Professor Jerzy Sadowski – outstanding Polish scientist, a specialist in acoustics – construction, industrial, architectural and environmental – passed away on 28th July 2014. Professor Jerzy Sadowski was born on 18th December 1924 in Augustów, in northeastern Poland. In 1946 he commenced studies at the Gdańsk University of Technology – initially at the Faculty of Architecture, to switch later to the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. The life of Jerzy Sadowski as a student was as complicated as the post-war history of Poland. Due to his involvement in an activity of illegal student organization, he was expelled from the university in 1949, with a ban on any further tertiary education. The ban had been lifted after a certain time which allowed him to recommence further studies, this time at the Warsaw University of Technology the Faculty of Communications, where in 1952 he obtained the diploma and title of Master of Science and Engineer. He received a lot of help from Professor Ignacy Malecki, the nestor of Polish acoustics. This certainly contributed to kindling the young engineer’s interest in acoustics, as a field of both knowledge and very important practical applications.
The Committee on Acoustics of the Polish Academy of Sciences was founded in 1964 by the reso lution of the General Assembly of the Polish Academy of Sciences, within its Division of Engineering Sci ences (Division 4). The idea of creating the Committee was brought up by Professor Ignacy Malecki, a distinguished scientist, an academic teacher, and an internationally acclaimed authority on acoustics.
Virtual Reality (VR) systems are used in engineering, architecture, design and in applications of biomedical research. The component of acoustics in such VR systems enables the creation of audio-visual stimuli for applications in room acoustics, building acoustics, automotive acoustics, environmental noise control, machinery noise control, and hearing research. The basis is an appropriate acoustic simulation and auralization technique together with signal processing tools. Auralization is based on time-domain modelling of the components of sound source characterization, sound propagation, and on spatial audio technology. Whether the virtual environment is considered sufficiently accurate or not, depends on many perceptual factors, and on the pre-conditioning and immersion of the user in the virtual environment. In this paper the processing steps for creation of Virtual Acoustic Environments and the achievable degree of realism are briefly reviewed. Applications are discussed in examples of room acoustics, archeological acoustics, aircraft noise, and audiology.
Gas bubbles in the ocean are produced by breaking waves, rainfall, methane seeps, exsolution, and a range of biological processes including decomposition, photosynthesis, respiration and digestion. However one biological process that produces particularly dense clouds of large bubbles, is bubble netting. This is practiced by several species of cetacean. Given their propensity to use acoustics, and the powerful acoustical attenuation and scattering that bubbles can cause, the relationship between sound and bub-ble nets is intriguing. It has been postulated that humpback whales produce ‘walls of sound’ at audio frequencies in their bubble nets, trapping prey. Dolphins, on the other hand, use high frequency acous-tics for echolocation. This begs the question of whether, in producing bubble nets, they are generating echolocation clutter that potentially helps prey avoid detection (as their bubble nets would do with man-made sonar), or whether they have developed sonar techniques to detect prey within such bubble nets and distinguish it from clutter. Possible sonar schemes that could detect targets in bubble clouds are proposed, and shown to work both in the laboratory and at sea. Following this, similar radar schemes are proposed for the detection of buried explosives and catastrophe victims, and successful laboratory tests are undertaken.
Limited Traffic Zone (LTZ) is a planning strategy that is more and more adopted by municipalities in Europe to improve their environmental conditions. It consists in the prohibition for traditional vehicles to circulate in specific areas. Although the main aim is to tackle air pollution problems, positive effects are registered in terms of reduction of noise annoyance and in terms of improved “quality of life” if specific conditions are respected. On the other side under the drive of the global market, the number of circulating electric vehicles in urban sites is also increasing. In the next years we expect to experience a new and not well-known urban soundscape.
In this paper is presented an overview of recent urban projects and policies that deal with noise control and how these experiences will match into the next years with the sound characteristics of new electric vehicles for private and public transportation.
The area of environmental protection concern minimises the impact that technical objects have on the environment. Usually the most effective way of protecting the environment is to influence the source of the problem. For this reason studies are conducted to modify the construction of machines, power machines in particular, so as to minimise their impact on the environment.
In the case of environmental protection from noise it is most convenient to carry out measurements in an anechoic chamber. Unfortunately, this is possible only in very limited circumstances. In all other cases measurements are performed using an engineering method or the survey method, both of which are described in the standards and by taking into account the so-called environmental corrections. The obtained results are burdened with greater error than those of measurements in an anechoic chamber. Therefore, it would seem advantageous to develop a method of obtaining similar and reliable results as those in an anechoic chamber, but in a reverberant field. The authors decided to use numerical modelling for this purpose.
The main objective of this work is a comprehensive analysis of the numerical model of a laboratory designed for acoustic tests of selected power machines. The geometry of a room comprising an area of analysis is easy to design. The main difficulty in modelling the phenomena occurring in the analysed area can be the lack of knowing the boundary conditions. Therefore, the authors made an attempt to analyse the sensitivity of various acoustic parameters in a room in order to change these boundary conditions depending on the sound absorption coefficient
Airborne acoustic properties of composite structural insulated panels CSIPs composed of fibre-magnesium-cement facesheets and expanded polystyrene core were studied. The sound reduction ratings were measured experimentally in an acoustic test laboratory composed of two reverberation chambers. The numerical finite element (FEM) model of an acoustic laboratory available in ABAQUS was used and verified with experimental results. Steady-state and transient FE analyses were performed. The 2D and 3D modelling FE results were compared. Different panel core modifications were numerically tested in order to improve the airborne sound insulation of CSIPs.
In this work, simulation techniques have been implemented to study the sound fields of a multi-configurable performance enclosure by creating computer acoustic 3D-models for each room configuration. The digital models have been tuned by means of an iterative fitting procedure that uses the reverberation times measured on site for unoccupied conditions with the orchestra shell on the stage. The initial virtual acoustic model is validated by comparing the other monaural and binaural acoustic parameters measured in the room in terms of their perception differential threshold. The procedure is applied to the Maestranza Theatre of Seville, built for the Universal Exhibition in 1992. The spatial distribution of the acoustic parameters in the audience area of the venue by measured parameters and simulation mappings enables the establishment of three zones of acoustic comfort, and are corroborated by the values of the Ando-Beranek function which provide a global quality coefficient of each zone.
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