Since late 2011, porcine infections with highly virulent and antigenic variant of pseudorabies virus (PRV) cause great economic loss in the swine industry in China, and its emergence leads to variable protection efficacy of the commercially available PRV vaccine.
In the present study, the potential cross-protective efficacy of two live virus vaccines, includ- ing a commercial vaccine, and an attenuated low pathogenic PRV variant (rPRVTJ-delTK/gE/gI) against a PRV variant Tianjing (TJ) was evaluated in piglets. Vaccination of piglets with the live vaccine Bartha-K61 could not reduce the clinical signs, and was partially efficacious in the reduc- tion of viral loads upon PRV variant TJ challenge, indicating that this live vaccine provided limited cross-protection efficacy against the PRV variant infection. Additionally, rPRVTJ-delTK/gE/gI appeared to exert some beneficial efficiency in shortening the period of clinical fever and improv- ing the growth performance of the challenged pigs.
Our findings give a valuable guidance for the choice and use of PRV vaccines to control PRV variant infection in the field.
The aim of this study was to determine whether the serum concentration of the phosphate (Pi) and the Ca x P value correlate with the IRIS stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats and, thus, whether they can be used as markers of the disease progression. Another aim was to assess whether the concentration of Ca in blood needs to be corrected based on the albumin concentration. The study was performed on 165 cats divided into five groups: the healthy group – C and study groups: I, II, III and IV with cats assigned to the groups based on the IRIS scale. Blood was collected from all the animals. The product of Ca x Pi, Cacorr and the product of Cacorrx Pi were calculated based on the obtained results. Despite no differences between groups I-III, there was a clear upward trend in the Pi concentration, in the Ca x Pi and in the Cacorr x Pi with CKD progression. In group IV, the Pi concentration and the Ca x Pi as well as the Cacorr x Pi value were significantly higher than the other groups. The concentration of Ca and its albumin-corrected serum values did not differ significantly. The serum concentration of Pi and the Ca x P product cannot be used as indicators of CKD progression in cats, but they may be used as additional elements in the diagnosis of stage IV CKD. The results also suggest that the serum calcium concentrations do not need to be albumin-corrected in cats.
Asthma is one of the most common non-infectious respiratory diseases in horses. Ultrasound examination is a widely available non-invasive additional diagnostic tool. To date, there are no studies focusing on ultrasonographic findings in horses with asthma. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence and severity of ultrasound lesions in lung tissue in horses with asthma. Lung ultrasonography was carried out on six healthy horses (controls) and 12 horses with asthma (six with mild and six with severe asthma). The sonographic changes in three lung sections were assessed using a scoring system. The most common changes present in all the animals were comet- tail artefacts. More advanced lesions were present in horses with severe asthma. Statistically significant differences in the overall average intensity of the ultrasound changes were seen between the controls and the study group and between the horses with mild and severe asthma. The lesions were usually located in the caudal lung regions, but they were also present in other areas as the disease progressed. Ultrasonography is a useful additional diagnostic tool enabling an assessment of the stage of the asthma progression. It is a very sensitive technique that visualizes minor lesions in the lung tissue even in clinically healthy animals. Due to its low specificity, it cannot replace endoscopy and the bronchoalveolar lavage in horses with asthma.
In this study, the effects of oleic (18:1 cis-9-octadecenoic acid) and linoleic (18:2 (n-6), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid) acids added to the embryo culture media for bovine embryonic development after vitrification were investigated in cattle. Following maturation and fertilization, the oocytes were placed in Charles Rosencrans (CR1aa) culture drops containing 10, 100, 500, and 1000 μM of oleic or linoleic acids. On day 7 or 8 of the culture, the blastocysts and expanded blastocysts were vitrified and warmed to evaluate the viability and development. High doses of oleic acid (1000 μM) in the culture media increased the viability of embryos after vitrification. Similarly, linoleic acid at 1000 μM increased the viability compared to the other linoleic acid doses. It was observed that the addition of essential fatty acids improved the development of embryos. Increasing the concentration of linoleic and oleic acid concentrations in the media proportionally advanced the embryonic development and hatching capability after vitrification/warming. Specifically, the addition of high doses of oleic acid had dramatic effects on the embryonic development after vitrification/warming probably due to the increased lipid storage. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids in the culture media affects significantly the embryonic development in vitro.
The current study is the first phylogenetic and secondary RNA structure analysis of Dactylogyrus species parasitising gill filaments of Iraqi cyprinid fishes. Most previous phylogenetic studies have targeted on primary DNA sequence data. Nevertheless, RNA secondary configuration is principally helpful in systematics since they comprise features that do not appear in the primary sequence and provide morphological information. The primary objective was molecular-based identification of Dactylogyrids species using evolutionary tree and secondary RNA structure prediction. A total of 681 fish were collected from the Lesser Zab River in the northeast of Iraq in the sub-district of Altun-Kopru from August 2016 to September 2017 and brought to the Zoology Research Laboratory, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Iraq. All fish were classified as 18 cyprinid species. The species of Dactylogyrus were identified by the 28S rDNA subunit using PCR and sequencing methods, and the obtained nucleotide sequences were then compared with the available GenBank sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were concluded using Neighbour-Joining (NJ), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Minimum Evolution (ME) methods. The results justify the validation of 11 Dactylogyrus species (three of them were newly recorded in Iraq). Additionally, out of nine infected fish species, seven of them were regarded as a new host for Dactylogyrus species. Secondary RNA configuration prediction using minimum free energy was considered as a hopeful tool for species identification. This was considered the first comprehensive phylogenetic study in the area. It was concluded that PCR sequencing, phylogenetic and secondary RNA analysis were proper molecular methods for identifying Dactylogyrids species on the gills of fishes.
Florfenicol is a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotic commonly used for the treatment of systemic infections in farm animals. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of florfenicol on the percentage of T lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, TCRgd+ cells) and B lymphocytes (Bu-1+ cells) and on total serum anti - sheep red blood cell (SRBC) haemagglutinin titer in the peripheral blood of SRBC–immunized broiler chickens. The study included three groups of broiler chickens differentiated by weight (0.5, 1.2, 2.4 kg). Florfenicol was administered orally at a dose of 30 mg/kg. The drug was administered eight times at 24 h intervals. The chickens were immunized with SRBC 24 h after administration of the third dose of florfenicol. Florfenicol increased the percentage of CD3+ blood lymphocytes with a corresponding decrease in the percentage of B lymphocytes in birds weighing 0.5 and 2.4 kg. Florfenicol reduced the production of total anti SRBC-haemagglutinins on day 5 after antigen injection in all three body weight groups of the broiler chickens. In conclusion, florfenicol exerted a modulating effect on the immune response of the birds and this should be taken into consideration when using this antibiotic for certain indications.
The objective of this study was to determine the association between subclinical acidosis (SARA) and subclinical ketosis (SCK) with biomarkers from an automatic milking system (AMS) measuring in relation to rumination time (RT), milk yield (MY), bodyweight (BW), milk temperature, the milk fat-to-protein ratio, and the electrical conductivity of milk at the udder quarters-level which can be read in fresh dairy cows. During the course of the study, all of the fresh dairy cows (n=711) were examined according to a general clinical investigation plan. The cows were selected for 1-30 days of milk (DIM) and were milked using Lely Astronaut® A3 milking robots with free traffic. Rumination time shows a statistically significant positive correlation with milk yield (milk temperature) and is negatively correlated with the fat and protein ratio. Healthy cows demonstrated the highest level of rumination time and the lowest milk temperature. The average BW for these cows was 1.64% lower than for the SARA group and the BW kg was 2.10% higher than SCK cows. MY was 14.01% lower in comparison with SARA and 6.42% higher in comparison with SCK. According to these results, some biomarkers from the AMS have an association with SARA and SCK. However, further research with a higher number of cows is needed to confirm this conclusion.
Progesterone (P4) is responsible for the main reproduction processes. Concentration of P4 varies widely among different determination methods, and interpretation of these values may be difficult. The objective of the current study was to assess the agreement of three different enzyme immunoassays (ELISA) in relation to radioimmunoassay (RIA) of P4 concentration assessment of beef cow serum samples. Samples were collected randomly considering high (pregnant cows) and low (non-pregnant cows) P4 concentrations. Depending on the P4 assessment method, four groups were created as follows: Group 1 – direct samples assessed by ELISA, Group 2 – extracted samples assessed by ELISA, Group 3 – samples assessed by automated ELISA, and Group 4 – samples assessed by RIA.
The mean progesterone concentration was 4.50 ng/mL, 1.24 ng/mL, 4.07 ng/mL and 4.39 ng/mL from Group 1 to Group 4, respectively. The mean difference (MD) between Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 individually compared with Group 4 was −0.10 ± 1.24 ng/mL, 3.15 ± 3.58 ng/mL and 0.33 ± 1.42 ng/mL, and the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the differences (s) was from −0.99 to 0.78 ng/mL, from 0.59 to 5.71 ng/mL, and from −0.69 to 1.34 ng/mL, respectively. The confidence interval for the lower and upper limit of the agreement ranged from −4.12 to −1.05 ng/mL and from 0.84 to 3.91 ng/mL between Group 1 and Group 4, from −8.45 to 0.42 ng/ mL and from 5.88 to 14.75 ng/mL between Group 2 and Group 4, from −4.29 to −0.76 ng/mL, and from 1.41 to 4.94 ng/mL between Group 3 and Group 4.
Our findings show that the best agreement with RIA was observed for Group 1 and Group 3, while the agreement in the extraction method was least accurate.
This study investigates the effectiveness of intra-mammary ozone administration in the dry period and at the time of delivery for preventing against mastitis in herds with contagious mastitis. The cows were divided into five groups with 10 cows in each. Group 1 was administered an ozone-containing foam preparation via the teat canal into four udder quarters for 5 seconds at the beginning of the dry period; Group 2 was administered ozone at the beginning of the dry period and at the time of delivery; Group 3 was administered ozone at the time of delivery; Group 4 was administered a dry period udder preparation at the beginning of the dry period; and Group 5 was administered only teat seal at the beginning of the dry period. No statistically significant difference was found between the cows with regard to the SCC values at the beginning of the dry period and at the time of delivery (in cows without clinical mastitis, n=25). The SCC values were reported to decrease when the values at the beginning of the dry period and at the time of delivery were compared. All cows except two in Group 1 were detected to have clinical mastitis according to the frequency of microbial isolation in milk at the time of delivery. In conclusion, intra-mammary ozone administration did not prevent mastitis in the dry period or at the time of delivery in herds with contagious mastitis; moreover, it was determined to increase the rate of clinical mastitis in the postpartum period.
Feeder cells can promote cell proliferation and help overcome the developmental arrest of early embryos by producing growth factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeder cells on the development of all single porcine parthenogenetic embryos in vitro. Firstly, we showed that the cleavage and blastocyst formation rate of all single procine parthenogenetic embryos co-cultured with feeder cells increased in contrast to those cultured without feeder cells (p<0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were observed between the blastocyst formation rate in the embryos co-cultured with 3 different kinds feeder cells namely oviduct epithelial feeder cells, granulose feeder cells and porcine fetal fibroblast feeder cells (p>0.05). Secondly, highly significant differences were observed between the cleavage and blastocyst formation rate (p<0.05) when the embryos were co-cultured with oviduct epithelial feeder cells in different volume drops ranging from 3 to 20 μL and the cleavage rate were the highest when cultured in 5 μL drops. Thirdly, the tempospacial pattern of the development of single embryos co-cultured with oviduct epithelial feeder cells was consistent with that of traditional multi-embryo culture, indicating that the co-culturing does not affect the developmental competence of the porcine parthenogenetic embryos. Finally, highly significant differences were observed between the cleavage and blastocyst formation rate with and without zona pellucida in vitro (p<0.05). In this study, a new adaption of in vitro co-culture of single porcine parthenogenetic embryos using feeder cells has been successfully established and this will facilitate further investigations to discover the mechanistic mode of developmental arrest of porcine embryos.
Pseudorabies (PR) outbreaks have devastated many swine farms in several parts of China since late 2011. The outbreak-associated pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant strains exhibited some typical amino acid changes in glycoprotein E (gE), a diagnostic antigen used for discriminating between PRV-infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). To counteract the potential impact of epitope variations on current serological diagnostics of PRV, we produced monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against gE protein of one representative PRV variant strain and developed a blocking immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (b-IPMA) for DIVA. The b-IPMA was based on the inhibition of binding between PRV-infected cells and mAb by PRV-specific antibodies present in clinical swine sera and was validated by comparison with a commercial PRV gpI Antibody Test Kit (IDEXX Laboratories, USA). The diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity and agreement were determined to be 99.25%, 98.18% and 99.02% respectively upon testing 509 serum samples. b-IPMA detected only PRV-specific antibodies and showed no cross- -reactivity with antibodies elicited by gE-deleted vaccine or other common swine pathogens. Thus, b-IPMA has the potential to be used for high-throughput screening of PRV-infected animals in veterinary clinics.
The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the Migratest® kit for evaluating the chemotactic activity of peripheral blood neutrophils in goats. The experiment was performed on 14 goat kids aged 30±2 days, divided into two groups of 7 animals each: C - control group, and E – experimental group, supplemented with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), a typical immunostimulant which influences the phagocytic activity of peripheral neutrophils. The feed administered to experimental goat kids was supplemented with HMB at 40 mg/kg BW, whereas control goat kids were administered standard farm-made feed without supplementation. Blood was sampled from the jugular vein immediately before the experiment (day 0) and on experimental days 15, 30 and 60 to determine the chemotactic activity of peripheral blood neutrophils in goats. The results of the study indicate that the Migratest® kit can be used to evaluate the influence of immunomodulators on the chemotactic activity of peripheral blood neutrophils in goats. The results of the assay are most effectively presented by calculating the chemotactic index which accounts for the chemotaxis or migration of neutrophils in the presence or absence of a chemotactic factor, respectively, and the percentage of granulocytes that migrate towards fMLP. The results of both presentation methods appear to be identical.
Novel tendinopathy treatment protocols should be assessed for safety. The goal of this work was to compare differences in selected systemic inflammatory marker concentrations after two treatment protocols for collagenase induced Achilles tendinopathy in sheep. 14 sheep (aged 5 and 6 years, Polish Mountain Sheep breed, weight 60-70kg) were injected with bacterial collagenase type 1A-S (Clostridium histolyticum, C-5894, Sigma Aldrich, Poznań, Poland) bilaterally to Achilles tendons. Subsequently, the animals were injected with Platelet Rich Plasma (7 sheep) or Adipose Derived Stem Cells (7 sheep) to induced tendinopathy foci. Left limbs of all sheep were additionally treated with Radial Pressure Wave Therapy (RPWT) focused above the tendinopathy origins. Treatment progress was controlled by ultrasound scans, and tendon samples were taken on the 126th day of the experiment. Serum Amyloid A (SAA) concentration showed mild elevation before the experiment (2 sheep from group I, 4 sheep from group II) and two days after the intratendinous growth factors injection ( 4 sheep from group I, 3 sheep from group II) combined with RPWT (mean 22,63 mg/L and 53, 6 mg/L respectively). Haptoglobine (Hp) concentration increased from 0 to 0,01 g/L in 2 animals from group I two days after injection. These values declined to 0 during the course of the treatment. Fibrinogen (Fb) concentrations were within reference levels throughout the research, although mild elevation was observed before the treatment course in 6 sheep from group I and 1 sheep from group II. In conclusion, addition of RPWT to growth factors injections in the treatment of yatrogenic Achilles tendinopathy in sheep did not induce systemic inflammatory response.
Tendinopathy treatment poses a current challenge for sport medicine due to unique physiolog and biomechanics of tendons. The goal of this work was to compare the efficacy of the addition of the radial pressure wave therapy (RPWT) treatment to injection of autologous Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) or Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in the therapeutic procedure for collagenase induced Achilles tendinopathy in sheep. 14 sheep (aged 5 and 6 years, Polish Mountain Sheep breed, weight 60-70 kg) were injected bacterial collagenase type 1A-S (Clostridium histolyticum, C-5894, Sigma Aldrich, Poznań, Poland) bilaterally to Achilles tendons. Subsequently, the animals were injected with PRP (7 sheep) or ADSCs (7 sheep) to previously induced tendinopathy foci. Left limbs of all the animals were additionally treated with RPWT focused above the tendinopathy origins. Treatment progress was controlled by ultrasound scans, and tendon samples were taken on the 126th day of the experiment. Tendon samples taken from the sheep treated with RPWT+ADSCs showed lower cellularity and the highest number of thick collage fibers. Samples taken from the sheep treated with RPWT+PRP showed an elevated rate of neovascularization. Addition of the RPWT to ADSCs injections in the treatment of induced Achilles tendinopathy in sheep resulted in good quality of the tissue regeneration. Dual therapy with RPWT+PRP injection can lead to neovascularization in the tendon tissue.
We described a first case of resistance to eprinomectin in goat herd in Poland in which resistance to benzimidazoles had been previously reported. The herd was established in 2011 by purchasing several goats from a single herd in south-eastern Poland. Resistance to benzimidazoles in the herd was first reported in 2017. Shortly after the owner started to signal low effectiveness of the treatment with eprinomectin. In June 2018 the larval development test from pooled faecal sample was performed and the results indicated the presence of resistance to macrocyclic lactones and levamisole. In July 2018 a faecal egg count (FEC) reduction test was performed in 39 animals with levamisole, eprinomectin and one untreated control group. Drugs were used in doses recommended for goats. Three methods of calculation of FEC reduction were compared. After eprinomectin treatment, FEC reduction ranged from 0 to 20%, depending on the method of calculation. FEC reduction following levamisole treatment was 100%. Main species present in the faecal samples after treatment and in larvicidal concentrations in larval development test was Haemonchus contortus. This is the first report of anthelminthic resistance to macrocylic lactones (eprinomectin) in goats in Poland.
Since previous health monitoring systems have shown themselves to be unsuccessful in predicting health disorders in dairy cows managed on pasture, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of automated health monitoring integrated in an accelerometer-based oestrus detection system (ODS) for dairy cows on pasture. Mixed-breed lactating dairy cows (n=109) in a seasonal-calving herd managed at pasture were fitted with an ODS that provided automated health monitoring. The ODS performed multimetric analysis of behavioural patterns to generate health alerts. Data were collected during the artificial insemination period of 66 days. Clinical examinations and farmer’s observations were used to evaluate the performance of automated health monitoring. During the insemination period, the farmer generated two health alerts, which were classified false positives (2/2; 100%). The ODS generated 31 automated health alerts. Of all automated health alerts, 3/31 (9.7%) were confirmed as true health disorders and 28/31 (90.3%) alerts were classified as false positives. The positive predictive value (PPV) of automated health monitoring was 9.7 (95% CI=2-25.8) %. The ODS was able to alert lactating dairy cows on pasture suffering from health disorders. True health disorders were alerted by the ODS before the farmer noticed them, which could provide early and successful treatment when using the system on-farm for automated health monitoring. The evaluated accuracy of automated health monitoring is opposed to a targeted use of the system for on-farm health monitoring. For further validation, testing on other farms and during the transition period would be of interest.
One of the effective reproductive management programs in dairy cattle is the accurate detection of pregnancy. A total of 204 non-descriptive cows were examined for pregnancy before slaughter in Sulaimani abattoir. Examinations were done by rectal palpation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the levels of progesterone and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (bPAGs) in their blood. Detection of a live conceptus in the uterus of slaughtered cows was used as the gold standard to determine the accuracy of the three pregnancy detection methods. The results showed that the accuracies of rectal palpation, progesterone assay, and bPAGs assay in the diagnosis of pregnancy were 87.2%, 84.8%, and 97.05%, respectively. The bPAGs assay scored the highest sensitivity (100%) for detection of pregnancy, followed by the progesterone assay (92.3%) and rectal palpation (84.6%). In addition, the specificity of the bPAGs assay was the highest (96.0%), while progesterone assay exhibited the lowest specificity (80.1%) and rectal palpation showed a specificity rate of (88.8%). In conclusion, the best method for the detection of either for early or late pregnancy in cows was the bPAGs assay, which gave the lowest number of false-positive and false-negative results.
Four commercial disinfectants were chosen for being generally accepted as effective against ASFV. Only two of them, based on sodium hypochlorite and potassium peroxymonosulfate, confirmed their effectiveness in selected concentrations. Taken together, our data supports the effectivenes of chemical disinfectants containing sodium hypochlorite (1%, 0.5% in low level soiling) and potassium peroxymonosulfate (1% in high level soiling). Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of pre-cleaning steps to remove soiling before proper disinfection which improves the effectiveness of tested disinfectants.
The carriage of pathogenic Leptospira was investigated by PCR in 51 wild carnivores, 20 domestic dogs with outdoor access, and 27 free-roaming domestic cats sampled in periurban Barcelona (NE Spain). Overall prevalence was 7.7%, with DNA confirmed in 3/30 common genets (Genetta genetta) (serovars Icterohaemorraghiae and Sejröe), 1/9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) (Canicola) and 2/27 cats (Icterohaemorraghiae). Though most of the dogs were vaccinated against Leptospira, DNA of the serovar Canicola was detected in the urine of 25% of the vaccinated animals, and the serovar Icterohaemorraghiae in one non-vaccinated dog.
The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a catadromous fish with a complicated life cycle. The long-term impact of anthropopressure, environmental pollution and diseases have led to a risk of extinction. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of Anguillid herpesvirus-1 infection on the innate immunity of European eel from natural conditions. Spleen phagocyte respiratory burst activity and potential killing activity, as well as pronephros lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide were measured. The analyses of the results showed that all studied parameters were significantly higher (P<0.05) in AngHV-1-negative fish compared to the ones where the presence of viral DNA was confirmed.
We measured the bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzyme activity in 67 plasma samples from 14 newborn Holstein calves using both a conventional method (featuring heat inactivation) and a commercial agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) kit; the relevant isoenzymes were termed bone-specific ALP (BAP) and ALP isoenzyme 3 (ALP3). We explored whether the AGE kit afforded reliable data when used to analyze samples from Holstein calves. The blood was collected from the jugular vein of each calf immediately prior to the first colostrum feeding (pre-feeding), 20 and 40 h after pre-feeding, and on days 4 and 7; whereas three samples (from three calves) were not obtained. The total plasma ALP activity varied widely, exceeding the ranges of reference values. On electrophoresis, 52 of 67 plasma samples (77.6 %) clearly contained both ALP isoenzyme 2 and ALP3, as did control human serum. The total ALP activity of the 52 samples ranged from 166–1989 U/L (median: 1013 U/L), whereas the values for the other 15 samples (22.4%) exhibiting abnormal isoenzyme fractionation ranged from 1014–5118 U/L (median: 1780 U/L). In the 52 plasma samples exhibiting clearly separated isoenzymes, ALP3 and BAP activities were strongly positively correlated as revealed by Deming regression (y = 0.93x + 22.6, p<0.0001) and Bland-Altman analysis (ALP3/BAP activities limit of agreement: −5.1%). Thus, the AGE kit yields useful information on newborn calves, and can replace the conventional method when the total plasma ALP activity is less than approximately 1000 U/L.
Salmonellosis is a public health concern worldwide and also causes huge losses to the piggery industry. A total of 457 fecal samples were collected from organized and unorganized farms including indigenous and crossbreed piglets of North East India. Salmonella isolates were serotyped, screened for their virulence genes, characterized for drug resistance pattern and representative isolates were cloned and sequenced for their partial length enterotoxin (stn) gene. A total of 8.31% Salmonella were identified with higher prevalence observed in unorganized compared to organized farms and higher detection level in cross breed compared to indigenous piglets. Salmonella typhimurium (65.78%) was found to be the predominant serovar and irrespective of serovars high number of isolates (68.4%) harboured enterotoxin gene. The isolates were multidrug resistant showing highest resistance against cefalexin (77.31%). Sequence analysis of stn gene showed two isolates having diverse sequence compared to other isolates. Our study revealed the significance of Salmonella as important pathogen with zoonotic potential between porcine and human populations. This is probably the first systematic study of Salmonella species associated with piglet diarrhea in India.
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