Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Electrical Engineering

Zawartość

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2022 | vol. 71 | No 4

Abstrakt

Different from the synchronization mechanism of synchronous generators, the non-synchronous generators must be synchronized with the grid through a controller. Generally, the virtual synchronous generator (VSG) control strategy is adopted for this purpose. In view of the current situation, where the control loops are not comprehensively considered in the research of the synchronization stability of the VSG, this paper considers multiple control loops, such as active frequency loops, virtual governors, power filters and current constraint control, to establish the mathematical model of the VSG and infinite system. On this basis, the correlation formula between power angle difference and control parameters is deduced. Adopting the phase plane method, the influence of different control loops and their parameters on the transient synchronization stability is analyzed. Finally, a setting principle of the frequency modulation coefficient of virtual governors is proposed, which not only meets the response speed of control systems, but also has good control performance.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yanxia Zhang
1
Yachao Cheng
1
Kaixiang Liu
Yue Han
1

  1. School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, China

Abstrakt

The electromagnetic and output performance characteristics of three (3) different types of double stator permanent magnet machines are quantitatively compared and presented in this study, in order to determine the most promising machine topology amongst the considered machine types, for potential practical applications(s). Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) methods are deployed in the computation of the performance metrics using ANSYS-MAXWELL software. The compared machines in this work are designated as: Machine 1, Machine 2 and Machine 3, respectively. The investigated machines have varying structural arrangements and two separate excitation sources. Machine 1 has its magnets situated in the outer stator with corresponding armature windings on both inner and outer stators. The magnets of Machine 2 are located in its inner stator while it has armature windings on both inner and outer stator parts. More so, Machine 3 is equipped with magnets in its inner and outer stators, though without armature windings on the inner stator section. The considered performance metrics include: inducedelectromotive force (induced-EMF), torque, power, demagnetization, losses and efficiency. The results show that the investigated Machine 3 has higher induced-EMF value and more sinusoidal electromotive force waveform than the other compared machines. Consequently, Machine 3 also has larger electromagnetic torque and power. Moreover, Machine 1 has the best flux-weakening potential, obtained from both the ratio of its maximum speed to base speed and the flux-weakening factor ( kp).
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Chukwuemeka Chijioke Awah
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, PMB 7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

Abstrakt

This paper presents a novel method of waveform generation in a single-sheet tester (SST) for measuring core losses and permeability in a steel sheet. Some improvements and modifications of the apparatus are also described. The improved way of working of a SST is important, especially in the extended range of polarization (up to 1.9 T). The system consists of hardware and software. Everything together was tested and has given good results. The proposed algorithm is described and compared to previously known methods.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tomasz Lerch
1
ORCID: ORCID
Michał Rad
1
ORCID: ORCID
Witold Rams
1

  1. Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science, and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland

Abstrakt

To reduce the losses of the power electronic inverter, the voltage slew rate (d u/d t) of the electric motors supplying voltage is increasing. As steep voltage slopes excite high frequencies in the megahertz range, transient phenomena in the winding of the electrical machine occur. To design the insulation system, the maximum electric potential difference between the conducting elements must be predicted. General design rules can lead to a significant overengineering of the interturn insulation, particularly when considering smaller stators with a known wire distribution. Therefore, two different winding topologies are studied comparing the voltage distribution in a round-wire winding and a winding with preformed coils.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Florian Pauli
1
Niklas Driendl
1
Sebastian Mönninghoff
1
Kay Hameyer
1

  1. Institute of Electrical Machines (IEM), RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Abstrakt

Voltage source converter-based multi-terminal high-voltage direct current (VSCMTDC) transmission system can realize a multi-point power supply, multi-drop power receiving, and mutual coordination between the converter stations to ensure the reliability of the transmission. Based on the PSCAD/EMTDC platform, a five-terminal DC transmission system model is established. According to the fast power regulation capability and overload capacity of theVSC-MTDC power transmission system, an analysis of additional emergency power support for a transmission system under large disturbance conditions was carried out. A new control strategy for emergency power support that introduces its basic principle is proposed in this paper. It uses the short-term overload capability of the DC system. By changing the power reserve of the converter station and the electrical distance between the converter stations, the influence of the power reserve and the electrical distance on the emergency power supply guarantee is analyzed the stability of the system is improved, thereby improving the sudden change of power caused by voltage fluctuations, and the feasibility of the control module is verified by PSCAD simulation. The simulation results show that when the system power supply suddenly changes, the converter stations at a short distance and large power reserve has a better effect on emergency power supply protection. A comparative study of the active power support of a single converter station and multiple converter stations is carried out. The research results show that the use of emergency power support in the DC transmission system has a good effect on maintaining the stability of the inter-connection system and the reliability of the power supply.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Congshan Li
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zikai Zhen
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tingyu Sheng
2
ORCID: ORCID
Yan Liu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Pu Zhong
1
Xiaowei Zhang
1

  1. Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, College of Electrical and Information Engineering, China
  2. Maintenance Company of State Grid Henan Electric Power Company, China

Abstrakt

Renewable energy sources are connected to the grid through inverters, resulting in reduced grid inertia and poor stability. Traditional grid-connected inverters do not have the function of voltage and frequency regulation and can no longer adapt to the new development. The virtual synchronous generator (VSG) has the function of voltage and frequency regulation and has more outstanding advantages than the traditional inverter. Based on the principle of the VSG, the relationship between energy storage capacity, frequency response and output power of the VSG is derived, and the relationship between the virtual inertia coefficient, damping coefficient and frequency characteristics of the VSG and output power is revealed. The mathematical model is established and modeled using the Matlab/Simulink simulation software, and the simulation results verify the relationship between energy storage capacity and frequency response and the output power of the VSG.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Baoge Zhang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Shanyan Ping
1
Yi Long
1
Yuemin Jiao
1
Boxiang Wu
1

  1. School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China

Abstrakt

In order to meet the lightweight requirements of high-speed trains, the inductancecapacitance (LC) resonance circuits are cancelled in the traction drive system of some high-speed electric multiple units (EMUs) in China, which will lead to large low-order current harmonics on the grid side in the traction drive system of EMUs, seriously affecting the power quality. Therefore, the low-order harmonic current of the traction drive system of an EMU is studied in this paper. Firstly, the working principle of a four-quadrant pulse rectifier in a traction drive system is analyzed, and then the generation mechanism of loworder current harmonics on the grid side is studied deeply. Secondly, the voltage outer loop and current inner loop control of a four-quadrant pulse rectifier are optimized respectively. In the voltage outer loop control, a Butterworth filter is designed to suppress the beat frequency voltage of the DC side voltage, so as to indirectly suppress the low-order current harmonics. In the current inner loop, a quasi-proportional resonance (PR) controller with harmonic compensation is used to suppress low-order current harmonics, and a novel loworder current harmonics suppression strategy based on the Butterworth filter and quasi-PR controller is proposed. Finally, the results of the simulated validation of the proposed control strategy show that compared with the existing method of the notch filter ¸ PR controller, the proposed optimal control strategy has a better effect on low-order current harmonic suppression, and improves the dynamic performance of the control system, further showing the correctness and effectiveness of the optimal control strategy.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Feng Zhao
1
Jianing Zhang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xiaoqiang Chen
1 2
Ying Wang
1 2

  1. School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou, China
  2. Key Laboratory of Opto-Technology and Intelligent Control Ministry of Education, Lanzhou, China

Abstrakt

Three-level T-type inverters have lower total harmonic distortion in output voltage, higher power density and lower voltage stress of power switches compared with conventional two-level inverters and have been widely used in applications with a wide-power range. Reliability improvement is particularly important for the T-type inverters because of the increased number of power switches and high system complexity. This paper proposes a fault-tolerant topology, which is constructed by adding a redundant leg including halfbridge switches and neutral-point switches connected between the DC bus capacitors and the DC-link midpoint of the conventional T-type inverter. In addition, an after-fault control strategy is proposed based on the results of a fault diagnosis method using bridge voltage. The fault-tolerant control of the open-circuit fault of the power switches and the phase-leg fault can both be achieved by the proposed method. Experimental results are given to verify that the proposed fault-tolerant three-level T-type inverter can output the full voltage level and power during the fault-tolerant operation based on the proposed control strategy.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Danjiang Chen
1
ORCID: ORCID
Liyuan Zheng
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. College of Information and Intelligence Engineering, Zhejiang Wanli University, No. 8, South Qian Hu Road, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China 315100

Abstrakt

Due to speed-dependent centrifugal forces, the support of the torque, static mechanical stress introduced by manufacturing processes the laminated core of rotating electrical machines is exposed to considerable mechanical stress. The resulting stress distribution changes the magnetic properties of the electrical steel. To take this into account, a magnetization model is constituted on the basis of vector magneto-mechanical measurements that include the magnetic permeability as a function of the mechanical stress and the angle between magnetization - and the maximum principal stress direction. Subsequently, the model is integrated into the finite element simulation of a permanent magnet excited synchronous machine at different rotational speeds.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Benedikt Schauerte
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xiao Xiao
1
Kevin Jansen
1
Kay Hameyer
1

  1. Institute of Electrical Machines (IEM), RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 4, D-52062 Aachen, Germany

Abstrakt

Fractional slot PMSM motors enable high power density factors to be obtained provided that their electromagnetic circuit, appropriate mechanical structure and cooling system are properly designed, as well as when operating at a high frequency of power supply voltage (400–800 Hz) with high magnetic saturation and high current loads (approx. 12–15 A/mm2). Such operating conditions, especially in the case of fractional slot motors, may be the reason for excessive rotor losses, mainly in the rotor yoke and permanent magnets. One of the conditions for obtaining high values of continuous power of the motor is the reduction of these losses. This paper presents selected design methods for limiting the value of rotor losses with simultaneous consideration of their influence on other motor parameters. The analysiswas carried out for aPMSMmotor with an external rotorweighting approx. 10 kg and a maximum power of 50 kW at a rotational speed of 4 800 rpm.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tomasz Wolnik
1
ORCID: ORCID
Szczepan Opach
1
ORCID: ORCID
Łukasz Cyganik
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Jarek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Vojtech Szekeres
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Electrical Drives and Machines KOMEL, Al. Rozdzienskiego 188, 40-203 Katowice, Poland

Abstrakt

This paper presents a comparison of an AC radial flux interior permanent magnet (IPM) motor with the distributed winding (DW) and concentrated winding (CW). From time to time, manufacturers of electric vehicles change the design of electric motors, such changes may include changing the DW into CW and vice versa. A change to the winding in a radial permanent magnet synchronous motor may lead to a change in motor parameters during motor operation and /or change in the distribution of the magnetic field and thermal circuit of the electrical machine. The electromagnetic analysis, efficiency map, mechanical stress, and thermal analysis of the machine with the DW and CW are presented in this paper. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of selected stator winding designs and helps understand manufacturers’ designers howtheDWandCWplay a key role in achieving the designed motor’s operational parameters such as continuous performance. Analyzing the performance of both machines will help identify their advantages and disadvantages with regard to thermal phenomena, magnetic field and operational parameters of the presented IPM prototypes. Both prototypes are based on commonly used topologies such as 12/8 (slot/pole) and 30/8 (slot/pole) IPM motors consisting of magnets arranged in a V-shape. The AC IPM motor was designed for an 80 kW propulsion system to achieve 170 N·m at a base speed of 4 500 rpm. Modern CAD tools are utilized throughout the numerical computations based on 2-D finite element methods. Selected test data are used to verify and validate the accuracy of finite element models.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Adrian Młot
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mariusz Korkosz
2
ORCID: ORCID
Andrzej Lechowicz
1
Jerzy Podhajecki
3
Stanisław Rawicki
3

  1. Opole University of Technology, Poland
  2. Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland
  3. The Jacob of Paradies University, Poland

Abstrakt

This paper presents the research into the design and performance analysis of a novel five-phase doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The designed DFIG is developed based on standard induction motor components and equipped with a five-phase rotor winding supplied from the five-phase inverter. This approach allows the machine to be both efficient and reliable due to the ability of the five-phase rotor winding to operate during single or dual-phase failure. The paper presents the newly designed DFIG validation and verification based on the finite element analysis (FEA) and laboratory tests.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Roland Ryndzionek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Krzysztof Blecharz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Filip Kutt
1
ORCID: ORCID
Michał Michna
1
ORCID: ORCID
Grzegorz Kostro
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering, Gabriela Narutowicza str. 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland

Abstrakt

In order to meet the operation requirements of the beam supply with multiworking conditions, multi-modes and high efficiency, a dual-mode hybrid output control method combining phase-shifting and pulse-width dual-mode modulation technology with secondary side series-parallel operation is proposed. In this paper, the structure and working mode of the new dual full-bridge topology are firstly analyzed. Secondly, the main circuit parameters are designed according to the power performance indicators, and the losses under two control modes of phase shift and pulse width are calculated. Finally, comparing the losses of these two control methods, and combining the series-parallel operation mode of the secondary side of the transformer, a dual-mode switching control method of the beam supply is designed. In order to verify the rationality of the dual-mode mixed output control method, a principle prototype with a rated capacity of 2 kW, a rated voltage of 1 800 V and a switching frequency of 50 kHz was used for verification. Experiments show the effectiveness and superiority of the dual-mode hybrid output control method.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Changzu An
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hongxia Lu
2

  1. CCCC Ruitong Road & Bridge Maintenance Technology Co. Ltd., China
  2. Xi‘an Railway Vocational & Technical Institute, China

Abstrakt

The application of solid-state light sources in luminaires creates a new quality in illumination design works. In a confrontation with a commonly used but relatively unattractive flood method, the use of small-size luminaires allows one to present an illuminated architectural object in a more attractive way in the evening and at night. In this case, it is possible to apply the principles of illumination described in the literature, especially the principle of height amplification and the principle of depth amplification. The conceptual work of illumination with the use of a large number of small-size luminaires does not require the use of supporting graphical tools, but the specification of actual lighting equipment using only polygonal samples in this case is not possible. The paper presents selected issues of the key stages of the completed work. Using specialized computer software, a geometric model of the architectural object has been developed, facade materials have been parameterized, models of small-size illuminating equipment have been selected and, finally, calculations of luminance distribution on illuminated surfaces have been carried out. As a result of computer work, luminance distributions and photorealistic visualizations of illuminations from defined main directions of observation were obtained. The Lubomirski Palace in Przemysl is an example of the architectural object indicated for detailed works.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Antoni Różowicz
1
Henryk Wachta
2
Sebastian Różowicz
1

  1. Department of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automatic Control, Kielce University of Technology, Tysiaclecia Panstwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
  2. Department of Power Electronics and Power Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Wincentego Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland

Abstrakt

Due to recent developments in the field of high-power and medium-voltage, the multilevel inverter has raised to such an extent owing to some of its amazing facts regarding harmonic spectrum, ease in control, reduced electromagnetic interference (EMI), filterless circuit, stress on power switches, common-mode voltage. This paper well describes a novel architecture of a single-phase multilevel inverter using a lesser number of overall components, especially the power switches. The proposed topology is generalized in the structure that can generate any number of voltage steps. A 7-level structure of the proposed topology is explained and is elaborately discussed. Simulation is carried out in MATLAB and corresponding experimental results verify the existence of the proposed multilevel inverter. The real-time experimental results were presented and are well verified by the simulation results for 7-level as well for 13-level across RL-Load. The nature of load current is also indicated as per the nature of load voltage. Nevertheless, the topology is further compared with some of the recent literature and found superior in each respect.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Bidyut Mahato
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mrinal Ranjan
2
Pradipta Kumar Pal
3
Santosh Kumar Gupta
4
Kailash Kumar Mahto
2

  1. ABES Engineering College, Ghaziabad, UP – 201009, India
  2. Gaya College of Engineering, Gaya, Bihar – 823003, India
  3. Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad – 826004, India
  4. Government Engineering College, Siwan, Bihar – 841226, India

Abstrakt

This work focuses on the concept of operation and possibility of using a tuned inductor in electrical power systems with adaptive features. The idea presented here for the operation of the inductor is a new approach to the design of such devices. An example of a power adaptive system is a device for improving the quality of electricity. The negative impact of nonlinear loads on the operation of a power grid is a well-documented phenomenon. Hence, various types of “compensators” for reactive power, or for both reactive and distortion power, are used in electrical systems as a preventive measure. The concept of an inductor presented here offers wider possibilities for power compensation in power supply systems, compared to traditional solutions involving compensators based on fixed inductors. The use of the proposed solution in an adaptive compensator is only one example of its possible implementation in the area of power devices. In this work, we discuss the structure of the compensator, the basic aspects of the operation of the inductor, the results of simulation studies and the results of measurements obtained from a prototype.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Michał Gwóźdź
1
ORCID: ORCID
Rafał M. Wojciechowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3A, 60-965 Poznan, Poland

Abstrakt

The paper presents an approach to differential equation solutions for the stiff problem. The method of using the classic transformer model to study nonlinear steady states and to determine the current pulses appearing when the transformer is turned on is given. Moreover, the stiffness of nonlinear ordinary differential state equations has to be considered. This paper compares Runge–Kutta implicit methods for the solution of this stiff problem.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Bernard Baron
1
ORCID: ORCID
Joanna Kolańska-Płuska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marian Łukaniszyn
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dariusz Spałek
2
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Kraszewski
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control and Informatics, Opole University of Technology, Prószkowska 76, 45-758 Opole, Poland
  2. Institute of Electrotechnics and Informatics, Silesian University of Technology, 10 Akademicka St., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  3. Research and Development Center GLOKOR Sp. z o.o., Górnych Wałów 27A St., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

Instrukcja dla autorów

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).

example

[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript

[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).

example

[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual

[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).

example

[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).

Patent

[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).

example

[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).

Thesis

[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).

example

[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms

[8] Author A., Title of article, in Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].

example

[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259

Website

[9] http://www.aee.put.poznan.pl, accessed April 2010.

Proofs:

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