Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 113-120
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0009-9

Słowa kluczowe:
numerical modelling
asynchronous motors
diagnostics
object oriented programming tools

Description of program tools simplifying simulation applications building for physical phenomenons described by differential equations in state equations form modeling is presented in the paper. A method for using prepared libraries for squirrel-cage motors including any motor damages modeling had been described. For that purpose, squirrel-cage motor mathematical model in natural coordinates system had been presented. Presented solutions provide also supply sources (inverters) modeling, including their microprocessor implementation and other phenomenons, that assume state equation structure step changes, depending on variable limitations and time value.

Przejdź do artykułu
2
WAMS - based control of series FACTS devices installed in tie-lines of interconnected power system

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 121-140
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0010-3

Słowa kluczowe:
power system control
transient stability
FACTS
WAMS

This paper addresses the state-variable stabilising control of the power system using such series FACTS devices as TCPAR installed in the tie-line connecting control areas in an interconnected power system. This stabilising control is activated in the transient state and is supplementary with respect to the main steady-state control designed for power flow regulation. Stabilising control laws, proposed in this paper, have been derived for a linear multi-machine system model using direct Lyapunov method with the aim to maximise the rate of energy dissipation during power swings and therefore maximisation their damping. The proposed control strategy is executed by a multi-loop controller with frequency deviations in all control areas used as the input signals. Validity of the proposed state-variable control has been confirmed by modal analysis and by computer simulation for a multi-machine test system.

Przejdź do artykułu
Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 141-152
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0011-2

In this paper, the power factor correction system consisted of: bridge converter, parallel resonant circuit, high frequency transformer, diode rectifier and LFCF filter is presented. This system is controlled by a pulse density modulation method and the principle of its operation is based on the boost technique. The modeling approach is illustrated by an example using AC/HF/DC converter. Verification of the derived model is provided, which demonstrated the validity of the proposed approach.

Przejdź do artykułu
Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 153-167
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0012-1

Słowa kluczowe:
safety management process
expert system
Bayesian network
total probability
protection reliability states
appearance of touch and electric shock states
risk analysis and assessment

The article describes a shock safety modeling method for low-voltage electric devices, based on using a Bayesian network. This method allows for taking into account all possible combinations of the reliability and unreliability states for the shock protection elements under concern. The developed method allows for investigating electric shock incidents, analysing and assessing shock risks, as well as for determining criteria of dimensioning shock protection means, also with respect to reliability of the particular shock protection elements. Dependencies for determining and analysing the probability of appearance of reliability states of protection as well as an electric shock risk are presented in the article.

Przejdź do artykułu
Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 169-176
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0013-0

Słowa kluczowe:
magnetic laminations
power losses
PWM voltage

Author presents an analytical method of calculation of unit power losses in magnetic laminations used in electrical machines and transformers. The idea of this method, based on the solution of Maxwell's equations in the lamination material, was described by the author in the previous work [3], taking into account approximation of constitutive static hysteresis loop by elliptic form of the function B = f(H) depending on magnetic saturation. In the previous formula for new isotropic and anisotropic materials it is needed to introduce so called "anomaly coefficient" deduced from the comparison of measured and calculated value of power losses in arbitrary excitation frequency for assumed induction. The method was tested by comparison with the results of experiments presented in commercial catalogues [1, 2]. Assuming superposition of harmonic power losses it is possible to enlarge this method for the estimation of overloss coefficient in dynamo sheet during axial magnetization with nonsinusoidal flux generated e.g. by PWM voltage supply.

Przejdź do artykułu
Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 177-188
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0014-z

Słowa kluczowe:
lightning
corona sheath
return stroke model
continuity equation

A role of radial corona current in a lightning discharge is discussed in the paper. It is shown that the corona current concept previously introduced by Cooray for lightning return stroke models of distributed-current-source (DCS) type, and later, by Maslowski and Rakov for lumped-current-source (LCS) type models enables to show duality between these two types of models. Further, it is demonstrated that the corona current is useful during consideration of dynamics of the lightning-channel corona sheath. As an example of application of presented approach a relaxation model of charge motion in the corona sheath is analysed together with plots which show the rate of expansion and shrinkage of the lightning corona sheath on both microsecond and millisecond time scales.

Przejdź do artykułu
Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 189-201
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0015-y

Słowa kluczowe:
co-simulation
electrical drives
electromagnetic systems
mathematical modelling
finite element method

This work presents the co-simulation approach to the analysis of control systems containing detailed models of electromagnetic and electromechanical converters. In this method of analysis the attention is paid to the whole system and not only to its electromagnetic part. The latter is described by equations resulted from the two-dimensional finite element discretisation of the Maxwell equations, and is coupled weakly with the remaining part of the system. The simulation is carried out in Matlab/Simulink environment wherein the coupling is realised through the S-function. Example results regarding simulation of the operation of the control system of an electrical machine and the operation of a power electronic converter are presented and compared with available reference data.

Przejdź do artykułu
Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2010 | vol. 59 | No 3 - 4 December
| 203-216
| DOI: 10.2478/s10171-010-0016-x

Słowa kluczowe:
inverse system
linear system
positive system
reachability
stability

The concept of inverse systems for standard and positive linear systems is introduced. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the positive inverse system for continuous-time and discrete-time linear systems are established. It is shown that: 1) The inverse system of continuous-time linear system is asymptotically stable if and only if the standard system is asymptotically stable. 2) The inverse system of discrete-time linear system is asymptotically stable if and only if the standard system is unstable. 3) The inverse system of continuous-time and discrete-time linear systems are reachable if and only if the standard systems are reachable. The considerations are illustrated by numerical examples.

Przejdź do artykułu
**ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE)** (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

**Manuscript submission: **

All manuscripts should be submitted electronically on Editorial System.

Submission of paper to the *Archives of Electrical Engineering* is understood to imply that the article is original, unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. All articles will be reviewed. Since 2013, Authors wishing to use the facility of colour printing should consult the editors.

**Template: **

Microsoft Word is recommended as a standard word processor to prepare the paper to the AEE journal. If you use the LaTex format, please transfer your document to Microsoft Word and then use Template AEE.

While editing your paper, make sure that all the mathematical characters (symbols, identifiers, variables, vectors, axis marks, etc.) have the required shape, thickness, and slant kept throughout the whole article. The same appearance of a given mathematic character must be retained regardless of its place (text, equations, tables or figures).

The articles that don’t conform to the above will not be processed and published.

**The reviewing process:**

Each paper submitted for publication in Archives of Electrical Engineering is subjected to the following review procedure:

a) the paper is reviewed by the editor in chief or guest editor for general suitability for publication in AEE

b) if it is judged suitable two reviewers are selected and a double blind peer review process takes place

c) based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the editor then decides whether the paper should be accepted in its present form, revised or rejected

d) the author(s) is(are) informed by e-mail on the results of the reviewing procedure.

The papers are published on average within 3 months after acceptance.

**Requirements for preparation of manuscripts:**

The manuscript submitted for publication should have no less than 12 pages and no more than 16 pages. In the case of the manuscript longer than 16 pages, please contact the AEE Editorial Board before submitting your paper. The manuscripts, written in UK English, should be typed using Template AEE according to the following instructions and should include: a title page with the title of a manuscript, a short title; abstract; key words, text; list of references. A DOI number as well as received and revised data will be completed by Editor. When you open Template.doc, select "Print Layout" from the "View" menu in the menu bar (View > Print Layout). Then type over sections of Template.doc or cut and paste from another document and then use markup styles (Home > Styles). For example, the style at this point in the document is "main text").

All papers submitted for publication are assessed on the basis of the mutual anonymity rule as to the names of reviewers and authors. Authors' names and affiliations should not appear in the attached text/tables/figures.

If English is not your first language, ask an English-speaking colleague to proofread your manuscript. The manuscripts that fail to meet basic standards of literacy are likely to be immediately declined or after the language assessment, sent to the authors for linguistic improvement.

The manuscripts are published on average within 3 months after their acceptance.

__Do not change the font sizes or line spacing to squeeze more text into a limited number of pages. Leave some open space around your figures. __

The AEE journal publishes an ORCID for all authors. You will need a registered ORCID in order to submit your paper for peer review. ORCID registration is free and only takes a minute. Please note that ORCIDs will be added in the course of the author's proofreads.

**Text: **

The pages must be numbered consecutively. Articles should be divided into numbered sections, and if necessary subsections, preferably: Introduction, Material, Methods, Results, Conclusion and References. Any special characters (e.g. Greek, script, etc.) should be named in the margin where the character first occurs in the text. Names of species are to be accentuated with wavy underlining (italics). Equations should be numbered serially (1), (2), ... on the right side of the page. Footnotes should be avoided, if required, they should be used only for brief notes which do not fit well into the text. Figures and tables have to be included into the text. If table is typed on a separate page its position in the text should be marked. Abbreviations should be explained when they first appear in the text.

**Math: **

Please use the *MathML *editor as well as *MathType* editor to build an equation in your manuscript.

**Equations: **

Equations should be typed within the text, centred, and should be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Their numbers should be typed in parentheses, flush right. Equations should be referred to in text, e.g. (1), except at the beginning of a sentence: "Equation (1) is ...". All symbols appearing in equations have to be defined in the text, before or just after the equation.

If the symbols are written in Times New Roman use *italic fonts*. Symbols of **vectors** and **matrices** should be written in **bold** **fonts**. Do not italicize Greek fonts and mathematical symbols like e.g.: the derivative symbol d, max, min, etc. The indices of symbols that are indices themselves should be written in a clear manner.

Note that the equation is centered using a center tab stop. Please keep the same font in the formulas and text.

**Unit Symbols, Abbreviations: **

Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.

Si units are recommended for use in formulas, drawings and tables., for example the SI unit for magnetic field strength *H* is A/m. Apply the center dot to separate compound units.

Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: "Wb/m2" or "webers per square meter," not "webers/m2." Spell units when they appear in text: "...a few henries…", not "...a few H…".

Use a zero before decimal points: "0.25," not ".25." Use "cm3," not "cc."

__Unit Symbols, SI Prefixes as well as Abbreviations should be writing in accordance with the__ IEEE standard

**Tables, figures (illustrations) and captions: **

The illustrations (line diagrams and photographs) should be suitable for direct reproduction. The lettering as well the details should have proportional dimensions to maintain their legibility after the usual reduction. All illustrations should be numbered consecutively (Fig. X). Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals.

All figures, figure captions, and tables in the text must be inserted into the correct places.

Figures, photos, tables or other parts of a manuscript that have previously appeared in another publication or are not the property of the authors must be properly acknowledged in the manuscript. Permission to republish these items must be obtained by the corresponding author from a person or institution holding the copyright, usually the publisher.

Authors are requested to send all drawings used in the article in additional files. Create a separate file for each image. Images should be submitted in a bitmap format (.jpeg) or/and in a vector format (.eps, .pdf or .cdr). Each file must be saved according to the number in the original article, e.g.: FIG1.JPG, FIG2.EPS, or FIG3.PDF. Bitmap illustrations must be “flattened”, which means no additional layers, for example, covering old descriptions.

Photographs, colour, and greyscale figures should be at least at a resolution of 400 dpi.

All colour figures should be generated in the RGB or CMYK colour space, while greyscale images in the greyscale colour space.

When preparing your figures/graphics etc., we suggest the use of the Arial 8 point font for axis numbers and Arial 9 point font for axis names. Figures/graphics etc. can be prepared in one of two proposed ways - see Template AEE.

Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals. Use 9 point Times New Roman for the title of the table and 9 point Times New Roman for the filling of the table (9 in the case of symbols with subscripts).

AEE journal allows an author to publish color figures in e-version at no charge, and automatically convert them to grayscale for print versions. Authors wishing to use the facility of color printing should consult the editors.

**Conclusions: **

A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the manuscript, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion.

**References: **

References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.

Please provide name(s) and initials of author(s), the title of the manuscript, editors (if any), the title of the journal or book, a volume number, the page range, and finally the year of publication in brackets.

__You can use the rules presented on the site:__ IEEE standard.

__Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:__

**Journal manuscript**

[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., *Title of paper*, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).

*example*

[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., *Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines*, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., *Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor*, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., *Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor*, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

**Conference manuscript**

[4] Author A., *Title of conference paper*, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).

*example*

[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., *Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets*, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

*Book, book chapter and manual*

[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., *Title of book*, Name of the publisher (YEAR).

*example*

[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., *Finite Element method*, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).

**Patent **

[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., *Title of patent*, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).

*example*

[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).

**Thesis**

[7] Author A., *Title of thesis*, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).

*example*

[7] Driesen J., *Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers*, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

**For on electronic forms**

[8] Author A.,* Title of article*, in Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].

*example*

[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., *Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,*in IEE*E* Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259

**Website**

[9] http://www.aee.put.poznan.pl, accessed April 2010.

**Proofs**:

Authors will receive proofs for correction, which should be returned promptly. All joint contributions must indicate the name and address of the authors to whom proofs should be sent.

**Fees for printing the papers in Archives of Electrical Engineering: **

AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors will be asked to a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article.

__The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro. __

**Abstracting & Indexing: **

Archives of Electrical Engineering is covered by the following services:

- Arianta
- Baidu Scholar
- BazTech
- Celdes
- CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastucture)
- CNPIEC
- DOAJ
- EBSCO - TOC Premie
- EBSCO (relevant databases)
- EBSCO Discovery Service
- Elsevier - Compendex
- Elsevier - Engineering Village
- Elsevier - SCOPUS
- Genamics JournalSeek
- Google Scholar
- ICI Journals Master List
- Inspec
- J-Gate
- Naviga (Softweco)
- POL-Index
- Primo Central (ExLibris)
- ProQuest - Advanced Technologies Database with Aerospace
- ProQuest - Electronics and Communications Abstracts
- ProQuest - Engineering Journals
- ProQuest - High Tech Research Database
- ProQuest - Illustrata: Technology
- ProQuest - SciTech Journals
- ProQuest - Technology Journals
- ProQuest - Technology Research Database
- SCImago (SJR)
- Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest)
- TDOne (TDNet)
- TEMA Technik und Management
- Thomson Reuters - Emerging Sources Citation Index
- Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb
- WorldCat (OCLC)

Preparation of manuscript for Archives of Electrical Engineering (AEE)