Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research

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Journal of Plant Protection Research | Ahead of print |

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Abstract

Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L). is a broadleaf weed in autumn crop fields in Russia. Four field experiments were performed in Stalskiy region, southern Russia in two growing seasons, 2016 and 2017, to investigate the effects of postemergence applications of applied alone or in tank mixtures in winter wheat cultivars Tanya and Bagrat. Redroot pigweed control was greatest with tribenuron and all herbicide treatments containing tribenuron. The lowest redroot pigweed control was with aminopyralid/florasulam (study 1) and triasulfuron (study 2), respectively, whereas redroot pigweed had intermediate responses to the other examined herbicides. Tribenuron plus fluroxypyr sprayed on wheat cultivar ‘Tanya’, and tribenuron plus triasulfuron on wheat cultivar ‘Bagrat’ resulted in increased wheat grain yields. Overall, tribenuron and herbicides containing tribenuron provided the most efficient redroot pigweed control compared with the other herbicides and consistently maintained optimal winter wheat yields. Tribenuron could ameliorate redroot resistance to herbicides in wheat fields in southern Russia.

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Authors and Affiliations

Meisam Zargar
Maryam Bayat
Tamara Astarkhanova
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Abstract

Wheat grain discoloration, a worldwide disease that lowers grain quality and decreases grain yield, does not have a single etiology. It has been proposed that it is a consequence of an abiotic mechanism, a response to environmental conditions or enzymatic activity. It has also been suggest that it is a biotic mechanism, a fungal infection principally by Alternaria spp. and Bipolaris sorokiniana. The present work was carried out to analyze the possible etiology of this disease in nine durum wheat genotypes from two localities of southern Buenos Aires province (Argentina) on two sowing dates. Incidence (percentage of grain discoloration) was recorded and mycobiota associated with this pathology was registered following ISTA rules. Peroxidase activity in an extract obtained from grains belonging to genotypes of the locality that showed the highest incidence was measured.

The incidence among genotypes, localities and sowing dates varied, although the genotypes with the higher and lower values of incidence were the same for all the variables tested. The fungus Alternaria spp. was isolated the most frequently followed by Fusarium spp., while Bipolaris sorokiniana was found the least frequently. Peroxidase activity showed that all the treatments had similar levels of enzymatic activity, but there was no clear differentiation between controls either between genotypes with the lowest or the highest incidence values. This suggests that peroxidase activity did not have a clear relationship with grain discoloration. In this research, it is presumed that fungal infection is the main cause of this disease.

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Authors and Affiliations

Maria Josefina Cipollone
Paulina Moya
Iván Martínez
Mario Saparrat
Marina Sisterna
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Abstract

Soybean [Glycine max (L.)], one of the most important crops in Argentina, is commonly infected by Colletotrichum truncatum, the causal agent of anthracnose. Tagetes filifolia essential oil (EO) is presented as a natural approach to minimize the dose of chemical fungicides applied to the crop. The fungus Trichoderma harzianum is used as a biocontrol agent because of its ability to produce secondary metabolites that destroy cell walls of phytopathogenic fungi. However, its performance can be affected when it is exposed to chemical fungicides. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antifungal activity of T. filifolia EO both individually and combined with chemical fungicides against C. truncatum, and its effect on T. harzianum. Fungi were isolated from soybean crops. The following pesticides were assessed: carbendazim (F1), difenoconazole (F2) and trifloxystrobin + cyproconazole (F3). The EO was obtained from native plants and its chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) was determined for each compound. Fungicides were combined with the EO to look for combinations that allowed a reduction of pesticide doses. Among fungicides, F1 showed the strongest antifungal activity against C. truncatum (MFC = 0.25 μl ⋅ l–1) and T. harzianum (MFC = 1.5 μl ⋅ l–1). The sensitivity of both fungi to the EO was lower than to fungicides. The EO presented MFCs of 6,000 and 9,000 μl ⋅ l–1 against C. truncatum and T. harzianum. The EO and F1 affected the growth of T. harzianum at concentrations that controlled C. truncatum (31 and 10%). Eight combinations of fungicides and the EO allowed fungicide concentration reductions of up to 80%, although the growth of the biocontrol strain was also affected. The results demonstrated that T. filifolia EO can be used to control anthracnose and reduce doses of chemical fungicides applied to soybean crops. Its effect on T. harzianum should be considered in the design of integrated pest management strategies.

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Authors and Affiliations

Laura Carolina Gadban
Boris Xavier Camiletti
Ezequiel Darío Bigatton
Silvia Graciela Distéfano
Enrique Iván Lucini Lucini
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Abstract

Septoria melissae Desm., the most important pathogen of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) occurs each year on plantations. The fungus may cause serious yield losses in the absence of proper plant protection. Breeding resistant or tolerant cultivars could play an important role in plant protection of medicinal plants. However, only a few descriptions of tolerant varieties of lemon balm are available. The goal of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of three accessions of M. officinalis against the pathogen of Septoria leaf spot under field conditions at Budapest-Soroksár (Hungary) in 2017–2018. Differences in susceptibility of the accessions were observed in both years. The accession of M. officinalis subsp. altissima proved to be the least susceptible to Septoria infection. The frequency of the infected leaves was only 5.1 and 28.1% in 2017 and 2018, respectively. However, the cultivar M. officinalis subsp. officinalis ‘Lorelei’ turned out to be the most susceptible to the pathogen with an average infection level of 26.1 and 66.6%, 1.3–6.1 times higher than that of the other accessions in each year, respectively. Development of disease tolerant M. officinalis cultivars may be an effective tool in the plant protection of lemon balm.

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Authors and Affiliations

Gergő Kovács
Géza Nagy
Éva Zámbori-Németh

Abstract

Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), an aphid-borne potyvirus is one of the major viral pathogens of garlic causing significant yield losses worldwide. It is found almost everywhere in the world where Allium species is grown. The aim of this study was to test the presence of OYDV infection in garlic from Ethiopia. The presence of the virus was tested by Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The direct sequencing of the PCR product produced a sequence of 296 bp. Sequence analysis showed 89.27% sequence homology with an isolate from Australia (HQ258894) and 89.29% with an isolate from Spain (JX429964). A phylogenetic tree constructed with MEGA 7.0 revealed high levels of homology with various isolates of OYDV from all over the world and thus further confirmed the identity of the virus.

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Abstract

Stem canker and black scurf of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn are important and epidemic diseases in potato-growing regions worldwide, including Iran. In this study, 120 isolates were retrieved from infected stem canker from six potato- growing regions in Iran (Isfahan, Ardebil, Fars, Hamedan, Kurdestan and Kerman). Out of these, 30 isolates were selected as representatives for genetic and virulence analysis. The isolates were analyzed by one sequence analyzes of the ITS-rDNA region, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), as well as virulence studies. Based on sequence analysis of the ITS-rDNA region, all 30 isolates were assigned to the anastomosis group (AG) and all were assigned to AG-3 PT. Cluster analysis using the unweighted pair group method with the arithmetic averages (UPGMA) method for both RAPD and ISSR markers revealed that they were divided into three main groups, with no correlation to geographical regions of the isolates. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates were pathogenic on potato cv. Agria; however, virulence variability was observed among the isolates. The grouping based on RAPD analysis and virulence variability was not correlated.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mehdi Nasr Esfahani
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Abstract

Repellent usage against rodents is almost not provided anymore. Permission to use many rodent repellent substances under European Union (EU) plant protection regulations has not been renewed in recent years. Some approval for chemical substances have not been renewed due to their toxicological properties, and for some biorational approvals have also not been renewed due to lack of financial support together with other concerns. Some other rodent repellent substances possessing accurate properties in a secondary way have also been withdrawn. Thus, the use of almost ten active substances is now illegal. The lack of support and the resultant orphan use may be explained by the relatively small market and possible business together with the expectations of modern substance application requirements. As a result, the opportunity to consider new biorational substances as candidates is therefore open. Plant based food substances are preferred candidates for plant protection considering their favourable toxicological characteristics. Capsicum oleoresin, a mixture obtained from two spice species (Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens), is one of them with appropriate repellent properties. An application under EU Plant Protection Product regulation has recently been submitted and may become a new repellent for biological control agent against seed predators.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mathilde Stefanini
Mathilde Charon
Patrice André Marchand
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Abstract

Ditylenchus destructor is a serious pest of numerous economically important plants worldwide. The population of this nematode species was isolated from the root zone of Ammophila arenaria on a Baltic Sea sand dune. This population’s morphological and morphometrical characteristics corresponded to D. destructor data provided so far, except for the stylet knobs’ height (2.1–2.9 vs 1.3–1.8) and their arrangement (laterally vs slightly posteriorly sloping), the length of a hyaline part on the tail end (0.8–1.8 vs 1–2.9), the pharyngeal gland arrangement in relation to the intestine (dorsal or ventral vs dorsal, ventral or lateral) and the appearance of vulval lips (smooth vs annulated). Ribosomal DNA sequence analysis confirmed the identity of D. destructor from a coastal dune.

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Authors and Affiliations

Renata Dobosz
Katarzyna Rybarczyk-Mydłowska
Grażyna Winiszewska
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Abstract

This study focused on the effect of heavy metal cobalt ions (at concentrations of 1–1000 ppm) on the development and enzymatic activity of four entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium robertsii, commonly used in biological plant protection. It was found that each of the tested species of fungi reacted individually to contact with the Co2+ ions at their various concentrations. Depending on the variants of the experiment carried out, there were changes in the development of the mycelia (mainly growth inhibition) and their morphological features (color and structure) in comparison to the control samples. Co2+ ions had a fungistatic effect on all fungal strains, whereas a fungicidal effect was noted at concentrations of 750 ppm and 1000 ppm against M. robertsii and I. fumosorosea, respectively. In addition, there was a discrepancy in enzymatic activity between the tested fungal species developing in the medium with varying concentrations of metal salt. The inhibitory effect of Co2+ ions on lipase production was observed in I. fumosorosea. Protease production was stimulated in B. bassiana at all Co2+ concentrations, whereas in M. robertsii this effect was noted at 1 ppm. The changing dynamics of extracellular fungal hydrolases, due to the action of Co2+ ions, may translate into the role of these microorganisms in the processes of insect pathogenesis. This work suggests that severe pollution of the environment by cobalt could be a restrictive factor for the development and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi and must be taken into account for their successful application in biological plant protection.

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Authors and Affiliations

Łukasz Łopusiewicz
Kinga Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz
Cezary Tkaczuk
Artur Bartkowiak
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Abstract

The main open-field producer regions of cucurbits (watermelon, squash, melon and cucumber) in Panama (Los Santos, Herrera and Coclé provinces) were surveyed for molecular identification, occurrence and distribution of Thrips palmi (the most important pest thrip species on cucurbits in Panama), Frankliniella intonsa and Frankliniella cephalica during the growing seasons of 2009 to 2013 and 2017 to 2018. Forty plots were surveyed and DNA extracts of 186 thrips (larvae and adults) were analyzed by multiplex PCR, using a set of T. palmi-specific primers in combination with a set of insect-universal primers. DNA extracts corresponding to 174 individual thrips (93.5%) rendered both PCR products of expected size with T. palmi-specific and insect-universal primers, whereas the remaining DNA extracts corresponding to 12 individual thrips (6.5%) only rendered the product of the expected size with insect-universal primers. Sequencing of those PCR products and BLAST analysis allowed for the identification of F. intonsa and F. cephalica. Thrips palmi was detected in all three provinces, while F. intonsa and F. cephalica were detected in Herrera and Los Santos provinces. To our knowledge, this is not only the first detection of F. intonsa in Panama, but also the first detection of F. cephalica in Panamanian cucurbit crops.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anovel A. Barba-Alvarado
José N. Jaén-Sanjur
Luis Galipienso
Laura Elvira-González
Luis Rubio
José A. Herrera-Vásquez
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Abstract

The study was conducted at the University of Nebraska Pesticide Application and Technology Laboratory in North Platte, Nebraska in July 2015. Two application volume rates (100 and 200 l · ha−1) and three nozzle types (XR, AIXR, TTI) were selected at two flow rates (0.8 and 1.6 l · min−1) and at a single application speed of 7.7 km · h−1. Each collector type [Mylar washed (MW), Mylar image analysis (MIA), water-sensitive paper (WSP), and Kromekote (KK)] was arranged in a randomized complete block design. Each nozzle treatment was replicated twice, providing six cards of each collector type for each nozzle treatment. A water + 0.4% v/v Rhodamine WT spray solution was applied, given the fluorescent and visible qualities of Rhodamine, which allows it to be applied over all the collector types. MW had the highest coverage at 18.3% across nozzle type, followed by WSP at 18%, KK at 12% and lastly by MIA at 4%. MW resulted in a 58% increase in coverage, WSP in a 56% increase, and KK only an increase of 39% when the volume rate was doubled from 100 l · ha−1 to 200 l · ha−1 across nozzle type. MW coverage was similar to KK for half of the nozzles (XR 11002, XR 11004, AIXR 11002). Droplet number density fixed effects were all significant for nozzle type and collector type (p < 0.001) as was the interaction of nozzle type and collector type (p < 0.001). Results from this study suggest a strong correlation to data produced with WSP and MW collectors, as there was full agreement between both types except for the TTI 11004. Using both collector types in the same study would allow for a visual understanding of the distribution of the spray, while also giving an idea of the concentration of that distribution.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Connor Ferguson
Andrew J. Hewitt
Chris C. O’Donnell
Greg R. Kruger
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Abstract

The present study was conducted to evaluate the insecticidal efficiency and safety of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and hydrophilic silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) against: adults of rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.); red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst.) and cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) results showed that, both ZnO NPs and hydrophilic SiO2 NPs exhibited a significant toxic effect (df, F and p < 0.5) against S. oryzae and C. maculatus at the highest concentration while T. castaneum showed high resistance against the two tested materials. At the end of the experiment, recorded mortality was: 81.6, 98.3 and 58.3% at the highest concentration used for each insect (0.3, 2 and 8 gm ⋅ kg–1 of SNPs with C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum, respectively), while mortality was 88.3, 100 and 38.3% at the highest concentration used for each insect (0.6, 2.5 and 8 gm ⋅ kg–1 of ZnO NPs with C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum, respectively). Both tested materials caused high reductions in F1-progeny (%) with C. maculatus and S. oryzae. Histopathological examination of male mice livers showed hepatic architecture with congested blood sinusoids, binucleated hepatocytes nuclei, dilated central vein and margainated chromatin in some nuclei. Histopathological assessment of the lungs showed normal histoarchitecture. There were no differences in alveolar septa, bronchiolar and epithelium of the treated and untreated animals. Silica and zinc oxide nanoparticles have a good potential to be used as stored seed protectant alternatives if applied with proper safety precautions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Samia Ali Haroun
Mahmoud Elsaid Elnaggar
Doaa Mohamed Zein
Rehab Ibrahim Gad
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Abstract

The rose flea beetle, RFB (Luperomorpha xanthodera Fairmaire 1888) is a new flower pest in Europe. In 2012, it was brought accidentally to central Poland. To search for this introduced species in the area adjacent to the site of the first finding, 29 plant species belonging to five botanical families (Lamiaceae, Brassicaceae, Asteraceae, Plantaginaceae, Crassulaceae) were monitored over a 3-year-long study (2016−2018). RFB were found on 11 herbaceous/ ornamental plant species (Lamiaceae, Brassicaceae, Asteraceae) along with feeding damage to the flowers. White mustard (Sinapis alba L., Brassicaceae), hyssop (L.), and Monarda spp. (Lamiaceae) were its most preferred host plants. In each season, RFB females preferred host plants which bloomed abundantly and vividly. However, among the examined plant species there was a large variation in the year-to-year RFB abundance. Over the examined period the RFB extended its abundance exponentially, and its population survived and established itself in the area. The general sex ratio of the beetles was strongly female biased. In the female pool, females with conspicuously swollen abdomens predominated. The results of our study provide more insight into RFB behaviour, its establishment and spreading into new areas. To support the evidence for the RFB risk factor as an agricultural/ horticultural pest, further research should focus on the beetles’ biology, reproductive tactics, larval host plant preference, larva-inflicted damage and harmfulness, the impact of the RFB on the native fauna, as well as its further local and distant migration propensity. Presently our knowledge about these aspects is still fragmentary.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Anna Sady
Małgorzata Kiełkiewicz
Marek Wojciech Kozłowski

Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief Prof. Henryk Pospieszny Department of Virology and Bacteriology Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland e-mail: H.Pospieszny@iorpib.poznan.pl Associate Editors Dr. Zbigniew Czaczyk (Agricultural Engineering) Poznan Univeristy of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland Dr. Magdalena Jakubowska (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Sylwia Kaczmarek (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Piotr Kaczyński (Pesticide Residue) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Chetan Keswani (Biological Control) Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India Dr. Tomasz Klejdysz (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Franciszek Kornobis (Zoology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Karlos Lisboa (Biotechnology) Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Alagoas, Brazil Dr. Vahid Mahdavi (Entomology) University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran Dr. Kinga Matysiak (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Yongzhi Wang (Virology and Bacteriology) Jilin Academy of Agricultral Sciences, Changchun, Jilin Province, China Dr. Przemysław Wieczorek (Biotechnology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Huan Zhang (Plant Pathology) Texas A&M University, Texas, USA Managing Editors Małgorzata Maćkowiak e-mail: m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl Monika Kardasz e-mail: m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl Proofreaders in English Delia Gosik Halina Staniszewska-Gorączniak Statistical Editor Dr. Jan Bocianowski Technical Editor Tomasz Adamski

Contact

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Institute of Plant Protection
National Research Institute
Władysława Węgorka 20
60–318 Poznań, Poland

tel.: +48 61 864 90 30
e-mail: office@plantprotection.pl

Managing Editors

Malgorzata Mackowiak
m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl

Monika Kardasz
m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

General information for preparing a manuscript

All text should be written in a concise and integrated way, by focusing on major points, findings, breakthrough or discoveries, and their broad significance. All running text should be in Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing with all margins 2.5 cm on all sides.

Original article

The original research articles should contain the following sections: Title – the title should be unambiguous, understandable to specialists in other fields, and must reflect the contents of the paper. No abbreviations may be used in the title. Name(s) of author(s) with affiliations footnoted added only to the system, not visible in the manuscript (Double Blind Reviews). The names of the authors should be given in the following order: first name, second name initial, surname. Affiliations should contain: name of institution, faculty, department, street, city with zip code, and country. Abstract – information given in the title does not need to be repeated in the abstract. The abstract should be no longer than 300 words. It must contain the aim of the study, methods, results and conclusions. If used, abbreviations should be limited and must be explained when first used. Keywords – a maximum of 6, should cover the most specific terms found in the paper. They should describe the subject and results and must differ from words used in the title. Introduction – a brief review of relevant research (with references to the most important and recent publications) should lead to the clear formulation of the working hypothesis and aim of the study. It is recommended to indicate what is novel and important in the study. Materials and Methods – in this section the description of experimental procedures should be sufficient to allow replication. Organisms must be identified by scientific name, including authors. The International System of Units (SI) and their abbreviations should be used. Methods of statistical processing, including the software used, should also be listed in this section. Results – should be presented clearly and concisely without deducting and theori sing. Graphs should be preferred over tables to express quantitative data. Discussion – should contain an interpretation of the results ( without unnecessary repetition) and explain the influence of experimental factors or methods. It should describe how the results and their interpretation relate to the scientific hypothesis and/or aim of the study. The discussion should take into account the current state of knowledge and up-to-date literature. It should highlight the significance and novelty of the paper. It may also point to the next steps that will lead to a better understanding of the matters in question. Acknowledgements – of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. References In the text, papers with more than two authors should be cited by the last name of the first author, followed by et al. (et al. in italics), a space, and the year of publication (example: Smith et al. 2012). If the cited manuscript has two authors, the citation should include both last names, a space, and the publication year (example: Marconi and Johnston 2006). In the Reference section, a maximum of ten authors of the cited paper may be given. All references cited in the text must be listed in the Reference section alphabetically by the last names of the author(s) and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. All titles of the cited articles should be given in English. Please limit the citation of papers published in languages other than English. If necessary translate the title into English and provide information concerning the original language in brackets (e.g. in Spanish). The list of references should only include works from the last ten years that have had the greatest impact on the subject. Older references can be cited only if they are important for manuscript content. The full name of periodicals should be given. If possible, the DOI number should be added at the end of each reference. The following system for arranging references should be used: Journal articles Jorjani M., Heydari A., Zamanizadeh H.R., Rezaee S., Naraghi L., Zamzami P. 2012. Controlling sugar beet mortality disease by application of new bioformulations. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52 (3): 303-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10045-012-0049-9 Online articles Turner E., Jacobson D.J., Taylor J.W. 2011. Genetic architecture of a reinforced, postmating, reproductive isolation barrier between Neurospora species indicates evolution via natural selection. PLoS Genetics 7 (8): e1002204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204 Books Bancrof J.D., Stevens A. 1996. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 776 pp. Book chapters Pradhan S.K. 2000. Integrated pest management. p. 463-469. In: "IPM System in Agriculture. Cash Crop" (R.K. Upadhyaya, K.G. Mukerji, O.P. Dubey, eds.). Aditya Books Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 710 pp. Online documents Cartwright J. 2007. Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Available on: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204

Tables, Figures, Phothographs, Drawings

Tables and figures should be uploaded as separated files at the submission stage. Their place in the manuscript should be clearly indicated by authors. Colour figures are accepted at no charge for the electronic version. In the hardcopy version of the journal, colour figures cost (65,5 € per one colour page). When attaching files please indicate if you want colour only in the online version or in both the online and the hardcopy. Photographs and RGB bitmaps should be provided in JPG or TIFF file format. They must have no less than 300 dpi resolution. The text column should be 8 cm wide and they must be at least 1000 pixels wide. Please send original (not resized) photograph(s), straight from a digital camera, without any text descriptions on the photo. Bitmaps combined with text object descriptions should be provided in MS Word or MS Powerpoint format. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Drawings should be provided in MS Word, MS Powerpoint, CorelDRAW or EPS file format and stored with original data file. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Charts (MS Excel graphs) should be provided in MS Excel file format, and stored with original MS Excel data file without captions but with the number of the figure attached. Please do not use bitmap fills for bar charts. Use colour fills only if necessary. Captions and legends should be added at the end of the text, referred to as "Fig." and numbered consecutively throughout the paper.

Rapid communications

Rapid communications should present brief observations which do not warrant the length of a full paper. However, they must present completed studies and follow the same scientific standards as original articles. Rapid communications should contain the following sections: Title Abstract - less than 300 words Key words - maximum 6 Text body Acknowledgements References The length of such submissions is limited to 1500 words for the text, one table, and one figure.

Reviews

Review articles are invited by the editors.Unsolicited reviews are also considered. The length is limited to 5000 words with no limitations on figures and tables and a maximum of 150 references. Mini-Review articles should be dedicated to "hot" topics and limited to 3000 words and a maximum two figures, two tables and 20 references.

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