The Arctic Ocean, which emerges from melting ice, promises access to and exploitation of natural and biological resources and exploration of new shipping routes, but also brings new hazards to the environment.
The article analyses freedom of fishing in the open sea in light of international law. The author discusses rules on fishing within open sea enclaves, namely Barents Sea Loophole and Bering Sea Donut Hole. The Greenpeace is campaigning to establish a natural sanctuary in the Arctic Ocean and introduce a strict prohibition on commercial exploitation of natural resources, including on fishing, and imposition of certain limitations on naval activity. This idea was endorsed by the European Parliament in their resolution of 12 March 2014 on the EU Strategy for the Arctic (2013/2595(RSP)).
Finally, the article reviews negotiations between five arctic states and their initially agreed positions on commercial fishing in the open sea in the central Arctic Ocean (the Nuuk Meeting, February 2014).