The Arctic Ocean, which emerges from melting ice, promises access to and
exploitation of natural and biological resources and exploration of new
shipping routes, but also brings new hazards to the environment.
The article analyses freedom of fishing in the open sea in light of
international law. The author discusses rules on fishing within open sea
enclaves, namely Barents Sea Loophole and Bering Sea Donut Hole. The
Greenpeace is campaigning to establish a natural sanctuary in the Arctic
Ocean and introduce a strict prohibition on commercial exploitation of
natural resources, including on fishing, and imposition of certain
limitations on naval activity. This idea was endorsed by the European
Parliament in their resolution of 12 March 2014 on the EU Strategy for
the Arctic (2013/2595(RSP)).
Finally, the article reviews negotiations between five arctic states and
their initially agreed positions on commercial fishing in the open sea
in the central Arctic Ocean (the Nuuk Meeting, February 2014).