Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering


Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2014 | vol. 63 | No 2 June

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The paper presents the special software for transient FE analysis of coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in a squirrel cage submerged motor working at cryogenic temperature. A time-stepping finite element method and transients analysis of an induction motor has been applied. The non-linearity of the magnetic circuit, the movement of the rotor, skewed slots, and the influence of temperature on electric and thermal properties of the materials has been taken into account. Developed on the basis of presented algorithm a computer program used to analyze the phenomenon of current displacement in the rotor bars of high-voltage cage induction motor working in cryogenic conditions. The results of the simulations are presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mariusz Barański
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Contemporary sensorless AC drives require the use of electromechanical quantities estimation. The skin effect occurring in AC machines with solid secondary or with solid secondary elements causes machines of this type to be represented by equivalent circuits containing distributed elements, which makes the analysis of machine electrodynamic states more complicated and hinders the construction of relatively simple and effective estimators of electromechanical quantities. The variability of rotor parameters is modelled, with a good approximation, by the machine secondary multi-loop equivalent circuit with lumped elements. In this paper the construction procedure of electromechanical state variable estimators basing on this type of equivalent circuit will be presented. The simulation investigations of the created electromechanical quantities estimators, performed for the selected states of solid iron rotor AC machine operation will be shown as well.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Kaplon
G. Utrata
J. Rolek
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A new design of decentralized Load Frequency Controller for interconnected thermal non-reheat power systems with AC-DC parallel tie-lines based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) tuned Integral and Proportional (IP) controller is proposed in this paper. A HVDC link is connected in parallel with an existing AC tie-line to stabilize the frequency oscillations of the AC tie-line system. Any optimum controller selected for load frequency control of interconnected power systems should not only stabilize the power system but also reduce the system frequency and tie line power oscillations and settling time of the output responses. In practice Load Frequency Control (LFC) systems use simple Proportional Integral (PI) or Integral (I) controller. The controller parameters are usually tuned based on classical or trial-and-error approaches. But they are incapable of obtaining good dynamic performance for various load change scenarios in multi-area power system. For this reason, in this paper GA tuned IP controller is used. A two area interconnected thermal non-reheat power system is considered to demonstrate the validity of the proposed controller. The simulation results show that the proposed controller provides better dynamic responses with minimal frequency and tie-line power deviations, quick settling time and guarantees closed-loop stability margin.

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Authors and Affiliations

S. Selvakumaran
V. Rajasekaran
R. Karthigaivel
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This paper presents the concept of an innovative field-controlled axial-flux permanent-magnet (FCAFPM) machine. In order to show the working principle and features of the proposed dual-rotor with surface-mounted PM’s and iron poles, a toroidallywounded slotted single-stator FCAFPM machine is investigated and analyzed in detail, using 3-D FEAnalysis. The control range, back electromotive force (back-EMF), output and cogging torque components have been evaluated.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Paplicki
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Harmonic minimisation in hybrid cascaded multilevel inverter involves complex nonlinear transcendental equation with multiple solutions. Hybrid cascaded multilevel can be implemented using reduced switch count when compared to traditional cascaded multilevel inverter topology. In this paper Biogeographical Based Optimisation (BBO) technique is applied to Hybrid multilevel inverter to determine the optimum switching angles with weighted total harmonic distortion (WTHD) as the objective function. Optimisation based on WTHD combines the advantage of both OMTHD (Optimal Minimisation of Total Harmonic Distortion) and SHE (Selective Harmonic Elimination) PWM. WTHD optimisation has the benefit of eliminating the specific lower order harmonics as in SHEPWM and minimisation of THD as in OMTHD. The simulation and experimental results for a 7 level multilevel inverter were presented. The results indicate that WTHD optimization provides both elimination of lower order harmonics and minimisation of Total Harmonic Distortion when compared to conventional OMTHD and SHE PWM. Experimental prototype of a seven level hybrid cascaded multilevel inverter is implemented to verify the simulation results.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Kavitha
Rani Thottungal
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This paper deals with a three-phase power system with hybrid transformer (HT) installed between two AC sources. The main aim of this paper is analyze the basic properties of HT with active load and ability to bidirectional energy flow. The HT contains two main units – a conventional transformer with electromagnetic coupling and PWM AC line chopper connected with secondary windings with electric coupling. The HT is located between the distribution system and a Local Balancing Area (LBA) with low power local energy sources. After describing the HT circuit and three-phase, twosources power system, the mathematical and circuit models of the AC source with HT are presented. These models are verified by means of the simulation and experimental test results obtained for a three-phase HT of about 3 kVA rated power.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Kaniewski
Z. Fedyczak
P. Szcześniak
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Accurate prediction of power loss distribution within an electrical device is highly desirable as it allows thermal behavior to be evaluated at the early design stage. Three-dimensional (3-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) finite element analysis (FEA) is applied to calculate dc and ac copper losses in the armature winding at high-frequency sinusoidal currents. The main goal of this paper is showing the end-winding effect on copper losses. Copper losses at high frequency are dominated by the skin and proximity effects. A time-varying current has a tendency to concentrate near the surfaces of conductors, and if the frequency is very high, the current is restricted to a very thin layer near the conductor surface. This phenomenon of nonuniform distribution of time-varying currents in conductors is known as the skin effect. The term proximity effect refers to the influence of alternating current in one conductor on the current distribution in another, nearby conductor. To evaluate the ac copper loss within the analyzed machine a simplified approach is adopted using one segment of stator core. To demonstrate an enhanced copper loss due to ac operation, the dc and ac resistances are calculated. The resistances ratio ac to dc is strongly dependent on frequency, temperature, shape of slot and size of slot opening.

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Authors and Affiliations

Adrian Młot
Mariusz Korkosz
Piotr Grodzki
Marian Łukaniszyn
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In a deregulated electricity market, it is important to dispatch the generation in an economical manner and to ensure security under different operating conditions. In this study evolutionary computation based solution for optimal power flow is attempted. Social welfare optimization is taken as the objective function, which includes generation cost, transmission cost and consumer benefit function. Transmission cost is calculated using Bialek’s power flow tracing method. Severity index is applied as a constraint to measure the security. The objective function is calculated for pre and post contingency periods. Real power generations, real power loads and transformer tap settings are selected as control variables. Different bilateral and multilateral conditions are considered for analysis. A Human Group Optimization algorithm is used to find the solution of the problem. The IEEE 30 bus system is taken as a test system.

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Authors and Affiliations

Bastin Solai Nazaran J.
K. Selvi
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This paper presents an improved approach for locating and identifying faults for UHV overhead Transmission line by using GA-ANFIS. The proposed method uses one end data to identify the fault location. The ANFIS can be viewed either as a Fuzzy system, neural network or fuzzy neural network FNN. The integration with neural technology enhances fuzzy logic system on learning capabilities are proposed to analyze the UHV system under different fault conditions. The performance variation of two controllers in finding fault location is analyzed. This paper analyses various faults under different conditions in an UHV using Matlab/simulink. The proposed method is evaluated under different fault conditions such as fault inception angle, fault resistance and fault distance. Simulation results confirm that the proposed method can be used as an efficient for accurate fault location on the transmission line.

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Authors and Affiliations

G. Banu
S. Suja
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The presented work gives an overview on simulation and experimental results of the power supply parameters’ influence on DBD discharge uniformity. The proposed study is about the use of quasi-pulsed, power electronic power supply and a saturable inductor in series with the discharge cell [1]. The simulation results are presented with a parallel DBD reactor model with linear critical voltage distribution. A more uniform current waveform is observed, however, due to small reactor capacitances no streamer formation could be verified in calculations. An experimental test stand was prepared with a double dielectric barrier discharge arrangement. The experimental results are presented with regard to the electrical oscilloscope waveforms and ICCD camera imaging. A more homogenous plasma was observed in the case of saturable inductor with saturation current set at the point of discharge formation. Two possible mechanisms are connected with this phenomenon – inductive element current support during discharge and/or current rise-time limitation [1].

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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Hołub
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This study suggests a new algorithm based on a combination of fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm (GA) to improve voltage profile in a microgrid. The considered microgrid includes control variables such as onload tap changer (OLTC), active power output from distributed generators (DG) and reactive power output from feeder switched capacitors that are controlled in a microgrid controller (MGC) by communication links. The proposed method was used to obtain the optimum value of control variables to establish voltage stabilization in varying load condition as online. For establishing voltage stabilization at the microgrid, an objective function is defined and is tried to minimize it by control variables. The control variables were changed based on fuzzy logic and the GA was employed for finding the optimum shape of membership functions. In order to verify the proposed method, a 34 buses microgrid in varying load condition was analyzed and was compared with previous works.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mohammad Amin Jangjoo
Ali Reza Seifi
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The paper presents results of analysis of the influence of rotor construction on the steady-state torque-speed characteristics of a high-speed eddy-current brake. The investigation is carried out using two- and three-dimensional finite element models and measurements. A series of computations is carried out in order to find out the method for performance improvement of the considered system.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Garbiec
Marcin Kowol
Janusz Kołodziej
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This paper presents a concept of an NxM Matrix Converter (MC) modeling under periodic control strategy patented in Poland. This strategy allows to change an Nphase input system of voltages and current with the frequency fi to the M-phase output system with the frequency fo, maintaining both systems symmetrical and providing small distortions of voltage and current waveforms at rather high frequencies. In this paper the control strategy is extended for dynamic states when one of the frequencies is changed. Matrix converter equations have been derived using the constrain matrix, which is determined by the switch states. The equations have the hybrid form of a multi-port circuit. To simplify these equations the symmetrical components of input and output voltages and currents have been applied. As a result, rather simple equations have been found. They can be interpreted to an equivalent scheme. All considerations are illustrated using an exemplary 6H3 matrix converter.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Sieńko
Tadeusz J. Sobczyk

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ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript

[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

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[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).


[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).


[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).


[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).


[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).


[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms

[8] Author A., Title of article, in Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].


[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259


[9], accessed April 2010.


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