Life Sciences and Agriculture

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

Content

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences | 2021 | vol. 24 | No 1 |

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Abstract

Dieldrin and DDE are environmental metabolites of the organochlorine pesticides aldrin and DDT, respectively. During pregnancy, these chemicals can quickly infiltrate through the placental barrier, accumulate in amniotic fluid and fetus, and act as endocrine disruptors (EDs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DDE and dieldrin and their parental substances at concentrations of 1 and 10 ng/ml on secretion of PGE2 and PGF2α from bovine endometrial explants (120-150 and 151-180 days of pregnancy) after 24 hr of incubation with EDs. The mRNA expression of COX2, PGES and PGFS and the concentrations of PGE2 and PGF2α were measured. EDs did not affect (p>0.05) COX2 gene expression, but DDT and DDE decreased (p<0.05) PGES expression and PGE2 secretion in the explants from 120-150 days of pregnancy. Depending on the dose, DDT and DDE increased (p<0.05) PGFS expression and PGF2α secretion from the explants from 120-150 days and decreased PGF2α secretion (p<0.05) from the explants from 151-180 days of pregnancy. Aldrin and dieldrin decreased (p<0.05) PGFS expression and PGF2α secretion from all explants. In summary, EDs disrupt the secretion of PGE2 and PGF2α by influencing the gene expression of PGES and PGFS.
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Mlynarczuk
1
M.H. Wrobel
1
K. Dobrzyn
1

  1. Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Physiology and Toxicology of Reproduction, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn, Poland
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of undesirable bacteria and their antimicrobial profile in samples obtained from a productive farm situated in border region Slanské vrchy (Slovakia), involved in keeping sheep and goats for the purpose of processing raw milk to special products (cheeses). Genus and species identification was carried out by PCR method and MALDI –TOF MS. Isolates thus identified were detected for antimicrobial resistance using the Agar Dilution Method.
Bacteria of Staphylococcus spp. exhibited the highest resistance to penicillin (98% isolates). Isolates from the family Enterobacteriacae showed the highest resistance to azithromycin (90%). At the same time, in isolates of Enterococcus spp. we detected high resistance to linezolid (100%). Our investigation showed that all tested strains were resistant to more than one antibiotic used in this study.
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Výrostková
1
I. Regecová
1
E. Dudriková
1
J. Maľová
1
F. Zigo
M. Kováčová
J. Illek

  1. Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice, Slovak Republic
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the beneficial effect of natural substances – enterocin M (Ent M; the proteinaceous substance produced by Enterococcus faecium CCM8558) and sage plant ( Salvia officinalis L.) extract on the production of mucus in the rabbits small intestine and caecum. Sixty four post-weaned rabbits (meat line M91) were divided into three experimental groups (EG – Ent M; SG – sage extract; ESG – combination Ent M with sage extract) and control group (CG). The experiment lasted for 35 days, the natural substances were administered during the first 21 days, Ent M in EG/ESG, sage extract in SG/ESG. The beneficial effect on mucus production quantity occured in the duodenum (p<0.001) and jejunum (p<0.01) in ESG compared to that found in CG on day 21, the prolonged effect in EG in the duodenum (p<0.001) compared to that observed in CG at the end of the experiment and to that in EG on day 21. The novelty of the study is in the application and monitoring the effect of non-rabbit-derived probiotic strain ( Enterococcus faecium CCM8558) bacteriocin – Enterocin M and sage plant extract on mucus quantity (expressed in gram) in different segments of the rabbit small intestine as well as the caecum. The results obtained indicate that supplementation of selected natural substances in the feed has the potent stimulatory effects on mucus production in the rabbit small intestine.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Szabóová
1
A. Lauková
2
R. Herich
1
L. Tarabová
1
Ľ. Chrastinová
3
Z. Faixová
1
Z. Maková
1
E. Piešová
1

  1. University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, Komenského 73, 040 81 Košice, Slovak Republic
  2. Institute of Animal Physiology, Centre of Biosciences of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, Slovak Republic
  3. National Agricultural and Food Centre, Research Institute for Animal Production, Nitra – Lužianky, Slovak Republic
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Abstract

Nickel damages the male reproductive system. We investigated the beneficial effects of silibinin which has metal-chelating and antioxidant properties over nickel toxicity. Both antioxidative effects in testes and overall effects related to sperm motility, membrane and acrosome integrity of orally administered Silibinin were evaluated against the harmful effects of 30 day of intraperitoneal nickel sulfate (5 mg/kg/day) administration in rats. Male rats were randomized into control (Group1; n=6) and three experimental groups (n=6, each): Group2 Nickel sulfate (5 mg/kg/day), Group3 Silibinin (150 mg/kg/day), and Group 4 Nickel sulfate (5 mg/kg/day) + Silibinin (150 mg/kg/day). We found higher sperm motility, viable sperm and total sperm count in Groups 3 and 4 than the Group 2 treatment groups and the percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was similar in both groups (Groups 2 and 4). Increased apoptosis, activation of caspase3, 8, 9 and TUNEL were detected in Group 2. However, activation of caspase3, 8, 9 and TUNEL was reduced in Group 4. The protective effects of silibinin were demonstrated on histopathologic findings and some sperm parameters (sperm motility percentage, viable spermatozoa, sperm count, and abnormal spermatozoa percentage) in rats exposed to nickel.
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Authors and Affiliations

F. Temamogullari
1
A. Atessahin
2
C. Cebi Sen
3
N. Yumusak
4
M.S. Dogru
5

  1. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Harran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 63200 Şanlıurfa, Turkey
  2. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Fırat, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 23119 Elazığ, Turkey
  3. Department of Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, University of Harran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 63200 Şanlıurfa, Turkey
  4. Department of Pathology, University of Harran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 63200 Şanlıurfa, Turkey
  5. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Aksaray, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 6800 Aksaray, Turkey
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Abstract

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that suppresses the growth of tumor cells in humans and canines. SAHA reportedly enhances the antitumor activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC). However, it is unclear whether a similar effect is exerted in canines. The present study focused on the effect of SAHA on the cytotoxicity of IL-2 activated PBMC in three tumor cell lines (CTAC, CIPm, and MCM-N1). The mRNA expression of a ligand for the NKG2D receptor was upregulated in SAHA-treated cell lines. Moreover, the SAHA-treated cell lines, except MCM-N1 demonstrated a significantly higher PBMC cytotoxicity compared to the untreated cell lines. Therefore, the NKG2DL upregulation likely enhanced the interaction of NKG2D-NKG2DL, leading to enhanced cytotoxicity of PBMC. It was also revealed that activated PBMC treated with SAHA significantly attenuated their cytotoxicity toward all the cell lines. Although the NKG2D, NKp46, NKp44, and NKp30 receptors, involved in PBMC cytotoxicity, were presumed to be downregulated, there was no significant reduction in the mRNA expression of these receptors. This study revealed that SAHA not only sensitizes the canine tumor cells to cytotoxicity due to PBMC activation, but also suppresses the cytotoxicity of PBMC themselves. Therefore, our results highlight the necessity of avoiding this inhibitory action to enhance the antitumor effect of SAHA in canines.
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Authors and Affiliations

T. Oyamada
1 2
S. Okano
2

  1. Animal Medical Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8, Saiwai, Fuchu, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan
  2. Department of Small Animal Surgery 2, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, Higashi 23-35-1, Towada, Aomori, 034-8628, Japan
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Abstract

In this study, we developed a SYBR Green I real-time PCR method for the rapid and sensitive detection of novel porcine parvovirus 7 (PPV7). Specific primers were designed based on the highly conserved region within the Capsid gene of PPV7. The established method was 1,000 times more sensitive than the conventional PCR method and had a detection limit of 35.6 copies. This method was specific and had no cross-reactions with PCV2, PCV3, PRV, PEDV, PPV1, and PPV6. Experiments testing the intra and interassay precision demonstrated a high reproducibility. Testing the newly established method with 200 clinical samples revealed a detection rate up to 17.5% higher than that of the conventional PCR assay. The established method could provide technical support for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigation of PPV7.
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Authors and Affiliations

Y.D. Li
1
Z.D. Yu
2
C.X. Bai
2
D. Zhang
2
P. Sun
2
M.L Peng
2
H. Liu
3
J. Wang
4
Y. Wang
2

  1. Municipal Key Laboratory of Virology, Ningbo Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo 315010, PR China
  2. Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Veterinary Pathobiology and Disease Control, College of Animal Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, PR China
  3. Anhui Animal Diseases Prevention and Control Center and Key Laboratory of Veterinary Pathobiology and Disease Prevention and Control of Anhui Province, Hefei 230091, PR China
  4. Animal Husbandry Base Teaching and Research Section, College of Animal Science and Technology, Hebei North University, Hebei 075000, PR China
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Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important protozoa zoonotic diseases worldwide. The present study describes the clinical, seroprevalence findings with ocular toxoplasmosis and the outcome of medicinal treatment of these cats. This study was carried out on 105 cats with various ocular signs, no historical evidence of ocular trauma or drug/vaccine exposure for at least 3 months prior to admission, and without clinical or laboratory evidence of other systemic diseases. Complete case history, physical and ophthalmic examinations were carried out. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was determined using the Toxoplasma Ab Rapid Test and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Out of 105 examined cats with ocular lesions, 60 cats representing 57.14% were seropositive to T. gondii. Out of these 60 cats, 15 cats (25%) had bilateral ocular abnormalities, 25 cats (41.67%) had right-sided ocular disease, and 20 cats (33.33%) had left-sided ocular disease. There were 38 cats (63.33%) with anterior uveitis, 12 cats (20%) with posterior segment involvement, 5 cats (8.33%) with anterior uveitis and anterior chamber abnormalities, 3 cats (5%) with corneal abnormalities and 2 cats (3.34%) with anterior uveitis with concurrent corneal involvement. There was a significant difference in the index values of IgM and IgG between seropositive and seronegative cats with T. gondii antibodies (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the different ages, genders and breeds of cats with seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies as well as between the age and total number of cats with seropositive and seronegative T. gondii. Out of 60 treated cats, 28 cats (46.7%), 25 cats (41.7%) and 7 cats (11.6%) showed complete, partial and poor response to treatment, respectively. In conclusion, cats showing ocular signs without obvious etiology should be examined serologically for toxoplasmosis and the seropositive cats should be treated with both specific topical and systemic treatments.
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Authors and Affiliations

K.M. Ali
1
A.M. Abu-Seida
1
M. Abuowarda
2

  1. Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, PO: 12211, Egypt
  2. Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, PO: 12211, Egypt
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Abstract

Serum concentration of thyroid hormones in healthy dogs varies according to age, sex, breed or professional activity. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of both age and dogs’ work involvement on TSH and thyroid hormones values. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (tT4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were tested in the serum of 57 healthy, German Shepherd dogs. The dogs were divided into study groups according to age: dogs aged 3 to 6 years (A), dogs over the age of 6 years (B) and involvement: police-working dogs (C) and accompanying animals (D). Mean values of TSH, tT4 and fT4 ranged from 0.19 to 0.31 ng/ml, 15.58 to 17.25 nmol/L and 11.83 to 17.89 pmol/L, respectively. The highest values of TSH were in group B and the lowest were in group A, while there was an inverse dependence in case of fT4 concentration. The highest mean values of tT4 were in dogs in group C and the lowest in group B. There were statistically significant differences in TSH (p=0.007) and fT4 (p=0.003) concentrations between the age groups. The results indicate that a dog’s age is an important factor in the case of thyroid profile results interpretation.
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Authors and Affiliations

I. Taszkun
1
A. Milczak
2
G. Kalisz
3
P. Wilkołek
1
J. Zwolska
4
M. Szczepanik
1

  1. Subdepartment of Clinical Diagnostics and Veterinary Dermatology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głeboka 30, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
  2. Department and Clinic of Animal Internal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głeboka 30, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
  3. Department of Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lublin, ul. W. Chodzki 4a, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
  4. Department and Clinic of Animal Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głeboka 30, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
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Abstract

During the rutting season, stag semen is accompanied by a sticky, dense secretion called yellow fraction (YF). There is little information about the role, biology, physiology, and most importantly, the composition of this fluid. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify zinc ions (ZnBPs) and heparin binding proteins (HBPs) from YF of the red deer ( Cervus elaphus L.). Using liquid chromatography, the presence of 6 fractions of ZnBPs (71, 65, 55, 16, 14 and 12 kDa) and 22 fractions of HBPs (163, 140, 96, 78, 71, 65, 55, 49, 33, 31, 26, 25, 24, 22, 18, 16, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9 and 8 kDa) in YF proteome was demonstrated. By means of two-dimensional electrophoreses and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry some of them were then identified. Amongst ZnBPs the following were identified: glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase, inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase-like, potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E member 2, WD repeat-containing protein 38 isoform X4. Amongst the HBPs metalloproteinase inhibitor 2 (TIMP2), seminal plasma glycoprotein PSP-I and adseverin (scinderin) were identified. Identifying all ZnBPs and HBPs present in YF may broaden up-to-date knowledge concerning the biology, physiology and preservation of red deer semen.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Orzołek
1
K. Dyrda
1
K. Rafalska
1
P. Wysocki
1
W. Kordan
1
W. Giżejewski
2

  1. Department of Animal Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 5, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
  2. Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
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Abstract

Essential oils from plants used in traditional medicine are known as a rich source of chemically diverse compounds with specific biological activities. Achillea millefolium essential oil (AEO) was screened for in vitro activity against Babesia canis. The AEO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed the presence of 47 compounds in the essential oil. Those present in the highest concentrations were chamazulene (34.45%), β-caryophyllene (8.93%), (E)-germacrene D (7.55%), patchoulene (7.27%), β-guaiene (4.62%), α-humulene (4.59%), santolina epoxide (4.41%), ethyl iso-allocholate (2.97%), aromadendrene (2.62%), and neoclovenoxid-alkohol (2.46%). AEO was found to be active in vitro against B. canis, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.06 mg/mL, as compared to imidocarb, with IC50 = 0.007 mg/mL. The study confirms that essential oil from A. millefolium has anti-babesial properties in vitro.
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Authors and Affiliations

L. Guz
1
J. Wawrzykowski
2
Ł. Adaszek
3

  1. Department of Fish Diseases and Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences, Akademicka 12, 20-033 Lublin, Poland
  2. Department of Animal Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences, Akademicka 12, 20-033 Lublin, Poland
  3. Department of Epizootiology and Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
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Abstract

Prolonged exposure to stress may cause adverse effects on animal physiology. It is especially important during the gestation period as female physiology can affect the unborn offspring in the form of prenatal stress. Intensive pig farming industry developed gestation crates that enable to keep sows during gestation period in small stalls which do not allow animals to move freely for a maximum of 4 weeks after successful insemination (Council Directive 2008/120/EC). Although these crates have production advantages, many health and welfare issues have been raised recently. In this study we tested to what extent the lack of movement of sows kept in the gestation crates had an impact on some blood and saliva constituents of new-born piglets. In total, the samples were collected from 80 piglets when they were 3, 7 and 21 days of age and tested for cortisol levels in blood and saliva, acute phase proteins (amyloid A, C-reactive protein, haptoglobin) and lymphocytes proliferation index (in response to ConA, PHA and PWM). 40 piglets were from sows kept in free movement housing (FM group) from day 1 to day 100 of pregnancy and forty piglets were from sows in the movement restriction group (MR), in which the sows were kept in crates just allowing them to stand up and lie down from day 1 to day 100 of the pregnancy (research was conducted before the implementation Directive 2008/120/EC i.e. January 1,2013). The results of the study showed that the piglets delivered by sows kept under movement restriction conditions exhibited higher cortisol and acute phase protein levels as well as a lower lymphocytes proliferation index. This suggests that lack of movement in sows during the gestation period influences piglets’ physiology and indicates that the piglets are suffering from prenatal stress caused by insufficient housing conditions of their mothers potentially leading to poor health and welfare of their offspring.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Kulok
1
K. Wojtas
2
M. Ciorga
3
Z. Pejsak
4
R. Kołacz
3

  1. Veterinary Clinic, Lisiny 33, 63-604 Baranów, Poland
  2. Compassion in World Farming International, River Court, Mill Lane, Godalming, Surrey GU7 1EZ, United Kingdom
  3. Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Gagarina 11, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
  4. University Centre of Veterinary Medicine, Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

It is known that the basic variable in the cellular environment is temperature and low temperature decreases cellular metabolism rate. Also, low cellular metabolic activity reduces oxidative stress, resulting in low ROS production. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of 36.5°C (low) and 38.5°C (conventional) incubation temperatures during IVM on glutathione peroxidase activity of oocytes and blastocysts following fertilization. Bovine oocytes were matured in medium-199 for 22 hours at either 36.5°C or 38.5°C and they were subjected to in vitro fertilization (IVF). Putative zygotes were then transferred randomly into SOFaa embryo culture media with or without antioxidant (a mixture of GSH and SOD) until development to the blastocyst stage. Glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px) activity was lower (p<0.05) in oocytes matured at low temperature than those of conventional temperature. Similarly, GSH-Px activity was lower (p<0.05) in blastocysts, which were obtained from oocytes matured at low temperature and cultured in antioxidants-supplemented embryo media. The GSH-Px activity of blastocysts, obtained from oocytes matured in low temperature, cultured in antioxidants-free embryo media was similar to blastocysts obtained from oocytes matured in conventional temperature, cultured in antioxidants-supplemented embryo media. The results of the present study show that decreasing the in vitro maturation temperature decreases antioxidant enzyme activity in both oocyte and blastocyst. Additionally, maturation of bovine oocytes at 36.5°C incubation temperature may provide an optimal thermal condition for the enzymatic antioxidant system of both oocytes and blastocyst.
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Authors and Affiliations

U. Şen
1

  1. Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, 55139, Samsun, Turkey
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Abstract

Centroblastic lymphoma (CBL) is the most common type of lymphoma in dogs and it usually responds well to chemotherapy. The aim of the study was to provide useful prognostic factors for dogs with CBL. Data regarding sex, breed, age, signalment, treatment and clinical course of the disease from 52 dogs diagnosed with centroblastic lymphoma (CBL) with cytology and immunocytochemistry were provisionally collected and related to the treatment outcome and survival. More than 80% of dogs were treated with chemotherapy and achieved complete remission in 80% of cases. Among the prognostic factors positively related to the overall survival time of dogs with CBL were: the application of chemotherapy, achieving a complete remission, application of at least one additional chemotherapeutic agent to the basic protocol, especially the administration of mitoxantrone and asparaginase. Moreover, mitotic count 14 or higher measured in cytological slides in the area of 2,37 mm2 have been linked to shorter overall survival in dogs with CBL.
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Authors and Affiliations

K. Kliczkowska-Klarowicz
1
D. Jagielski
2
M. Czopowicz
3
R. Sapierzyński
1

  1. Division of Pathology, Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-776 Warsaw
  2. Białobrzeska Veterinary Surgery in Warsaw, Poland
  3. Division of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Clinical records of dogs with spontaneous degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) with clinical signs related to congestive heart failure (CHF) recruited during routine clinical practice between 2001 and 2018 at the Cardiology Unit of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (University of Milan) were included in this retrospective cohort study. Baseline echocardiographic data were evaluated. Median survival time (MST) was calculated. Data on therapeutic treatment, ISACHC (International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council) or ACVIM (American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine) classes were reviewed based on the inclusion period and type of endpoint (i.e. cardiac death or death for other causes). A univocal classification was needed, and the patients classified in ISACHC classes II, IIIa and IIIb, visited before 2009, were reallocated to ACVIM class C. The main goal of this data review was to retrospectively evaluate 259 clinical records of subjects belonging to ACVIM C class examined between 2001 to 2018 and 202 dogs examined between 2010 to 2018. In this way, in the second group, the bias of the reclassification was avoided. The MST (median survival time) of these subjects was 531 d (2001-2018) and 335.5 d (2010-2018), respectively. Univariate survival regression analysis for subjects included from 2010 to 2018 showed as significantly related to cardiac death (CD): left atrium to aorta ratio (LA/Ao) (HR 2.754, p=0.000), E wave (HR 2.961, p=0.000), E/A ratio (HR 1.372, p=0.000), end-diastolic (HR 1.007, p=0.000) (EDVI) and end-systolic (HR 1.012, p=0.026) (ESVI) volume indexes, allometric diastolic (HR 4.018, p=0.000) (LVIDdN) and systolic (HR 2.674, p=0.049) (LVIDsN) left ventricular internal diameters, age (HR 1.006, p=0.009) and pulmonary hypertension severity (HR=1.309, p=0.012) (PH). Multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, showed that the only variable that determined a statistically significant difference in MST was PH severity (HR 1.334, p=0.033). The type of therapeutic treatment within this class was not significant for the MST of the subjects.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Bagardi
1
C. Locatelli
1
A. Zanaboni
2
A. Galizzi
1
D. Malchiodi
2
P.G. Brambilla
1

  1. University of Milan, University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Via dell’Università n. 6, 26900 Lodi (LO), Italy
  2. University of Milan, Informatic Department, Via Giovanni Celoria n. 18, 20133 Milan (MI), Italy
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine biologic variations of the main parameters in cows in early lactation and to compare intra-individual variations of parameters in cows and other species. 50 cows were included in the experiment. Blood samples were taken at the moment of calving, then on 1st, 7th, 14th and 28th day after calving. CVi had the following values: 1.9-5% for MCV, MCH, MCHC, GLU, TProt, ALB, UREA, Ca, P and Mg; 5.1-10% for RBC, Hgb, Hct, WBC, NEU, LYM, BHB, ALT, CHOL, TGC and >10% for PLT, NEFA, TBil, AST and GGT. For RBC, Hgb, Hct, MCV, MCH subject-based reference values or the reference change value should be used. For all other parameters except AST, population-based reference intervals should be used with caution. For LYM, NEU, PLT, GLU, TProt, ALB, CHOL and TGC index of individuality was close to 0.6 which means that subject-based reference values can be much more adequate to use then population-based reference intervals. For AST population-based intervals should be used. There is little effect of parity (increase CVi with parity) and no effect of milk production. CVi values obtained in cows in early lactation are specific because they deviate from the CVi values of other animal species and human. Calculated RCVs varied from 5.5% for MCHC to 41% for AST. High individuality index for many metabolic parameters opens possibility for development of model for longitudinal monitoring of metabolic status of individual animals during lactation. That requires further research.
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Authors and Affiliations

V. Kovačević
1
M.R. Cincović
1
B. Belić
1
R. Đoković
2
I. Lakić
1
M. Radinović
1
A. Potkonjak
1

  1. Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad, Trg D.Obradovića 8, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
  2. Faculty of Agronomy, University of Kragujevac, Ul. Cara Dušana 34, 32000 Čačak, Serbia
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Abstract

The purpose of the present work is to investigate the effect of dietary-supplemented artichoke ( Cynara scolymus L.) on the mRNA expression of calbindin 1 ( Calb1), osteopontin ( Spp1), albumin ( Alb) and CALB1 protein in the eggshell gland (ESG) of laying hens. A total of 80 ISA Brown hens (each at 40 weeks of age) were randomly divided into two groups: a control and a treated group. All poultry received 130 g/day of compound feed for laying hens but the treated hens’ diet was also supplemented with 3g/kg of dried and milled artichoke ( Cynara scolymus L.). The increase of the Ca content in blood of the treated hens was established. Significantly decrease of Spp1 mRNA transcripts was found in the eggshell gland of the treated hens, while the mRNA level of Alb was increased. The relative expression of Calb1 mRNA tended to increase in the treated group. The expression of calbindin protein in the cytoplasm of glandular cells of the shell gland was defined by immunohistochemical method. Very strong signals of calbindin were observed in the treated group. The supplementation of the laying hens’ diet with dried artichoke ( C. scolymus L.) led to a significant increase of Ca content in blood that was reflected in the changes of expression of the eggshell gland genes involved in the mineralization of eggshell.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Abadjieva
1
D. Ankova
1
S. Grigorova
2
E. Kistanova
1

  1. Institute of Biology and Immunology of Reproduction – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 1113 Sofia, Tzarigradsko shosse 73, Bulgaria
  2. Institute of Animal Science - AA, 2232 Kostinbrod, Bulgaria
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Abstract

Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are not only important immune cell of the host, but also important target cell of a variety of respiratory pathogens. They play an important role in defense against pathogen invasion and in maintaining tissue balance. Interferon (IFN)-γ is a well known multipotent cytokine that has antiviral and antibacterial immune activity and enhances antigen presentation. To better reveal the biological processes of porcine AMs activated by IFN-γ, transcriptomic analysis was performed using Illumina HiSeqTM technique. The results identified 2,248 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 753 were upregulated and 1,495 were downregulated, in porcine AMs 12 h after IFN-γ stimulation, compared with mock-treated porcine AMs. A gene ontology function enrichment analysis of these DEGs indicated that these genes were significantly enriched in functional clusters such as immune response, defense response, and intracellular signaling cascades. Analyzing the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways of the DEGs showed that these genes are mainly involved in cytokine–cytokine receptor interactions, alpha linolenic acid metabolism, and the RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway. This study shows that a massive gene expression change occurred in porcine AMs following IFN-γ stimulation, which is critical for understanding the mechanisms of IFN-γ-mediated macrophage activation and immune regulation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Q. Liu
1
H.-Y. Wang
1

  1. Nanchong Key Laboratory of Disease Prevention, Control, and Detection in Livestock and Poultry, Nanchong Vocational and Technical College, Nanchong 637131, China
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Abstract

Resistance of cyathostomins to benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics is widespread in horses in many parts of the world. This study compared three methods for the determination of benzimidazole resistance of Cyathostominae in 18 horses from a stud farm in Romania. The horses were treated with Fenbendazole. The resistance test was performed by FECRT, ERP and PCR. On Day 0, larvae of species belonging to the Cyathostominae subfamily, types A, B, C, D and Gyalocephalus, as well as Strongylus vulgaris species of the Strongylinae subfamily, were identified. At 42 days post treatment with fenbendazole only larvae of Cyathostominae, types A and D were identified. Resistance to Fenbendazole was found in one horse, using the FECRT and ERP tests. Both genetic resistance and susceptibility to BZ anthelmintics was observed in 13 samples (72.22%) using the PCR test. However, three samples (16.67%) showed only the BZ-susceptibility gene. In 2 samples, (11.11%) only the resistance gene to BZ anthelmintics was identified. Several inconsistencies in the evidence of resistance to benzimidazole were observed between the PCR test and the other two methods, which indicates that several methods for determining and controlling the resistance should be used in practice.
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Authors and Affiliations

G. Dărăbuş
1
C. Badea
1
I. Oprescu
1
S. Morariu
1
N. Mederle
1
M. Ilie
1
T. Suici
1
M. Imre
1

  1. Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Timişoara, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 300645, Calea Aradului no. 119, Timişoara, Romania
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Abstract

The last biomonitoring study in Poland on intoxication with fluoride compounds of deer was conducted almost two decades ago. Given the fact that fluoride level in air and water is not widely monitored in Poland, it is justified to undertake monitoring of F- levels in people and other long-lived mammals. This paper provides the assessment of the present level of fluoride accumulation in mineralized tissue of large herbivorous mammals. The aim of the present study was to determine fluoride concentration in teeth of deer inhabiting the areas of Poland which are industrially uncontaminated with fluoride compounds, to establish possible correlations between the analysed parameters, and to provide a comparison of the present results with those obtained in other studies. Mean concentration of fluoride in all analysed samples amounted to 231.0 F mg/kg, with the minimum value of 22.0 F mg/kg and the maximum of 935.0 F mg/kg. This results from the development of industry and a widespread use of fluoride-supplemented caries prevention products which contributes to an intense accumulation of these substances in vertebrates, predominantly in mineralized tissue.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Palczewska-Komsa
1
K. Barczak
1
K. Grocholewicz
2
J. Buczkowska-Radlińska
1
P.R. Piotrowski
3
E. Sobolewska
4

  1. Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Powstańców Wlkp. 72, 71-111 Szczecin, Poland
  2. Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Integrated Dentistry Department, Powstańców Wlkp. 72, 71-111 Szczecin, Poland
  3. University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Professor Emeritus of the Medical Faculty, Bukowska 70, 60-812 Poznań, Poland
  4. Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Department of Dental Prosthetics, Powstańców Wlkp. 72, 71-111 Szczecin, Poland
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Abstract

Ichthyophthiriasis, which is caused by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) infections, has a severe impact on productivity in freshwater aquaculture. These infections were previously treated effectively with malachite green, a compound that is now banned on fish farms due to its carcinogenicity. To find efficacious drugs to control Ich, flowers of tansy Tanacetum vulgare were evaluated for their antiprotozoal activity. Tanacetum vulgare extract significantly reduced the survival of Ich trophonts and theronts. In vitro, the extract killed all trophonts at 3200 mg l-1, terminated tomont reproduction at 50 mg l-1, and caused mortality of all theronts at 100 mg l-1. T. vulgare extract may be a new and efficacious drug for the control of Ich.
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Bibliography

1. Buchmann K, Sigh J, Nielsen CV, Dalgaard M (2001) Host responses against the fish parasitizing ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Vet Parasitol 100: 105-116.
2. Fu YW, Zhang QZ, Xu DH, Xia H, Cai XX, Wang B, Liang J (2014) Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp. Dis Aquat Organ 108: 129-136.
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4. Lahnsteiner F, Weismann T (2007) Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis in rainbow trout and common carp with common and alternative therapeutics. J Aquat Anim Health 19: 186-194.
5. Puk K, Guz L (2014) Effects of medical plant extracts on the growth of the fish parasite Spironucleus vortens. Med Weter 70: 165-168.
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Authors and Affiliations

K. Puk
1
L. Guz
1

  1. Department of Fish Diseases and Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences, Akademicka 12, 20-033 Lublin, Poland

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