics), a space, and the year of publication (example: Smith et al. 2012). If the cited manuscript has two authors, the citation should include both last names, a space, and the publication year (example: Marconi and Johnston 2006). In the Reference section, a maximum of ten authors of the cited paper may be given. All references cited in the text must be listed in the Reference section alphabetically by the last names of the author(s) and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. All titles of the cited articles should be given in English. Please limit the citation of papers published in languages other than English. If necessary translate the title into English and provide information concerning the original language in brackets (e.g. in Spanish). The list of references should only include works from the last ten years that have had the greatest impact on the subject. Older references can be cited only if they are important for manuscript content. The full name of periodicals should be given. If possible, the DOI number should be added at the end of each reference. The following system for arranging references should be used: Journal articles Jorjani M., Heydari A., Zamanizadeh H.R., Rezaee S., Naraghi L., Zamzami P. 2012. Controlling sugar beet mortality disease by application of new bioformulations. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52 (3): 303-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10045-012-0049-9 Online articles Turner E., Jacobson D.J., Taylor J.W. 2011. Genetic architecture of a reinforced, postmating, reproductive isolation barrier between Neurospora species indicates evolution via natural selection. PLoS Genetics 7 (8): e1002204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204 Books Bancrof J.D., Stevens A. 1996. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 776 pp. Book chapters Pradhan S.K. 2000. Integrated pest management. p. 463-469. In: "IPM System in Agriculture. Cash Crop" (R.K. Upadhyaya, K.G. Mukerji, O.P. Dubey, eds.). Aditya Books Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 710 pp. Online documents Cartwright J. 2007. Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Available on: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204

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Rapid communications

Rapid communications should present brief observations which do not warrant the length of a full paper. However, they must present completed studies and follow the same scientific standards as original articles. Rapid communications should contain the following sections: Title Abstract - less than 300 words Key words - maximum 6 Text body Acknowledgements References The length of such submissions is limited to 1500 words for the text, one table, and one figure.

Reviews

Review articles are invited by the editors.Unsolicited reviews are also considered. The length is limited to 5000 words with no limitations on figures and tables and a maximum of 150 references. Mini-Review articles should be dedicated to "hot" topics and limited to 3000 words and a maximum two figures, two tables and 20 references.

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