Humanities and Social Sciences

Prawo Morskie


Prawo Morskie | 2014 | No XXX

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Although legal matters surrounding maritime administration system have been subject of extensive studies for nearly half a century, recent 90th anniversary of its foundation sparked some renewed interest in the matter. In 2010 agroup of authors, all being maritime administration practitioners, produced acollection of scientific studies on the subject. The present article adds to the discussion and formulates conclusions de lege lataand de lege ferenda.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zbigniew Godecki
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The article discusses data processing in e-Maritime systems. Operations within those systems are automatic, yet the actual system machinery is poorly understood by lawyers. The authors call for greater involvement of scholars and practicing lawyers in e-Maritime development.

The article analyses e-Maritime systems as implemented by Singapore Port and the european e-Maritime initiative. Furthermore, the authors examine electronic documents in Polish administrative and civil law — in particular, electronic bill of lading, NCTS communication, electronic transport records, electronic billing and the Internet of Things.

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Authors and Affiliations

Iwona Zużewicz-Wiewiórowska
Wojciech Rafał Wiewiórowski
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Maritime economy is one of the fields of economy of coastal states. The article tries to identify the legal framework of environmental maritime economy, as the environmental conditions influence and shape the maritime economy in acontemporary world. Environmental maritime economy is a consequence of coexistenceof three fields of law. Economic law, environmental law and maritime law. Those fields of law, which has been extracted from the body of law in an artificial way by using the objective criteria but still they are deeply interre-lated and the borders between them are blurred. Sustainable development principle is one of the main indicators of how the environmental maritime economy should function. Legal framework, international law, EU law and Polish internal law try to precise the exact meaning of sustainable development in the sphere of economic use of maritime resources. This is specially complicated as the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea is highly vulnerable and lots of environmental pressure is being putted on it. Successful implementation of environmental maritime economy should result in achieving prosperous economic activity that will be taking place in the environment of a good quality.

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Authors and Affiliations

Janina Ciechanowicz-McLean
Maciej Nyka
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The author reviews port services — which in current Polish maritime law system include shipping agency, shipbroking, pilotage and towage.

The first part of the article examines the legal status of ports and of services themselves as categorized by the Maritime Code. The author provides their outlines, noting terseness and shortcomings of the regulation.

The second part presents draft amendments to the Code proposed by Maritime Law Codification Committee. Among the changes proposed the author dis-cusses dockage.

The final part concerns European Union Law, as the primary impulse behind the study is draft Regulation of European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework on market access to port services and financial transparency of ports of 23 May 2013. The emergence of the draft stirred the EU member states, and, in particular, the entities professionally associated with port industry. The author sets out the basics of the proposal and criticizes them as being contrary to free market principles and subjects port services to admin-istrative regulation.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mirosław H. Koziński
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The article looks into a recently developed concept of international interest which is intended as a replacement for traditional securities such as ship mortgages and maritime liens. The regulation is being introduced by Cape Town Convention on International Interest in Mobile Equipment together with one of the protocols. The Cape Town Treaty has been welcomed by 60 signatures, including the European Union and the United States, and it has already proven itself in the aircraft industry.

The author discusses the Cape Town Treaty’s chances for wider adoption against the backdrop of the 1926 Brussels Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages, the 1967 Brussels International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to Maritime Liens and Mortgages and the 1993 Geneva International Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zuzanna Pepłowska-Dąbrowska
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The article analyses maritime cabotage, which is part of the European Union Law since 1992 (Council Regulation [EEC] No 3577/92 of 7 December 1992 applying the principle of freedom to provide services to maritime transport within Member States) and discusses the European Court of Justice case law on the subject.

Poland is currently the only large member state with access to sea (over 500 km of coastline with numerous small ports and harbours) that does not have legal regulation on maritime cabotage in force. The author argues for introducing a reservation regarding ships flying non-EU flag.

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Authors and Affiliations

Justyna Nawrot
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The article goes into the seldom discussed topic of offshore installations, such as oil platforms. The author categorizes these structures and discusses legal issues surrounding them, namely regarding mobile platforms as vessels, the international status of artificial islands, and the questions of jurisdiction. The article also touches on legality of construction of such installations, safety zones, hot pursuit and removal of decommissioned structures.

The author points that the key deficiency in maritime law is the absence of international convention on liability for pollution damage from oil rigs.

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Authors and Affiliations

Janusz Symonides
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The author analyses legal issues of naval presence in the world ocean in the context of United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982) in terms of striking balance between doctrines of freedom of the sea and restricted access.

Military operations at sea remain to be prominent. UNCLOS does provide for naval presence in the world ocean as it isessential not only for defense and protection of interests of coastal nations, but also to perform their treaty obligations. The burden to enforce law and order at sea rests on large naval fleets and it remains to be so in foreseeable future.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Makowski
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The subject matter of this article has never been taken on by Polish academic writers.

The activities within The Area adapt to the so-dolled parallel system, which has been devised by the United States during drafting the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the 1994 New York Agreement. The parallel system is further reinforced by concepts of registered marine parcels and work plan.

The article analyses the approval process of a work plan for offshore polymetallic nodules mining submitted by companies incorporated in the Kingdom of Tonga and in the Municipality of Laur. The author notes, on this occasion, an unsettling propensity for taking unfair advantage of developing countries by large mining corporations.

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Authors and Affiliations

Robert Tarnacki
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The method of delimitation of maritime boundaries changed with time. Between 1969 and 1982 the International Court of Justice decided these matters upon 1958 Geneva conventions and international custom. The years 1982 to 1994 saw entry into force of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and the year 2009 — the landmark Black Sea ruling (Romania v Ukraine, judgment of 3 February 2009).

While the method is straightforward, the delimitation itself is a fairly complicated process. The article deals with that second phase. The author explains the concept of special circumstances — a rather indistinct notion composed of geographical (mostly) and non-geographical factors.

The article analyses in this context some recent delimitation cases regarding the Black Sea and the Carribbean (Nicaragua v Colombia), and the Bay of Bengal case, where the judgment was delivered by the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (Bangladesh v Myanmar, judgment of 14 March 2012).

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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Kałduński
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The article outlines development of freedom of fishing in the high seas against the backdrop of the negotiations leading to Geneva conventions on law of the sea, the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the 1995 United Nations agreement concerning the conservation and management of straddling stocks and highly migratory fish stocks. The author quotes opinions of scholars within the subject of the law of the sea as well as of UNCLOS co-originators, thelatter formulated on 30th anniversary of the Convention.

The author focuses on overfishing and international, regional and subregional co-operation towards sustainable fishery, prevention of illegal and uncontrolled fishing and acts of fishing piracy. Finally, the article outlines European Union law and policies on fishing, including broader issues regarding co-operation between the EU and international entities.

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Authors and Affiliations

Leonard Łukaszuk
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The article serves as a follow-up to the theses of EU Fishing Fleet Adjustment to Marine Bioresources — Regulations and Finance(Prawo Morskie XXIX).

The law regarding the subject is contentious and sparks off varying interpretation in administrative practice and case-law, including that of the Supreme Administrative Court. The article criticizes this portion of law and formulates conclusions de lege ferenda.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marta Bizewska
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The article takes on a subject likely to become a heart of a spirited national debate. The localization of the nuclear power plant on the Baltic Sea coast necessitates taking into account the following documents: the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the 1992 Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea, the 1992 Espoo Con-vention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context, the 1998 Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters.

The critical body whose opinion should be taken into account with respect to localization and construction of the nuclear power plant is the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM).

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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Makowski

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Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law) - Guidelines for authors of scientific texts

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Template of the article intended for publication in Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law)

Publication Ethics Policy

Principles of publication ethics

The editors of Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law) strictly adhere to the principles of responsibility and ethics recommended by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for all parties involved in the publication process and take all possible measures against any abuse.

1. Responsibilities of the editorial staff

1.1 Principle of impartiality and fairness. Submitted scientific texts are evaluated on the basis of content only, without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, citizenship or political ideology.

1.2 Publication decisions. The Editor-in-Chief is responsible for deciding which of the submitted articles should be published. The decision to accept or reject a scientific text for publication is made by the Editor-in-Chief based on reviews assessing its content, originality, novelty, clarity and relevance to the scope of the journal. In making decisions, the Editor-in-Chief may consult the Scientific Council. The Editor-in-Chief is obliged to comply with applicable laws on defamation, copyright infringement and plagiarism, and to bear full responsibility for decisions regarding the publication of scientific texts.

1.3 Principle of confidentiality. The Editor-in-Chief and the Scientific Council must ensure that all materials submitted for publication remain confidential at the review stage. They must not disclose any information about the submitted manuscript to anyone other than the authors, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisors (e.g., translators), and the publisher.

1.4 Disclosure and conflict of interest. Unpublished articles, excerpts from articles, or materials contained therein may not be used by the editorial staff for their own research without written permission from the authors.

1.5 Maintaining the integrity of the scientific output. The editorial staff will guard the integrity of the published academic output, by issuing corrections, additions and references as necessary. At the same time, the editors will make every effort to detect any inappropriate research or publications. Plagiarism and works based on false data are unacceptable. The Editor-in-Chief should take appropriate action when there are ethical objections with respect to a submitted paper or published article. In justified cases, the editorial staff may publish corrections, clarifications, appeals and apologies.

1.6 Withdrawal of published articles. The Editor-in-Chief of the journal will consider retracting a published scientific text: if there is evidence indicating that the research results presented in it are untrustworthy, if it has been previously published elsewhere without proper reference, permission or justification (cases of redundant publication), if the work constitutes an act of plagiarism or is based on unethical research. The published retraction notice should be linked to the retracted scientific text (naming the title and authors in the title of the retraction), clearly identify the text being retracted, and indicate who is retracting it. Retraction notices should always include a justification for the retraction, stating the reason, in order to distinguish an unintentional error from misconduct. Retracted scientific texts will not be removed from printed copies of the journal or from electronic archives, but their retracted status will be indicated as clearly as possible.

2. Responsibilities of authors

2.1 Standards for publishing research results. Authors of articles presenting the results of original research should provide an accurate description of the work that was performed and an objective discussion of its significance. Baseline data should be accurately presented in the article. The article should provide enough details and references to allow others to verify the claims made. Any fabrication or presentation of false or inaccurate research results constitutes unethical behavior and will result in the rejection of the manuscript or the retraction of the published article.

2.2 Originality and plagiarism. Authors should ensure that they have written fully original papers, and if they have made any use of the work and/or words of others, this must be clearly marked with a citation. Plagiarism is not acceptable.

2.3 Multiple or simultaneous publications. Authors should not publish a manuscript describing the same research in more than one journal. However, in exceptional and justified cases, the editorial staff of Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law) will consider publishing a text that has already been published previous, provided that it was addressed to a different audience and in a different language.

2.4 Authorship. Works published in Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law) must be published under the names of individuals who are indeed their authors and responsible for their content. Any persons whose participation in the creation of the submitted work is negligible (for example, limited to the provision of research materials) may be mentioned in the acknowledgments, but must not be listed among the authors. In case of doubt, the editorial staff may for further clarification regarding the individual contributions to the creation of the paper made by the individual persons listed as authors. The authors should also disclose, in a footnote or in the acknowledgments, information about individuals and institutions that contributed to the work through substantive, material or financial contributions. The corresponding author submitting a paper for publication should make sure that only the relevant co-authors are listed in the paper and that they have all seen and approved the final version of the paper and agreed to submit it for publication. Cases of scientific dishonesty will be documented and disclosed.

2.5 Attribution of sources. Authors should take care to properly label the results of other researchers’ work. In view of this, they should cite any and all publications from which they drew information or ideas when writing their own scientific text.

2.6 Significant errors in published works. When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his own published work, it is his duty to immediately notify the editor or publisher of the journal and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the text.

3. Responsibilities of reviewers

3.1 Contribution to editorial decisions. Scientific reviews assist the editorial staff in making editorial decisions and provide assistance to authors in improving their scientific texts.

3.2 Timeliness. Any reviewer who feels incompetent to review a paper submitted to him, or who knows that timely completion of the review will be impossible, should notify the editor thereof and withdraw from the review process.

3.3 Confidentiality. Each entire manuscript received for review is treated as a confidential document. It must not be shown to or discussed with anyone except the individuals so authorized by the Editor-in-Chief.

3.4 Objectivity standards. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism targeted against the author(s) themselves is inappropriate. Reviewers should express their views clearly, by means of appropriate factual arguments.

3.5 Acknowledgment of sources. Any significant similarity between the reviewed work and any other published article or any duplication should be reported to the editor. Reviewers should identify any relevant published works that have not been duly cited by the authors.

3.6 Disclosure and conflict of interest. Information or ideas obtained through the review process must be treated as confidential and may not be used by the reviewer for personal gain. Reviewers should not undertake the evaluation of manuscripts which involve conflicts of interest arising from their own collaboration or other relationships with any author, private entities or institutions involved in the development of the scientific text. Authors have the right to address reviewer criticisms.

Peer-review Procedure

Review procedure:

1. All scientific texts, including research articles and judicial commentaries (glossa), submitted to the editors of Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law) are subject to a double-blind peer-review procedure.

2. Each scientific text is evaluated by independent experts in the relevant specialty.

3. The editors will make every effort to select reviewers who have no professional or private relationship with any author of the text under review.

4. Reviewers are required to provide an objective assessment of the submitted scientific text.

5. Reviewers are obliged to disclose any and all discovered irregularities, in particular any kind of plagiarism or self-plagiarism.

6. The review must be submitted in writing and must include a clear evaluation of the submitted scientific text.

7. Reviewers are asked to evaluate whether a scientific text is eligible for publication. This evaluation is made based on the following criteria:
- novelty of the topic addressed;
- consideration of the most recent literature on the subject; the use of appropriate methodology;
- and the text’s impact on the current state of research in the field of maritime law, the law of the sea, marine environmental law, or sustainable development and the socioeconomic environment.

8. Scientific texts referred for review are treated as confidential materials.

9. The identity of reviewers remains anonymous throughout the procedure.

10. The authors are obliged to participate in the review process, in particular to accommodate or respond to the suggested corrections, and to remedy any and all error brought to light.

11. In each printed volume of Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law) and on the website, the editors will publish a list of reviewers who collaborated with the journal in connection with a given volume.

Plagiarism Policy

The journal Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law) strictly adheres to the principles of scientific transparency and integrity.

We therefore will accept no forms of plagiarism, ghostwriting, or honorary authorship. In order to prevent such practices, relevant provisions have been included into the agreements signed with authors.

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