Life Sciences and Agriculture

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

Content

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences | 2018 | No 2 |

Abstract

The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis postulating that the supplementation of turkey diets with Cu nanoparticles can lower dietary inclusion levels of Cu without compromising the growth rate and antioxidant status of turkeys. The experiment was carried out on 648 one-day-old Hybrid Converter turkeys divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates per group, in a two-factorial design with 3 dietary inclusion levels of Cu (20, 10 and 2 mg/kg) and 2 dietary sources of Cu - copper sulfate (Cu-SUL) and Cu nanoparticles (Cu-NP). At 42 days of age, blood samples were collected from 2 birds per replicate (12 birds per group), after slaughter livers were collected for analyses. Blood and liver samples were assayed for: Cu, Zn, Ca, P, Mg, GLU, TP, ALB, UREA, TAG, TC, UA, ALT, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, SOD, GPx, CAT, VIT C, FRAP, GSH+GSSG, LOOH, MDA. The results of this experiment demonstrate that a decrease in the dietary inclusion levels of Cu from 10 mg/kg to 2 mg/kg does not compromise the growth performance of turkeys, but weakens antioxidant defense mechanisms. A Cu dose of 20 mg/kg induces oxidation reactions and has a much more inhibitory effect on the antioxidant defense system than dietary Cu content of 2 mg/kg. In turkeys, dietary supplementation with Cu-NP has a more beneficial effect on carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant status compared with Cu-SUL. The results of analyses examining the antioxidant and metabolic status of young turkeys indicate that 10 mg/kg is the optimal dietary inclusion level of Cu.
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Abstract

Lipoproteins, isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo), provide excellent protection for boar spermatozoa against cryo-induced damage. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of LPFo on the freezability and fertilizing capacity of frozen-thawed (FT) boar semen after post-cervical artificial inseminations (post-CAIs). Semen, collected from 7 Polish Large White (PLW) and 4 Polish Landrace (PLR), was frozen in an extender containing LPFo. Post-CAIs were performed in 38 multiparous sows, using a catheter-cannula kit. Sows were inseminated 2× within one oestrus, and fertility parameters were recorded after farrowing. Neither boar (within breed) nor breed affected the quality of the pre-freeze (PF) semen, such as total motility (TMOT), mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), osmotic resistance test (ORT) and DNA fragmentation. Differences in the freezability of boar semen were observed among the boars, whereas there were no marked breed effects. Post-thaw TMOT markedly declined over storage time in most of the boars, particularly at 60 min after thawing. Inseminations of post-weaned oestrus sows resulted in pregnancy and farrowing rates of 84.2% and 81.6%, respectively. Neither the mean number of piglets born (NB) nor the mean number of piglets born alive (NBA) was affected by boar or breed. The total number of piglets born was 365, resulting in 11.8 NB piglets, whereas the total number of piglets born alive was 353, with 11.4 NBA piglets per litter. The findings of this study reaffirm the variations in the freezability of boar semen. In this study the supplementation of ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins to the freezing extender of boar semen produced high proportions of functionally viable FT spermatozoa that were capable of providing acceptable fertility results after post-CAIs in multiparous sows.
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Abstract

Lipogranulomas are lesions found in histopathological liver examination in humans and in various animal species, including dogs, especially those with portosystemic shunts. They consist of macrophages and other inflammatory cells, and sometimes they contain iron salts (pigment granuloma). This study aimed at determining the number of granulomas and cellular composition of lipogranulomas in dogs with the congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and to identify factors associated with their development. 44 archival liver samples from dogs with portosystemic shunt were stained using HE, Perl’s method and – in randomly-selected cases – immunohistochemically against CD56, CD20 and CD3 (DAKO). A reduction in the size of the liver was observed in all dogs during laparotomy, and the diameter of the vessel circumventing the liver was also measured (in 24 dogs). Lipogranulomas were found in 52.3% of samples; iron salts were present in 47.8% of them; 72% of cells in lipogranulomas were macrophages. In lipogranulomas both types of lymphocytes – T and B – were seen. The presence of lipogranulomas in liver samples in dogs was connected with fatty degeneration of hepatocytes and was correlated with the age of animals and with the diameter of the abnormal vessel circumventing the liver. Their formation appears to be triggered by severe ischemia and shortage of nutrient supply.
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare effect of combinations of intravenous isotonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), acetate Ringer, lactate Ringer and small-volume hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCI) solutions along with oral electrolyte solutions (OES) on the treatment of neonatal calf diarrhea with moderate dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Thirty-two calves with diarrhea were used in the study. Calves were randomly assigned to receive acetate Ringer solution (n=8), lactate Ringer solution (n=8), isotonic NaHCO3 (n=8) and 7.2% saline solutions (n=8), and two liters of OES were administrated to all calves orally at the end of intravenous administration. Blood samples for blood gas and biochemical analyses were collected at 0 hours and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours intervals. All the calves had mild to moderate metabolic acidosis on admission. Increased plasma volume and sodium concentration, but decreased serum total protein were observed within 0.5 hours following administration of hypertonic 7.2% NaCI + OES, compared to other 3 groups. In conclusion, administration of intravenous hypertonic 7.2% NaCI solution in small volume along with OES provided fast and effective improvement of dehydration and acid-base abnormalities within short time in treatment of calf diarrhea with moderate dehydration and metabolic acidosis.
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Abstract

Ibudilast (AV-411) is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE). It is currently marketed for human use in Asian countries for the treatment of asthma, cerebrovascular disorders and ocular allergies. Ibudilast has also been found to have an analgesic action for neuropathic pain at doses 5-10 times higher than those used in asthma therapy. Six healthy Labrador dogs were randomly assigned to two treatment groups using an open, single-dose, two-treatment, two-phase, cross-over design (2x2 Latin-square). Dogs in group 1 (n=3) were fasted for at least 10 hours overnight before the beginning of the experiment and 4 h following dosing while dogs in group 2 (n=3) received food ad libitum. During the first phase, each dog in group 1 and 2 received a single dose of 5 mg/kg ibudilast administered orally. After 1-week washout period the groups were rotated and the experiment was repeated. The analytical method, validated for dog plasma, was shown to be linear in the range 0.10–20 μg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.03 and 0.1 μg/mL, respectively. No behavioural or health alterations were observed in the animals during or after the study. Ibudilast was detectable in plasma for up to 24 h showing a wide variability between animals. Although no statistically significant differences were observed in the present study between the fed and fasted states, examination of the raw data suggests that an effect may be present. The wide degree of variation observed in area under the curve (AUC) suggests that the investigation of population pharmacokinetic modelling is warranted.
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Abstract

The aim of the paper was to study the epizootic situation of babesiosis in the cattle population in eastern Poland and possibly to determine what species of protozoa infects Polish cattle. Blood samples for molecular analysis (real time PCR) were collected from 192 dairy cows from various farms located in eastern Poland. The infection was detected in 10.4% of the samples. All animals were infected with Babesia occultans which sequence of the 18S RNA gene fragment showed a 93.1%, homology with the sequence of B. occultans EU 376017. This is the first report about the detection of B. occultans DNA in asymptomatic cattle in eastern Poland.
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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the anterior chamber constitutes part of the normal migratory pathway of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in cattle and swine. The cells obtained from aqueous humor of cows and pigs were stained for CD4 and CD8 receptors, and subsequently analyzed with flow cytometry. The mean percentage of CD4+CD8-, CD4-CD8+ and CD4+CD8+ cells within the total lymphocyte population of the bovine anterior chamber was, respectively, 17.88, 12.64 and 27.26%. In turn, the mean values of these parameters in pigs were 1.77, 38.48 and 17.45, respectively. Among bovine and porcine CD4+CD8+ cells prevalent were those displaying CD4lowCD8low and CD4lowCD8high phenotypes, respectively. The results suggest that the anterior chamber in cattle and swine is an element in the normal migratory pathway of CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+CD8+ cells. Furthermore, the contribution of these subsets in the anterior chamber lymphocyte population can differ considerably between animal species.
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Abstract

In this study the potential usefulness of infrared thermography (IRT) as a non-invasive tool to rapidly screen the most common non-infectious foot lesions in dairy cows was evaluated. Thirty-eight healthy cows and 38 cows affected by foot diseases were enrolled. Diseased cows showed the following disorders at lateral and medial claw in the hind foot: white line lesion, sole ulcer, sole haemorrhage, horizontal fissure, axial fissure. Thermography images of hind foot were collected for each animal using a digital infrared camera. Foot temperature was measured in four regions: central area of the hind foot (A1), interdigital area of the hind foot (A2), lateral (A3) and medial (A4) claw in the hind foot. Higher temperature values in the regions A1 and A2 compared to A3 and A4 were found in both healthy and diseased cows (p0.001). Cows affected by foot diseases showed higher foot temperature values compared to healthy cows (p0.05) in all considered regions. This study highlights the potential application of IRT as a reliable, practical tool for detection of hoof lesions in dairy cows. Multiple scanning images and comparisons between affected and healthy anatomical structures could be useful in defining the consistency of abnormality.
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Abstract

One of the most common reasons for horse lameness is subchondral bone cysts (SBCs), which are especially evident in young horse athletes. It is believed that SBC development is strongly associated with an individual’s bone growth and/or bone microstructure impairment. Current methods of SBC treatment include pharmacological treatment or surgical procedures which may allow the bone within the cyst to rebuild and be restored to properly developed bone tissue. Thus, we propose filling the SBCs with a 3D complex of alginate hydrogel and autologous adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). We have observed at the in vitro level, that this hydrogel complex induces osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential through the upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein, osteopontin, collagen type I and aggrecan mRNA levels. Moreover, we detected the creation of a 3D extracellular matrix (EM). To investigate the complex in vivo, we chose 8 horses of varying age suffering from SBC, which resulted in lameness, to undergo experimental surgery. We documented the horses’ clinical appearance, lameness and radiographic appearance, to determine that there was clinical improvement in 87.75% of the patients (n=7, out of 8 horses) 6 months postoperatively and 100% (n=8, out of 8 horses) a year after surgery. These results are promising for the potential of this procedure to become the standard in SBC treatment.
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Abstract

The aim of the research was an examination of potential impact of milk yield on the intercompartmental clearance – distribution clearance as well as determination of the variability of obtained pharmacokinetic parameters by the population approach using a two-compartmental structural model. Blood perfusion has a considerable impact on physiology of the udder and kinetics of drugs that are distributed in this organ. The research was performed on healthy Holstein- Friesian and Polish Black-White cows at the age of 4-10 years. Determination of antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefoperazone, penicillin G prokaine, cloxacillin, cefacetril) concentration was carried out after their every intramammary administration to one quarter of the udder. A population pharmacokinetic model was created to fit milk concentration data. General milk yield of a single cow was used as a variable. A population analysis was conducted using non-linear mixed-effect modeling. The impact of milk productivity was set solely by reference to intercompartmental clearance only in case of penicillin G, cloxacillin and ampicillin. It, has been found that milk yield, depending on a drug, influenced the distribution clearance of the drug to varying degrees. It means indirectly that increased perfusion of the udder has a different impact on drug distribution from the udder to the bloodstream.
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Abstract

Inflammation together with lipolysis and ketogenesis in early lactation can cause low productivity and may be harmful to the cow health. The objective of the study was to determine if ketoprofen treatment in the first days following parturition would positively affect the milk production and whether it was associated with the metabolic and inflammatory response. The study was conducted on 30 cows divided into two groups of 15 cows each. The experimental group was treated with 3 mg × kg. bw. -1 ketoprofen for three consecutive days after parturition. The blood samples were collected on the first day of treatment and in the first and second week postpartum and they were analyzed for non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), tumour necrosis factor-a(TNF-a) and haptoglobin. The results suggested that ketoprofen-treated cows with a higher milk production had a significantly lower concentration of NEFA, BHB, TNF-a and haptoglobin in the first and second week postpartum. No differences were found in the control group in metabolic status regardless of the achieved level of milk production. Ketoprofen administration in postpartum cows can enhance the milk yield. The higher milk yield in the experimental group might be associated with a lower degree of lipolysis, ketogenesis and reduced inflammatory response in the first two weeks postpartum.
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Abstract

The consumption of cereal contaminated with mycotoxins poses a serious health risk for humans and animals. The present work aims to evaluate the presence of mycotoxins in talkan, a cereal-based food commonly consumed by the Turkic population. The presence of mycotoxins was investigated in a total of 50 samples obtained from Kazakhstan. After a preliminary screening using various ELISA kits, mycotoxins were confirmed and quantified by HPLC-MS/MS method. More than 28% of the samples were positive for at least one mycotoxin. The calculated probably daily intake for adults and children was 20% above the tolerable daily intake for aflatoxin B1 and deoxynivalenol, while it was above 100% for zearalenone, indicating a high risk for the Kazakh population. A total of 12 samples exhibited concentrations above the European maximum level for ochratoxin A, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, however, these values were within the limits established by the Russia-Kazakhstan-Belarus Customs Union (TR CU 015/2011).
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Abstract

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), is a multifunctional protein that participates in a variety of regulatory processes of signal transduction and gene expression. To further characterize the significance of hnRNP K in different male germ cells, we investigated the expression profiles of hnRNP K at different developmental stages in pig and rat testes, and conducted a comparative analysis of expression patterns between these two species. In porcine testis development, both the mRNA and protein level of hnRNP K were down-regulated from 3 months to 8 months. However, the expression level of hnRNP K was abundant across the embryonic period in rats, and decreased gradually from 0 day post partum (dpp) to 14 dpp, then increased with the highest level presenting at 90 dpp. Immunolocalization analysis further confirmed the differential expression and localization of hnRNP K protein during testis development in pigs and rats. The results showed that hnRNP K was widely distributed in gonocytes, spermatogonia, sertoli cells and Leydig cells. The dynamic expression profile of hnRNP K may imply its crucial and potential roles in the development of the testis, which will provide a theoretical basis for the future study of molecular mechanism regulation of spermatogenesis.
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of estrus induction and fertility by using subcutaneous melatonin (MEL, T1) and short-term intravaginal medroxyprogesteronacetate plus pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatments (sMAP+eCG, T2) in ewes on seasonaly anestrus. In this study, 105 mature clinically healthy Kivircik ewes in anestrus season and 4 rams were used. After synchronization applications, ewes exhibiting estrus signs were hand-mated with rams known to be fertile. Blood samples were collected at different times in order to determine progesterone (P4) concentrations. Results showed that estrus manipulation protocols induced significant improvement in pregnancy rate. All the fertility results obtained with the sMAP+eCG or MEL groups were similar, in seasonal anestrus. The efficacy duration of P4 in the MEL group was longer than that in short-term progestagen group. Plasma P4 concentrations was significantly different between the first (I) and last (III) measurement days (p<0.01). Increase in P4 concentration in T2 group was faster than that in T1 group, and blood P4 concentrations at higher levels could successfully be achieved by using any of the protocols in this study during the seasonal anestrus. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the hormone application groups received very high estrus response. In addition, the twin ratio was found to be higher in T1 group compared to those determined in the other groups (T2 and Control group). Furthermore, plasma P4 concentrations and high birth rates were obtained in ewes in T1 and T2 groups. These procedures can be considered a good alternative to traditional procedures due to its flexibility under field conditions.
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the anticoccidial effect of apple cider vinegar added to drinking water with the anticoccidial effect of amprolium to feed broiler chicken. The study has adopted an observational approach to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of apple cider vinegar on broiler chicken. The antioxidative changes were measured adding natural apple cider vinegar to drinking water. Four hundred and fifty broiler chickens were purchased from the local market and distributed into three groups (T+vc: positive control, T-vc: negative control Tv: apple cider vinegar) with 150 chickens in each group. The three groups were further replicated into 3 blocks each containing 50 chickens. The groups were fed balanced diet, amprolium was added to the feed of positive control group, and apple cider vinegar was added to the water of Tv group. Measurements of the different variables were started from week 3, at the end of each week 3 birds were chosen randomly, blood samples were collected via the wing vein, and fecal oocysts were counted from intestinal contents of each individual bird using the McMaster technique. Broiler in the control groups T+ve and T-ve showed clinical signs of coccidiosis (blood in feces) and the number of coccidial oocytes in feces increased with time. In the vinegar group, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed. Concentrations of total antioxidants and catalase enzyme activity significantly increased (p≤0.05); while malondialdehyde concentration significantly decreased (p≤0.05).
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Abstract

Self-biting disease occurs in most farmed fur animals in the world. The mechanism and rapid detection method of this disease has not been reported. We applied bulked sergeant analysis (BSA) in combination with RAPD method to analyze a molecular genetic marker linked with self-biting trait in mink group. The molecular marker was converted into SCAR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) marker for rapid detection of this disease. A single RAPD marker A10 amplified a specific band of 1000bp in self-biting minks. The sequences of the bands exhibited 73% similarity to the Canis Brucella. SCAR and LAMP marker were designed for the specific fragment of RAPD marker A10 and validated in 30 self-biting minks and 30 healthy minks. c2 test showed difference (p<0.05) with SCAR and significant difference (p<0.01) with LAMP in the detection rate between the two groups, but LAMP method was more accurate than SCAR method. This indicated that LAMP can be used as a positive marker to detect self-biting disease in minks.
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Abstract

There is no information available about the incidence of anestrus and its clinical forms after service in dairy cows in Poland. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of clinical forms of anoestrus after unsuccessful artificial insemination in dairy cows based on ultrasound examination. The study was carried out on 1543 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows in 8 dairy herds in north-east Poland over a three-year period. Cows were examined for pregnancy on day 35 after AI using a Honda 1500 portable ultrasound scanner equipped with a 5 MHz linear-array transducer. Cows diagnosed as pregnant were re-examined on day 45. Of the 1543 inseminated cows, 408 (26.4%) showed no estrus signs and were diagnosed not-pregnant by ultrasonography, 328 (21.3%) returned to estrus within 35 days, and 807 (52.3%) were pregnant via artificial insemination. The incidence of anestrus after service in non-pregnant cows varied among herds from 10.3% to 32.9% of cows (p<0.05). Based on ultrasound examination silent heat was diagnosed in 324 (79.4%), corpus luteum pseudograviditatis in 36 (8.8%), ovarian cysts in 26 (6.4%), and ovarian afunction in 22 (5.4%) of 408 anestrous, non-pregnant cows. The results of this study showed that the incidence of anestrus after service in dairy herds in North-East Poland was high. The most prevalent clinical form of post-service anestrus was silent heat.
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Abstract

Previous studies have compared the effectiveness of dinoprost and cloprostenol in cows yielding conflicting results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of single treatment with cloprostenol or dinoprost on estrus and reproductive performance in cows with unobserved estrus after service. The study was conducted over four years in two dairy herds of Polish Holstein Frisian cows under a herd health program with an average milk yield per cow over 9000 L. Cows (n=523) diagnosed ultrasonographically as non-pregnant and with a corpus luteum were randomly assigned to be treated with either cloprostenol (n=261) or dinoprost (n=262). The estrus detection rates after administration of cloprostenol or dinoprost were 59.4%, and 57.6%, respectively. The difference between both groups was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Distribution of observed estrus did not differ between cloprostenol and dinoprost. There were no differences (p>0.05) between cloprostenol and dinoprost in conception rate (65.2% vs. 66.2%, respectively) and pregnancy rate (57.5% vs. 54.9%, respectively). Mean days open were similar in cows of both treatments (177.5 ± 74.6 days vs. 175.8 ± 62.6 days, respectively; p>0.05). In conclusion, data from this study showed no significant differences in estrus detection rates and fertility between cows with unobserved estrus after service treated with cloprostenol or dinoprost. Both products are equally useful for the treatment of non-pregnant dairy cows with anestrus after service within a reproductive herd health program.
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Abstract

In order to compare the pathogenicity of different Tembusu virus (TMUV) strains from geese, ducks and chickens, 56 5-day-old Cherry Valley ducklings which were divided into 7 groups and infected intramuscularly with 7´105 PFU/ml per duck of six challenge virus stocks. The clinical signs, weight gain, mortality, macroscopic and microscopic lesions, virus loads in sera of 1, 3, 5, 7, 11 and 14 dpi and serum antibody titers were examined. The results showed that these viruses could make the young ducks sick, but the clinical signs differed with the different species-original strains. All the experimental groups lose markedly in weight gain compared to the control, but there were no obvious distinctions in weight gains, as well as macroscopic and microscopic lesions of dead ducks between the infected groups. However, the groups of waterfowl-derived strains (from geese and ducks) showed more serious clinical signs and higher relative expressions of virus loads in sera than those from chicken-derived. The mortality of waterfowl groups was 37.5%, and the greatest mortality of chicken groups was 12.5%. The serum antibodies of the geese-species group JS804 appeared earlier and were higher in the titers than others. Taken toghter, the pathogenicity of waterfowl-derived TMUV was more serious than chicken-derived TMUV and JS804 could be chosen as one TMUV vaccine strain to protect from the infection.
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Abstract

The purpose of the study was to analyze a part of the nucleotide sequences of ystB gene Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from wild animals. The material for the study consists of 30 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains obtained from different wild animal species and belonging to different genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of ystB nucleotide sequences belonging to four regular genotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and to five groups of variations V1, V2, V3, V4, V5 revealed significant differences of Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from wild animals. The most phylogenetically distant were strains belonging to V5.
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Abstract

The study was performed on 21 H-F calves divided into 3 groups of 7 animals each. The first group was composed of calves whose mothers did not receive an injection of Se preparation. The second and third groups consisted of calves whose mothers were administered injections of Se and vitamin E in a single dose of 10 ml and 30 ml, 10 days before the expected parturition date. 24 hours after birth, blood samples were collected from all calves to determine Se, Fe and IgG concentrations and the activity of GSH-Px and GGT. The results of the study indicate that the administration of a single-dose Se supplement to cows in late pregnancy increases Se concentration in calves and promotes passive transfer of immunity from the mother to offspring.
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Abstract

In the present study a severe outbreak of hemorrhagic pneumonia (HP) in neonatal minks concomitant with Leismania infantum (L. infantum) detection is reported. The outbreak took place on a Greek mink farm and affected 1,362 mink kits, with 524 dying. Macroscopic lesions of 14 necropsied affected kits were confined to the respiratory system with dark red, consolidated lung lobes and to the small intestine with severe, acute, hemorrhagic and necrotic enteritis. Microscopic examination of lung sections revealed severe hemorrhagic pyogranulomatous pneumonia. Bacteria were obtained in pure culture from the lungs of all necropsied animals and were confirmed as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Three out of 14 (21.4%) animals were positive for the presence of L. infantum DNA. The outbreak was attributed to the infection of minks with P. aeruginosa, possibly as a consequence of being immuno-suppressed by L. infantum. Further research is necessary, especially on the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa/L. infantum co-infection and the implications of this interaction on HP disease outcome.
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Abstract

Taking bacterial virulence factors as targets is a new therapy for treating host bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of matrine on α-hemolysin production of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and reducing the damage to bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) induced by S. aureus α-hemolysin. Subinhibitory concentrations of matrine decreased the production of α-hemolysin in none dose-dependent manner and matrine exhibited a protective effect on S. aureus-induced BMECs injury. The results indicated that the structure of matrine may potentially be used as a basic structure for development of drugs aimed at curing and preventing dairy bovine mastitis.
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Abstract

The bacterial species Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia helvetica are pathogenic for humans and domestic animals and are transmitted by ticks, e.g., of the Ixodes genus. Most of the vertebrate species constituting reservoirs for anaplasmas are known, but the potential reservoirs of rickettsiae are still under discussion. This study presents an analysis of the DNA of tick-borne pathogens isolated from the whole blood of goats grazing on meadows in West Pomerania, Poland. No DNA of A. phagocytophilum was found in the blood of the goats, while the DNA of R. helvetica was detected in 5.5% of the animals. The potential role of ruminants in the circulation of R. helvetica remains unknown.
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Abstract

Effect of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in splicing site of the LPAR1 (lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1) gene on selected quality traits was investigated in frozen-thawed semen of Holstein-Friesian bulls. Splicing mutation A/G in the LPAR1 gene (rs43581860) was identified in 120 Holstein-Friesian bulls using PCR-RFLP technique (Hph I). Heterozygotes AG were the most frequent (37.5%) compared with AA (30.8%) and GG (31.7%) homozygotes. Observed differences in total motility (TM), sperm membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI) and ATP content were significant between homozygotes AA or GG and heterozygotes AG. For all three traits disadvantageous effect of heterozygotes AG was detected. This means that LPAR1 splicing mutation has significant effect on semen quality and should be considered as a new marker of semen quality in Holstein-Friesian bulls.
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to measure the NO level in boar semen held in a liquid state and to determine its putative relation to spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content. Generally, the percentage of spermatozoa which generated nitric oxide gradually increased, while NO level in the surrounding medium declined during the liquid preservation. NO generation in semen preserved in BTS was higher as compared to those in Androhep®Plus. We demonstrated the positive correlation between the NO level in fresh spermatozoa and their quality. We also showed negative correlation between nitric oxide level in spermatozoa preserved in BTS and sperm cells motility as well as plasma membrane integrity. Results obtained in this study confirm that NO may affect sperm physiology in a dualistic manner.
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Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief:
Lakomy Miroslaw, University of Warmia and Mazury, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Anatomy, Olsztyn, Poland


Deputy/ Managing Editors:
Kaleczyc Jerzy, University of Warmia and Mazury, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Anatomy, Olsztyn, Poland
Krzysztof Wasowicz, University of Warmia and Mazury, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Anatomy, Olsztyn, Poland

 

Contact

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
University of Warmia and Mazury
Department of Functional Morphology Division of Animal Anatomy
ul. Oczapowskiego 13 (Bldg. 105J)
10-957 Olsztyn-Kortowo II Poland
Phone: +48-89-5233733
Fax: +48-89-5234986
e-mail: pjovs@moskit.uwm.edu.pl

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