This new edition of the code has been prepared by the Commission for Research Integrity and approved by the General Assemby of the Polish Academy of Sciences in June 2020. Good research practices are presented in the context of data management; research environment; training, supervision and mentorship; research procedures; safeguards; collaborative working; publication; reviewing and evaluation; conflict of interest (CoI). It is now recommended that each scientist file an annual declaration of CoI while the possible need for its addressing will be determined by the leaders of academic/scientific institutions. Violations of research integrity are briefly presented as well as dealing with those violations as well as with allegations of misconduct.
The article presents the ways of defining and understanding hope in Polish, English and American literature. The basic theses are: 1) hope is an ambivalent phenomenon, 2) hope is connected with the work of consciousness and imagination, 3) hope conjures up visions of the alternative existential and social solutions, 4) hope is a passion and a way of knowing, 5) hope constitutes the keystone of artistic and academic activity.
This paper is a presentation of a success story of building a premier, non-university research organization dedicated to basic research and to supporting and developing early career researchers. This story comes back to establishing of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, predecessor of the Max Planck Society. Both those organizations were based upon so-called principle of Adolph von Harnack, the first president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. It consists in creating the research institutes around the leading – on a world scale – researchers, providing them the best possible working conditions and giving them freedom to build their research teams. This paper shows the way how the entire Max Planck Society is set up, what is its impartial position on a map of world leading research institutions and what are the reasons of the success of this organization. An outcome of research led in the Max Planck Institutes is shortly given.
This paper studies path-breaking economic developments in Poland following the start of the systemic transformation in 1989. Three groups of countries are used for comparative analysis: those economically most advanced, those less developed but striving to catch up during the last 30–40 years, and as a subgroup of the latter, the transition economies. The paper has three objectives. The first is to show that many opinions regarding major aspects of the Polish transformation are at variance with the plain statistical facts. The second is to evaluate the pace and the extent of the progress so far in the effort to narrow the income and wealth gaps between Poland and most developed countries, particularly pre-2004 members of the European Union. The third consists of a discussion of factors which are likely to impede the pace of Poland’s economic development in the years to come.
How we speak of and write about stands, or at least it should stand, in relation what we speak of and write. If such a relation does not exist, or it is little visible for the people involved in the written or spoken message there might occur and often they do important doubts by the latter on its intention or even the assumption of bad intention. However, the existence of a clear dissonance between how we speak and write and what we speak of and write about tends many of these people addressed to perceive it as someone who breaks the norms prevailing in such speaking and writing. Those situations took place and still do often when we speak of and write about religion and religiosity without a sort of deliberation that is linked to seriousness and pompousness or even exaltation. In these remarks I do recall examples of such speaking on one side presented by libertines like M. Montaigne and Voltaire, and on the other by theologisans like St. Augustine. M. Luther and J. Tischner.
This article talks about a famous novel by Leopold Tyrmand entitled Zły (The Bad) which was translated into English by David Welsh as The Man with White Eyes (New York: Knopf, 1959). The author claims that the novel which describes a life in destroyed Warsaw of the 1950s gradually became an epic. The author refers to a conception by Polish literary scholar and critic Kazimierz Wyka who claimed that epics are not written, but – under some circumstances, sometimes even against the will of the writers – some texts become epics. According to the author, in Zły (both in the style and in the plot) can be found the elements of brilliant epic stylization. The novel which at first was read as a thriller gradually became an epic because it described with epic accuracy a world that had disappeared, a world where a new life was born in the ruins.
Stefan Grabiński, a famous Polish author of weird fiction, who is known especially for his collection of short stories Demon ruchu (The Motion Demon, 1919), lived and worked in a period marked by a new artistic style – expressionism. Although Grabiński came from Lviv, often regarded as a province in Poland after the Great War, he could have a contact with the latest ideas concerning art and philosophy. Indeed, both in his short stories and in his novels may be found some traits typical for the expressionist poetics as, for example, a subjective perspective, a color sensitivity or a tendency to violent and dynamic use of formal elements. Grabiński was fascinated by a German literature – he read Gustav Meyrink, E.T.A. Hoffmann and an expressionist magazine “Der Orchideengarten”. Moreover, he liked going to the cinema where he could watch, for example, a famous German expressionist film – The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari. The only text by Grabiński which was adapted into film in his life was a short story Kochanka Szamoty (Szamota’s Mistress, 1922). Although this seemed to be a great material for an expressionist film, the director – Leon Trystan – decided to realize it in an impressionist poetics.
The aim of the article is to present the activities of foreign scientific centres of the Polish Academy of Sciences on the examples of three out of six operating centers: the center in Vienna, Paris and the Polish Science Contact Agency PolSCA PAN in Brussels. The authors of the article combine their own experiences of the former directors of the centers: in Vienna, Paris and Brussels to reflect critically on the place and role of these centers in the scientific-research area. They point to centers’ enormous and diverse potential for disseminating and promoting the achievements of scientists, not fully recognized and used by the scientific community. Taking into account the specifics of each institution, the authors describe the ways of optimal use of their cultural and social capital, and identify common structural problems they encountered during their tenure. The article consists of the following elements: an introduction, an extensive authorial analysis of each station's activities, prepared in the form of a case study and a summary with conclusions.
First psychological research at Arctowski station were conducted in 1979. In the nineties the American team under direction of prof. L. Palinkas conducted research in order to determine the patterns of multicultural psychosocial adaptation. The author discusses stress as a result of isolation and extreme conditions.
The Polish Young Academy urges Members of the European Parliament and Polish government to act against the proposed cuts in the budget of Horizon Europe in 2021–2027 and to restore it at least to the initially agreed sum.
The paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Jan Strelau, who passed away in Warsaw 4th of August 2020. Professor Jan Strelau was the most prominent and world-wide recognized Polish psychologist and his scientific contribution was essential for psychology of individual differences and studies on temperament. Paper presents the life and scientific achievements of Professor Jan Strelau.
The article is devoted to the memory of Professor Franciszek Ziejka, Rector of Jagiellonian University (1999–2005) and presents the most important areas of his outstanding activity. The Professor was a historian of literature, an expert in Polish culture of XIX century – especially so called “Young Poland” period – and an excellent promoter of Polish literature and history. He had a significant impact on the development of academic life in Poland, as Chairman of the Conference of Rectors of Academic Schools in Poland and initiator of changes to the regulations governing higher education in Poland. Professor Franciszek Ziejka passed away 19 of July 2020.
Maria Janion (1926–2020), an oustanding humanist, scholar, critic, historian of literature; a professor at the Institute of Literary Research in the Polish Academy of Sciences, author of twenty books and several hundred articles; expert on Polish and European Romanticism; the tutor of the many generations of humanists. She died in Warsaw on August 23rd, 2020.
Prof. Jerzy Jankowski passed away on 18th of August, 2020 and this paper brings back this outstanding scientist, one of the most influential geophysicists in Poland and an extraordinary man. Considered a prime architect in the development of the geomagnetic observations in Poland, Prof. Jankowski was a giant in geophysics covering a wide range of problems, from the cognition of the deep basement in Poland and Central Europe to the studies of earthquake precursors. Besides research Prof. Jankowski also offered his administrative services to the Institute of Geophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, among others being its director for more than 30 years and also to the Polish Academy of Sciences as the Head of the Division of Earth and Mining Sciences for nearly a decade. Prof. Jankowski received many significant honors during his life; internationally, he was recognized as a foreign member of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters and Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
NAUKA jest czasopismem Polskiej Akademii Nauk wydawanym kwartalnie w języku polskim lub angielskim. Czasopismo publikuje recenzowane prace naukowe, artykuły przeglądowe, polemiczne, wspomnieniowe, recenzje oraz listy do redakcji.
Nadsyłane prace prosimy przygotowywać za pomocą typowego edytora tekstu zgodnie z podanymi poniżej zaleceniami. Prosimy o dostarczenie dwóch egzemplarzy wydruku pracy na papierze formatu A-4 z szerokim marginesem po lewej stronie, po około 30 wierszy na stronie.
Wydruk nie powinien zawierać poprawek, podkreśleń i spacjowań. Praca powinna zawierać streszczenie (maksymalnie 200 słów) oraz słowa kluczowe (trzy do sześciu). Kolejne akapity należy rozpoczynać wcięciem. Jeśli praca napisana jest w języku polskim, to wówczas tytuł pracy, słowa kluczowe oraz streszczenie należy dostarczyć również w języku angielskim.
Do przesyłanego wydruku tekstu pracy i kompletu ponumerowanych rycin (po 2 egzemplarze) prosimy dołączyć:
a) pismo, w którym pierwszy autor zwraca się do redakcji o wydrukowanie pracy w czasopiśmie (jest to formalna zgoda autora na publikację pracy), podaje swój dokładny adres, zatrudnienie, numer telefonu, adres e-mailowy oraz podpis wraz z podaniem tytułu naukowego oraz stanowiska;
b) pisemne oświadczenie, że praca nie była dotąd ogłoszona drukiem i nie została złożona w innej redakcji. W przypadku wykorzystywania rycin uprzednio opublikowanych lub pochodzących od innych autorów należy dołączyć pisemną zgodę autorów i wydawnictwa na ich wykorzystanie;
c) opisaną dyskietkę lub CD z tekstem całej pracy; w przypadku stosowania nietypowego edytora tekstu należy dołączyć również plik w formacie RTF lub ASCII. Zawartość wersji elektronicznej powinna być identyczna z przesłanym wydrukiem. W przypadku przesyłania elektronicznej wersji ilustracji należy umieszczać poszczególne ilustracje w oddzielnych plikach, podając nazwę programu, za pomocą którego zostały wykonane.
Jakość ilustracji powinna pozwalać na ich bezpośrednią reprodukcję. Ilustracje w formie map bitowych muszą mieć rozdzielcz
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